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Full text of "Proceedings of the Brest-Litovsk Peace Conference: the peace negotiations between Russia and the Central Powers 21 November, 1917-3 March, 1918"



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http://www.archive.org/cletails/cu31924027837396 



CONFIDENTIAL 

FOB OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



BREST-LITOVSK PEACE 
CONFERENCE 



THE PEACE NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN 
RUSSIA AND THE CENTRAL POWERS 



21 Noveinber, 1917-3 March, 1918 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1918 



CONTENTS. 

1- Brest-Litovsk Peace Conference. Proceedings. 

1918. 

2- Texts of the Russian "Peace." 1918. 

3- Texts of the Ukraine "Peace." 1918. 

4- Texts of the Roumanian "PBace". 19J8. 

5- Text* of the Finland "Peace". 1918. 



CONFIDENTIAL 

FOE OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



BREST-LITOVSK PEACE 
CONFERENCE 



THE PEACE NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN 
RUSSIA AND THE CENTRAL POWERS 



21 November, 1917-3 March, 1918 




WASHINGTON 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
1918 
W 



CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Introduction 5 

1. Initiation of Armistice 7 

2. Note to the Embassies at Petrograd 8 

3. Meetings of 27 November, 1917 8 

4. German Reply to tbe Overtures of Ensign Krylenko 9 

5. Austro-Hungarian Reply 9 

6. First Meeting of the Peace Delegations, 2 and 3 December, 1917 10 

7. First Telegram from Krylenko 11 

8. Session of 3 December (Russian account) 12 

9. Session of 4 December (Russian account) 17 

10. Session of 3 December (German account) 29 

11. Session of 4 December (German account) 29 

12'. Session of 5 December (Russian account) 30 

13. Trotsky's Note to the Allies 34 

14. Session of 5 December (German account) 35 

15. Session of 13 December (German account) 35 

16. Session of 15 December (German account) 36 

17. Russian Proclamation of 15 December 36 

18. Session of 22 December (German account) 36 

19. Session of 22 December (Russian account) 38 

20. Session of 25 December (German account) 39 

21. Session of 25 December (Russian account) 42 

22. Session of 26 December 43 

23. Session of 27 December 43 

24. Session of 28 December (German account) 43 

25. Rupture of Negotiations (Russian account) 46 

26. Rupture of Negotiations (German account) 46 

27. Russians Decide to Return to Brest-Litovsk 47 

28. Russo-Persian Pourparlers, 5 January 48 

29. Arrival of the Ukrainian Delegation 49 

30. Session of 8 January, 1918 (German account) 50 

31. Session of 8 January (Russian account) 51 

32. Session of 9 January (German account) 51 

33. Session of 9 January (Russian account) 54 

34. Session of 10 January (German account) 56 

35. Session of 10 January (Russian account) 61 

36. Russian Statement concerning the Session of 10 January 65 

37. Session of 11 January, 1918 65 

38. Session of the Committee on Territorial Questions, 11 January (German 

account) 66 

39. Session of the Committee on Territorial Questions, 11 January (Russian 

account) 70 

40. Session of the Committee on Territorial Questions, 12 January (German 

account) 80 

41. Session of the Committee on Territorial Questions, 12 January ( Russian 

account) 84 

42. Plenary Session of 12 January (German account) 88 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE BREST-LITOVSK 
CONFERENCE. 

21 NOVEMBER, 1917-^3 MARCH, 1918. 

1. Initiation of Armistice. 

[From the (British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, 23 November, 1917, 

p. 184.1 

The following was circulated (21 November) through the wire- 
less stations of the Russian Government : 

By the order of the AU-Russian Congress of Workmen's and Sol- 
diers' Delegates, the Council of th« People's Commissioners has taken 
the power into its hands, together with the obligation to offer to all 
the peoples and their respective Governments an immediate armis- 
tice on all fronts, with the purpose of immediately opening pour- 
parlers for the conclusion of a democratic peace. 

When the power of the Council is firmly established in all the most 
important places of the country, the Council of the People's Com- 
missioners will make, without delay, a formal offer of armistice to 
all the nations involved in the war — to the Allies and also to the 
nations at war with us. 

A draft message to this effect has been sent to all the People's 
Commissioners for Foreign Affairs, to all the plenipotentiary rep- 
resentatives of the Allied nations in Petrograd. 

To you, Citizen Commander-in-Chief, the Council of the People's 
Commissioners, in fulfilling the resolution of the Congress of the 
Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates, orders that, after receiving the 
present message, you shall approach the commanding authorities of 
the enemy armies with an offer of a cessation of all hostile activities 
for the purpose of opening peace pourparlers. 

In charging you with the conduct of these preliminary pour- 
parlers, the Council of the People's Commissioners orders you : 

1. To keep the Council constantly informed, by direct wire, of all 
your pourparlers with the enemy armies. 

2. To sign the preliminary act only after the approval by the 
Council of the People's Commissioners.* 

(Signed) Vladimir Ulianov-Lenin, 

President of the Council of the People's C ommissionc r^:. 
L. Trotsky, 

Commissioner for Foreign Affairs. 
N. Krylenko, 

C orrmnissioner for the War. 
Vladimir Bontch-Bruevitch, 

Chairman of the Coimcil. 
N. GoRBtTNOv, Secretary. 

• On 32 Noremlier, Lenine dismissed Gen. Dukhonih from tlie Supreme Command be- 
cause the latter declared himself unable to Institute negotiations according to Lenine's 
and Trotsky's directions. Ensign Krylenko was appointed in his place. [Daily Review of 
the Foreign Press (British), 24 November, p. 191, and 26 November, p. 199.] 

7 



8 PROCEEDINGS OP THE BEEST-LITOVSK OONFEBENOE. 

2. Note to the Embassies at Peteogead. 

[From the (British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, 26 November, 1917, 

p. 199.] 

The following note was sent (22 November) to the Foreign Em- 
bassies at Petrograd : 

Monsieur I'Ambassadeur. 

I have the honour to announce that the Congress of Councils of 
Workmen's, Soldiers', and Peasants' Delegates of All the Russias 
instituted on 8 November a new Government of the Republic of all 
the Russias. 

Having been appointed Commissary of Foreign Affairs in this 
Government, I beg to call to the attention of your Excellency the fol- 
lowing words, which have been approved by the Congress of the 
Delegates of the Councils, and contain proposals for a truce and for 
a democratic peace without annexation and without ind:emnities, 
based on the principle of the independence of nations, and of their 
right to determine the nature of their own development themselves. 
I have the honour to suggest that you should consider this document 
in the light of an official proposal for an immediate truce upon all 
the fronts, and to take immediate steps to set on foot negotiations 
for peace. The Government, in the name of the Republic of All the 
Russias, is addressing the same proposal to all the nations and their 
Governments. Pray accept the assurance of the most perfect respect 
on the part of the Government of the Councils towards the people 
of France, which still keeps aloof from peace aspirations, as well as 
to all other nations who are drained of their blood and exhausted by 
the prolonged carnage. 

(Signed) L. Trotsky. 

Peteogead, Nov. 22. 



3. Meeting of 27 Novembee, 1917. 

[From the (British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, 1 December, 1917, 

p. 240.] 

A message from Petrograd (Nov. 29) states officially that negotia- 
tions with the Germans for an armistice have begun. 

Three delegates crossed the German lines on the 5th [Dvinsk] 
Army's sector on the afternoon of Nov. 27, and the preliminaries 
were entered upon. The next meeting between Extremist representa- 
tives and the German General Staff will take place on December 2. 
Meanwhile the Extremists' Conunander in Chief, Krilenko, has 
ordered the Armies to cease operations, to remain on guard, and not 
to fraternize, but to await results. The editor of Pravda says that 
" without doubt the prohibition of fraternizing refers only to unor- 
ganized attempts." 

Krilenko returned to Petrograd on Nov. 29 to report to the Ex- 
tremist " Government." 1 



AUSTEO-HUNGARIAN REPLY TO KBYLENKO. 9 

An earlier message (Nov. 28) states: 

The Commander in Chief, in an order to the Army and Navy 
announces that the envoys nominated by him, consisting of a hussar 
lieutenant, a military doctor, and a volunteer, have returned with the 
official answer of the German Commander in Chief consenting to 
enter into negotiations for an armistice on all fronts. 

A companion of Krilenko telegraphs that the German Commander 
in Chief deputied the Commander of the Northern Army as its pleni- 
potentiary. The latter's answer was received on official Government 
paper. 

4. German Eeply to the Overtures of Ensign Kexlenko. 

[From the (British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, 3 December, 1917.] 

A message from Petrograd (Nov. 29) states: 

An answer has been received from the German Commander-in-Chief 
on the Russian front respecting the conduct of the peace negotiations 
launched by Lenin's Commander-in-Chief Krylenko. The answer 
contained six paragraphs, and is as follows: 

1. The German Commander-in-Chief on the Eastern front is ready 
to enter into negotiations with the Russian Commander-in-Chief. 

2. The German Commander-in-Chief is authorized by the German 
High Command to negotiate an armistice. 

3. The Russian Commander-in-Chief must appoint a committee 
duly authorized in writing and send it to the German Eastern head- 
quarters. 

4. The German Commander-in-Chief will likewise appoint a duly 
authorized committee. 

5. The German Commander-in-Chief must be informed of the day 
and hour appointed in sufficient time to make necessary arrange- 
ments to prepare a special train to the place where the Russian com- 
mittee purpose crossing the German lines. 

(i. The Germans will arrange direct telegraph communication 
between the committees and the Russian Higher Command. 

(Signed) Von Hofmeistee, 

Lieutenant- General Gommianding a Division. 



6. AUSTRO-HUNGAEIAN RePLY TO THE OVERTURES OF EnSIGN 

Krylenko. 

[Prom the (British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, 4 December, 1917, 

p. 265.] 

A Russian wireless received Dec. 1 states that the Council of the 
People's Commissioners received the following radiotelegram sent 
from Vienna on November 30 : 

To the Government of the Russian Republic : 

The circular telegram of November 28 of the Council of the Peo- 
ple's Commissioners in which the Russian Government expresses its 
willingness to commence negotiations concerning the conclusion of 



10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONEEEENOE. 

an armistice and of a general treaty of peace has been received by 
the Government of Austria-Hungary. 

The outlines as announced by the Russian Government for the con- 
clusion of an armistice and a treaty of peace to which the Russian 
Republic is expecting counter-proposals, in the opinion of the Gov- 
crnmeni: of Austria-Hungary, form an appropriate basis for enter- 
ing' into these nc^gotiations. 

The Government of Austria- Hungary declares itself ready to enter 
into negotiations concerning an armistice and a general peace as pro- 
posed by the Russian Government, and to send representatives for the 
negotiations which are to begin on December 2. 

(Signed) Czernin, 

Imperial and Royal Minister of Foreign Affairs. 

To this telegram the People's Commissioner of Foreign Affairs has 
replied as follows: 

Vienna. 
To the Government of Austria-Hungary. 

The Council of the People's Commissioner has received the radio- 
telegram from the Austro-Hungarian Minister for Foreign Affairs, 
which announces the readiness of the Austro-HUngarian Government 
to enter, on December 2, into negotiations for an armistice on the 
basis of the peace programme of the Russian Revolution; namely, 
no annexations; no indemnities; a guarantee of the right of nations 
to determine their destinies. This radiotelegram will be brought 
immediately to the knowledge of the Russian people and also to the 
peoples of the Allies and to their Governments. 

Delegates of the Council of the People's Commissioner will be sent 
in accordance with the treaty concluded between the Representatives 
of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armies of the Russian 
Republic and the Representatives of the Commander-in-Chief of the 
German Armies. 

(Signed) Teotskt, 

Peo(ple''s Commissioner for Foreign Affairs. 



6. First Meeting of the Peace Delegations, 2 and 3 December, 1917. 

[From the (British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, 6 December, 1917, 

p. 282.] 

The following has been transmitted through the Russian wireless 
system : 

DviNSK, December 3. 

On Dec. 2, at 11 a. m., the peace delegation of the Councils of the 
People's Commissioners arrived at Dvinsk. These delegates had 
been invited, by a specially chosen Committee, acting on behalf of 
the Extraordinary Congress of the Fifth Army, to be present at this 
Congress. 

The speeches of Comrades Kamenev, Sokolnikov, Bicenko, Mstis- 
lavsky, and of the delegates of the workmen, soldiers, sailors, and 
peasants, were received with rounds of applause, which developed 



FIKST TELKGEAM FROM KRYLENKO. 11 

into a long ovation. The Congress gave a solemn promise in the 
name of the Army that it would destroy all the wasp nests of the 
counter-revolution which are obstacles to the cause of peace, and 
foremost the nest of Dukhonin, Gotz, Avxentiev, and other traitors 
to the Kevolution who are sitting at Mohilov. 

At 2 p. M., escorted for a distance by the Army Congress, the dele- 
gates departed in the train at poiut 514 versts [342 miles] on the 
North-Western Eailway. At 5.30 p. m. the delegates were received 
in the neutral zone by the German delegates. 

In Dvinsk a manifestation took place in honor of one of the regi- 
ments, with banners bearing inscriptions: Long live the. Council of 
the People's Commissioners ! Control production ! Abolish all 
secrecy ! and so on. In the trenches spirits are high. 

Sbxiansky, 
President of the Congress 
of the Fifth Army and Army Gommhittee. 

The following news is circulated through the German wireless 
system (Dec. 4) : 

On Dec. 1, 1917, a cessation of hostilities was agreed upon with 
the Russian Army with respect to the front extending from the 
southern bank of the Pripet and in a southerly direction to a point 
south of the Lipa. At 10 p. m. on Dec. 2 all hostilities will cease 
on this sector. Agreement has been reached with respect to move- 
ment between the opposing lines, the movement of troops, work 
upon positions, and the activities of airmen. A period of 48 hours 
at least has been decided upon as notice which must elapse before 
hostilities are to recommence. The Russian deputation for the 
conclusion of an armistice was welcomed on Dec. 2 at 4 o'clock in the 
afternoon by the Commander in Chief in the East, General Field 
Marshal Prince Leopold of Bavaria, in a short speech. The negotia- 
tions regarding the conclusion of an armistice thereupon commenced, 
in which, under the chairmanship of the Chief of the General Staff, 
General Hoffmann, the representative of the German land and sea 
fighting forces, as well as the plenipotentiaries of the chief army 
administration of Bulgaria, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey, are 
participating. 

A message from Petrograd (Dec. 4) states that the armistice dele- 
gations met at Vilna (behind the German lines) on Dec. 3. It was 
decided to consider only the question of an armistice and to leave 
peace discussion to the European Conference. 



7. First Telegeam from Krylenko. 

[From the Daily Review of the Foreign Press, Allied Press Supplement, 30 
January, 1918, p. 359, purporting to be a translation from the Izvestiya of 
28 November, 1917.] 

To-day at 11 a. m. the Supreme Commander in Chief sent parle- 
mentaires with the following full powers : 

In the name of the Russian Republic, and on the authority of the 
Council of People's Commissioners, I, the People's Commissioner 



12 PROCEEDINGS OE THE BEEST-LITOVSK OONFEKBNCE. 

for Military and Naval Affairs, and Supreme Commander in Chief 
of the Armies of the Eussian Eepublic, authorize the parlementaires, 
Lieut. Vladimir Slineur, of the 9th Kiev Hussar Eegiment, and the 
members of the Army Committee of the 5th Army, Army Surgeon 
Mikhail Sagalovitch, and Volunteer Georgi Meren, to present them- 
selves to the highest Chief of the German Army on the plot where 
these parlementaires shall be received, with the request that inquiry 
be made of the Highest Command of the German Army whether 
they agree to send their plenipotentiaries to open immediate nego- 
tiations for establishing a truce on all the fronts of the belligerent 
countries, in order that peace negotiations may afterwards be entered 
upon. 

In the event of a satisfactory answer on the part of the Highest 
Command of the German Army, the parlementaires are instructed to 
fix the time and place for the meeting of the plenipotentiaries of both 
sides. 

N. Krtlenko, 
People's Oommissioner for Military and Naval Affairs 

and Supreme Gommander in Chief. 



8. Session or 3 December, 1917, Brest-Litovsk. 

RUSSIAN ACCOUNT. 

[From the (Britisli) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, Allied Press Supple- 
ment, 30 January, 1918, p. 360.] 

The following report is printed in the Izvestiya of Dec. 9 : 

List of the Members of the Eussian Delegation for Truce Nego- 
tiations, and of the persons attached to the same. 

I. — Plenipotentiaeibs. 

MEMBERS OF THE ALL-KTJSSIAN CBNTRAI, EXKCTJTIVB COMMITTEE OF THE COUNCILS 
OP peasants', workmen's, and soldiers' DEPUTIES. 

1. loffie, Adolf Abramovltch (President of the Delegation). 

2. Kramenev, Lev Borlsovitch. 

3. Sokolnikov, Grlgory Yaljovlevitch. 

4. Bitsenko, Anastasiya Alexandrovna. 

5. Maslovsky, Sergei Dmitrievitch. 

6. Olich, Fedor Vladimirovitch (sailor). 

7. Belyakov, Nikolai Kuzmltch (soldier). 

8. Stashkov, Roman Illarionovltch (peasant). 

9. Obukhov, Pavel, Andre&vitch (workman). 

II. — ^Members op the Wae-Consilium. 

10. Admiral Altvater, Vasily Mlkhailovltch (Dean of the Delegation). 

11. First-Rank-Captain Dollvo-Dobrovolsky, Boris losifovitch. 

12. Col. Shishkin, Vladimir Ivanovitch. 

13. Col. Stanislavsky, Andrei Vasilevitch. 

14. Lieut.-Col. Moroz, Felix Antonovitch. 

15. Lieut.-Col. Berends, Konstantin Yulevltch. 

16. Lieut.-Col. Sukhov, Vasily Gavrilovitch. 

17. Lieut.-Col. Fokke, Ivan Grigoryevitch. 

18. Lieut.-Col. Vedin, Karl Tanovitch. 



SESSIONS OF 3 AND 4 DECEMBEE. 13 

III. — ^Attached to the Delegation. 

19. Secretary to the Delegation : Karakhan, Lev Mikhailovitch. 

Translators. 

20. Sokolof, Vladimir Petrovitch. 

21. Lieut. Shchurovsky, Andrei Vladimirovitch. 

22. Shtukholdt. 

Lawpers. 

23. Gerbersen, Karl Antonovitch. 

24. Ivanov, Vastly Petrovitch. 

25. Artaryan, Ivan Pavlovitch. 

Copyist. 

26. Voishvillo, Bronislav losifovitch. 

Orderlies. 

27. Ivanov. 

28. Korshunoy. 

List of Members of the Delegations of. States at War with us. 

1. Gekman. 

1. Major General Hoffman, President of the Delegation. 

2. Major Brinkmann, of the General Staff, and 

3. First-Rank-Captain Horn (Consulative Members). 

4. Staff Captain of Cavalry Heu, Translator. 

5. Captain of Cavalry in Reserve von Rosenburg, Secretary. 

6. Lieut, von Bulow, Assistant Secretary. 

2. AUSTRO-HUNGAEIAN. 

7. Lieut. Col. Hermann Pokorny, of the General Staff. 

8. Major Franz von Mirbach, of the General Staff. 

9. Emerich Graf Czaky von Kererzek und Adorjau. 

10. Captain of Cavalry von Berger. 

3. Bulgarian. 

11. Col. Gantchev, of the General Staff. 

12. Counsellor Anastasov. 

4. Turkish. 

13. General of Cavalry Tsekki Pasha. 

14. Captain of Cavalry von Schmidt, attached to Tsekki Pasha. 

15. Counsellor Edem Bey. 

The Supreme Command of the German Armies, in the person of 
Field Marshal General Paul von Hindenburg, Supreme Commander- 
in-Chief and Chief of the General Staff of the German Armies, and 
Admiral Hening von Holzendorf, Chief of the Naval Staff of the 
German Fleet, empowered Prince Leopold of Bavaria, Field Mar- 
shal General of Bavaria and Commander-in-Chief of the Eastern 
front, to negotiate respecting a truce. The latter entrusted the 
negotiations to the persons mentioned above. 

Our Delegation arrived at Brest-Litovsk Nov. 20 (Dec. 3). Before 
the opening of the session the Commander-in-Chief of the Eastern 
front addressed the following speech to the meeting: 

Gentleihen ^ I vs'elcome you as the Plenipotentiary Representatives of the 
Government of the Russian Republic, delegated here to conclude an armistice. 
I hope that your common efforts will bring the work to the desired end. The 
German Supreme Command, in agreement with our Allies, has empowered 
me to guide the peace negotiations. I have deputed to Major General Hoff- 
mann, Chief of my Staff, to preside over the session in my name. Again I 
welcome you and hope that you will be comfortable at my headquarters. 



14 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE BREST-LtTOVSK CONPEBENCE. 

To this A. A. loffe, President of the Russian Delegation, answered 
as foUoM's: 

Mr. Commander in Chief of the Armies of the Eastern Front : We have come 
here as the representatives of the peoples of Revolutionary Russia, which 
is filled with a firm resolve to put an end to the general peace that shall 
correspond to the just yearnings of the masses of the democracies of all the 
belligerent countries. In the hope that this task will receive Its realization, 
I have the honor, Mr. Commander in Chief of the Eastern Front, to thank you 
in the name of our delegation for your welcome ! 

The speech of the German representative was made in German and 
translated into Russian ; our representative spoke in Russian and his 
speech was translated in German. 

All the negotiations were carried on in this manner. 

From the very beginnig our delegation officially demanded that 
accurate protocols of the session should be made, giving notice that 
they reserved to themselves the right to publish the protocols in full, 
without any omissions. This was accepted. We kept the protocols 
in Russian, and the other side kept theirs in German. A special edit- 
ing committee, consisting of three representatives from us and three 
from the other side, was instituted and compared both texts of the 
protocols every day after the session. 

The protocols of the session, as confirmed, are given below. 

Protocol or the Session of Nov. 20 (Dec. 3). 

The session began at 4.10 p. m. (2.10 p. m.). 

Major-General Hoffmann, in opening the session, expressed the 
hope that it would lead to the wished-for result. 

Credentials were presented and recognized by the Russian repre- 
sentatives. (The credentials of the Turkish and Bulgarian repre- 
sentatives had not yet been received.) 

Major-General Hoffmann requested the Russian Delegation to 
communicate their proposals. 

The President of the Russian Delegation, Comrade A. A. loffe, 
made the following declaration: 

We lay down as the foundation for the proposals for an armistice the prin- 
ciple of a democratic peace as expressed in the decree of the All-Russian Con- 
gress of Councils of Workmen's and .Soldiers' Delegates and confirmed by the 
Extraordinary Congress of Peasant Deputies, with the object of gaining as 
quickly as possible a general peace without annexations or contributions, the 
right to national self-determination being guaranteed. AVith the object of gain- 
ing such a general peace we are empowered to discuss terms of a truce on all 
the fronts with the plenipotentiary repre.jentatives of German, Austria- 
Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey here present. We therefore suggest that a 
proposal to take part in the negotiations should be at once addressed to all 
the belligerent countries not represented here. We presume that the .acceptance 
of both these points is an indispensable premise for opening an Immediate 
discussion of the terms of an armistice on all the fronts. 

Major General Hoffmann, referring to the contents of the declara- 
tion just made known, inquired whether the Russian Delegation was 
empowered to speak in the name of Russia's Allies. 

Comrade loffe answered that the Russian Government addressed 
to its Allies a proposal to take part in the negotiations, but up to 
this time had not received a decisive reply. Nevertheless, he con- 
sidered it possible to enter upon negotiations that day and repeat the 
application to Russia's Allies. 



SESSIONS OF 3 AND 4 DECEMBER. 15 

General Hoffmann stated that his credentials did not give him the 
right to enter on negotiations for peace with Eussia's absent Allies. 
As regards the contents of the declaration published, he drew atten- 
tion to the fact that the Governments of the Central Powers had more 
than once made peace proposals, which had met with no response. 
The political principles which, in the opinion of the Central Powers, 
must be the basis of the future peace were not long ago again put forth 
in the telegrams of the Ministers Czernin and Kiihlmann on the one 
side and the Russian Government on the other. Personally, as a mili- 
tary maUj he did not consider himself competent, nor was he empow- 
ered to speak on political questions. The representatives of Austria- 
Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey who were present said the same. 

The President of the Russian Delegation stated that they took note 
of General Hoffmann's explanation. But he considered it necessary 
to remark that the Russian Delegation regarded the question of the 
armistice much more broadly, and considered that it must be a 
foundation of the general peace, for it was in the name of the latter 
that an armistice was to be concluded. 

General Hoffmann gladly took note of this statement, and, on his 
side, expressed the hope that an armistice would lead directly to 
peace. This acknowledgment, however, in no way altered the circum- 
stance that on the part of Germany and her allies there were only 
military men present, whose competence was confined to the discus- 
sion of purely military questions regarding the armistice. 

Comrade Kamenev, member of the Russian Delegation, remarked 
that unfortunately in the telegrams of the Minister for Foreign 
Affairs, Kiihlmann, and of Czernin there was nothing to be seen of 
any actual adhesion to the general peace without annexations or con- 
tributions, the right to self-determination being guaranteed, which 
formed the unwavering peace programme of Russia's Revolutionary 
Government. 

The Russian Delegation, acting on the authority of the revolution- 
ary masses of Russia, gave notice then and there that only such a 
general peace could be entertained. Only such a peace must be con- 
cluded as a result of the armistice of which the terms were then to 
be discussed. As regards the extent of the Russian Delegation's cre- 
dentials, the Government of Russia quite recognized that for the 
time being the center of gravity lay not so much in military negotia- 
tions as in the establishment of general bases of the peace which must 
be concluded as the result of the armistice. For this reason we are 
intrusted with the establishment of the relation that the countries 
represented here bear to the bases of a general democratic peace. 
Only by clearing up this preliminary question can the armistice be 
given the character which the peoples of Revolutionary Russia wish 
to see it acquire. 

General Hoffmann repeated that the representatives from Germany 
and her allies have no authority to discuss questions of peace. If that 
were not so, not only military men would be sitting there on their 
side. 

Germany and her allies started from the point of view that, first 
of all, military action must be stopped so that the politicians might 
be given time and opportunity to negotiate concerning peace. In 
order not to protract these negotiations, the armistice could be 
restricted to a very short term. 



16 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONEEBENCE. 

L. B. Kamenev recognized that this Conference must, of course,_ be 
distinguished from the Peace Congress. All the same, the Russian 
Delegation insisted that it was here that a definition must be obtained 
of the general bases of peace, toward which the way was being paved 
through the armistice. It expressed its regret for the misunder- 
sanding in consequence of which political representatives did not 
come to the Conference from the other side. They still hoped to 
return to the subject of peace conditions at that Conference, namely, 
at such times as political plenipotentiaries from the other side could 
be present. 

General Hoffmann again laid emphasis on the necessity of conclud- 
ing then a purely military armistice, which, however, in order to 
meet the wishes of Russia, might be for a very short term, in order 
not to postpone the commencement of peace negotiations. Kamenev 
took note of this, and agreed to the suggestion that the first question 
respecting a general peace must be considered as exhausted for the 
time being. He stated that in the Russian Delegation's instructions 
there was a paragraph according to which all countries taking part 
in the negotiations for an armistice should assume the obligation of 
addressing to all belligerent countries not represented there a pro- 
posal to take part in the negotiations for an armistice. The Russian 
Delegation therefore proposed to take part in the negotiations for 
an armistice. The Russian Delegation therefore proposed to Ger- 
many and her allies that they should act toward the belligerent 
countries unrepresented there as Revolutionary Russia had done when 
she addressed to Germany and the latter's allies a proposal to enter 
upon negotiations for an armistice on all the fronts. 

General Hoffmann, in accord with the representatives of the three 
other allied Commanders in Chief, stated that the representatives 
of the Allied Powers could only take note of this proposal, as their 
powers did not extend beyond purely military questions. 

The Russian Delegation requested an adjournment, after which 
purely military questions should be discussed. 

The sitting was renewed on the same day at 3.50 p. m. (5.50 p. m.). 

The President of the Russian Delegation, A. A. loffe, proposed 
that the decree concerning peace accepted at the All-Russian Con- 
gress of the Workmen's, Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies, as also 
the actual text of the wireless telegram of Czernin, Minister of 
Foreign Affairs, and Kiihlmann, the State Secretary, should be ap- 
pended to the protocol. 

General Hoffmann, in accord with the representatives of the Austro- 
Hungarian Commander in Chief, explained that they had no objec- 
tion to this, but as the texts of the wireless telegram would have to 
be called for from Berlin and Vienna and were not to hand, some 
delay must ensue. 

The President of the Russian Delegation took note of this and pro- 
nounced the following statement of the Russian Delegation : 

The Russian Delegation, taking tlieir stand on the exact text of the ofEer 
made by the Council of People's Commissioners, Nov. 13/26,' 1917, and taklng^ 
Into consideration the statement of the plenipotentiaries of Germany, Austria- 
Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey as to their not being authorized to assume an 
obligation to make a proposal to all the Powers at war with them and not rep- 
resented at that meeting to enter upon negotiations for an armistice on all the 
fronts, suggests to the representatives of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria 



SESSIONS OF 3 AXD i DECEMBER. 17 

;iU(l Turkey that tliey should communicate to their own Governments the pro- 
IKisal of the plenipotentiaries of Russia, and for the present, until receipt of an 
answer, should pass on to the discussion of the terms of an armistice. 

General Hoffmann said that Le could not make any statement on 
this point, but could onlj' pass this wisii of the Russian Delegation 
on to his Supreme Command, who could pass 'it furtlier to tlie Gir- 
nian Government. If this took place, and personally he had no doubt 
on the subject, then the four Allied G()\'ernments would come to an 
understanding. Delay was, of course, inevitable. 

The President of the Russian Delegation stated that he would 
connnunicate with Petrograd on this subject, and agreed that for the 
present a discussion on the terms of an armistice should be entered 
upon. He proposed to adjourn the sitting till Xov. "21 (Dec. 4), 1917, 
in order that the Russian Delegation might prepare its draft of the 
armistice conditions. The Russian Delegation was not in a position 
to discuss the question that day, as telegraphic commitnication with 
Petrograd was not yet established. 

General Hoffmann took note of this and asked whether it was not 
possible, in spite of this, to pass, then and there, to the discussion of 
armistice conditions. The Russian Delegation declined this proposal 
on the grounds mentioned. The delegate of Bulgaria proposed that, 
in order to facilitate further discussion, the fundamental points of 
the armistice should be enunciated in the form in which Germany 
and heir allies picture them to themselves generally and as a whole. 
The Russian Delegation accepted this. CJeneral Hoffmann informed 
the Russian allies it ought to be discussed when the conditions of an 
armistice were being settled. 

The sittino- was then closed. The following one was fixed for Xov. 
•21 (Dec. 4) at 11.30 a. m. (9.30 a. m.). 



9. Session or i December, 1917. 

RUSSIAN ACC()U^■T. 

[From the (British) Dailij Rcricic of the Forciijii /^/c.s'.s, Allhil I'rcss Siiiiple- 
iiiciit. 30 .January, 1918, p. 360.] 

Protocol of the Second Day or Session, Nov. 21 (Dec. 4). 

General Hoffmann opened the session- at 11.40 a. ui. (9.-40 a. m.). 

He stated that the plenipotentiaries of Germany and her allies, 
there present were prepared to hear the Russian proposals as to tht 
conditions of an armistice. Rear Admiral Altvater read the follow- 
ing conditions for an armistice (published in the Isnesfii/a, No. 235, 
''The Russian Delegation's Conditions for an Armistice," page 2. 
column 2) : 

THE K I SSI AN DKLEGATKiX's ARM I.STICE CO>;UITI(>NS. 

ProiMise<l at the .ioint session with the i-ejiresentatlve.s of (ienuany and the 
countries in alliance with lier at the session of 1 >cc. 4, 1917, new style. 

I.KNGTH OF THE AIU[ISTirK. 

The length of the armistice is fixed at six months. 

il.\,\>TKr, OF DISCONTI.M'INO THE AKMISTICE. 

In event of an adjournment of the ])encc iiesotiations luistilities can be 
veconuiieiicei! not earlier than 72 hours aftei- tlie nioiuent of tlie ad.1ournment of 
the negotiations. 

9ti244^1S 2 



18 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFERENCE. 

THE I'dllTKlXS OK THE FRONT AN!) TI-IK AliMEI) JOllCKS oVEK WHPCH THE AKMISTICE 

EXTENDS. 

Hu> armistice extends over every portion of the land fronts and o\-er all 
armed maritime forces of the belligerent Powers at the moment when the 
ai-mistice shall be concluded. By " armed forces," to which the terms of the 
armistice extend, nuist be understood: All land f(U-ces that are on the terri- 
toi'y of the belligerent States and in the ja'ovinces occupied by them, war fleets. 
and all technical means of fighting. 

Xo organizing military unit and no technical means of fighting can, within 
the limits of the period of the armistice, be moveil across within poitions of one 
front, from one front to another, from the front to the rear, or from the rear 
tt! the front. Only the following categories of persons engaged in military 
service may l)e moved across: Those discharged from service, sick, wounded, 
i.nd going on leave; from the I'ear to the front — those who are cured or are 
on leave. Troops and technical means of fighting that are being. moved at the 
mmuent of the conclusion of the armistice may be brought up to a nearer point 
that is more convenient for quartering or billeting, where, also, they musf be 
left. 

LINE OF DEMARCATION. 

The line of demarcation is to be taken as the line that runs at an equal dis- 
tance from the existing main positions of the belligerent countries, except 
[with regard to] 

(a) The Oaticasian fi-ont. where the Hue of denarcation is to be defined by 
a sjiecial ItUsso-Turkish Commission. 

(b) The islands of Dago. Esel, lloon, and the rest of the islands of the Sound 
of Jto(m, which shall be evacuated by the German troops and shall not be 
occupied by the armed forces of any (jf the belligerent Powers. 

(c) In the Baltic Sea the line of demarcation shall run from ("aiie Lii.-^eroiT 
to fhe southern extremity of the Island of Gothland and on to the territorial 
waters of Sweden. The maritime forces of both sides that are in the (hilf of 
Riga and the Sound of Jloon must leave the said waters. 

(d) In the Black Sea the line of demarcation is to be defined by a special 
liusso-Turkish Commission. 

Note.— The details of the line of demarcation on each portion of the land 
fronts are to be defined by special military commissions. 

MARITIME FORCES AND MARITIME TRANSPOltT. 

Maritime forces and the vessels of merchant transport can not cross the line 
of demarcation above established, nor go into regions of the sea that the 
belligerents have to evacute. 

CESSATION OF PARTIAL ARM [STtCES, AT THE MiONT. 

With the Signing of this present armistice all partial agreements previouslv 
concluded in separate portions of the front become null and \-oia. 

General Hoffmann began bv e.xpvessing his astonishment, from the 
point ot A'lew of the Supreme Command, that on the part of the Eus 
sian Delegation conditions are proposed; he mentioned that Germany 
and her allies on the previons day had listened more than once to the 
wish of the Russian Delegation that the armistice should pass bv 
direct tiansition to proposals for a general peace. As tliis was en- 
irely m accordance with the wi.sh of (iermany also and her allies ho 
had on the previous day proposed that the "armistice should he • s 
short termed as possible He supposed that this armistice conhl 1 o 
automatically prolonged, and that the length of notice to be given 



SESSIOXS OF 3 AXD 4 DECEMBEH. 19 

before interruption of tlie armistice might be debated and establisli at 
some future discussion. 

L. B. Kamenev stated, in explanation : 

In order to jivoicl any niisundprstandinn' I consider it necessary to establisii 
tliat before an aureenient comes into force respecting tlie conditions of tiie 
len.stliy armistice wliicli tlie liussian Government would have the opportunity 
of addressins' a.^ain to its Allies a proposal to take part in the general armistice 
on all tlie fronts. In the opinion of the Russian Delegation this cessation of 
hostilities might be limited to eight or ten days. 

General Hoffmann thought this proposal, with the motives as- 
signed, acceptable. 
L. B. Kamenev said: 

What concerns the Russian Delegation is the establishment of the principles 
of a lengthy armistice whicli would give time for peace negotiations, which 
negotiations would be nearer if it were iiossible to establish these principles 
at once. This would facilitate the possiliility of the absent belligerent countries 
joining in the armistice, and in this way the struggle of the peoples of Russia 
for peace would olitain a wider foundation beneath it. 

General Hoffmann confirmed his explanation of the previous clay, 
to the effect that he was not authorized to go into a discussion of 
peace proposals and peace conditions, and for that reason these delib- 
erations would not attain their object. As an expression of his own 
personal opinion, he stated that he did not think that tl^e Central 
Powers were ready to address another request to their enemies with 
regard to opening peace negotiations. 

At the suggestion of the Bulgarian Delegation, an adjourmnent 
was proposed at 12.5 p. m. (10.5 a. m.). On the resumption of the 
session General Hoffmann, on behalf of the delegation of Germany 
and her allies, again stated distinctly that the question of peace and 
a general armistice liad been thrashed out on the previous day and 
that the Russian Delegation had taken note of it and had expressed 
its willingness to enter into negotiations for an armistice between 
the armies of Russia and the armies of Germany and her allies. It 
was absolutely impossible to establish conditions for a general armi- 
stice without the absent belligerent Powers presenting their counter 
proposals. It was the Russian Government's business to address 
itself to its Allies, come to an understanding with them concerning 
the terms of an armistice and of peace, and after that to propose 
these conditions to Germany and her allies. 

The President of the Russian Delegation, A. A. loffe, in the name 
of the Russian Delegation, took note of this statement of the Dele- 
gation of Germany and her allies and suggested passing to the con- 
sideration of the separate points of the armistice. 

In conformity with this the Conference passed to the consideration 
of the Russian draft of the armistice conditions. 

General Hoffmann, in accordance wdth the explanations already 
given by him proposed the establishment of a short term of armistice 
at 14 days. As it was presupposed that the peace negotiations ought 
to join on to the armistice uninterruptedly, it would be desirable to 
recognize an automatic prolongation of the armistice. 

A. A. loffe, in accordance with the Russian draft, suggested estab- 
lishino- the term of notice for resumption of hostilities at 72 houi-s. 



20 PKOCEEDIXGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFEKEXCE. 

General Hoffmann considered ,siieh a term too short. He directed 
attention to the fact that a war between coalitions makes an agree- 
ment between allies inevitable, and this agi'eenient takes time. As 
the armistice has for its object the opening of peace negotiations, 
that could be interrupted only in the event of the negotiations not 
leading to the desired end. In that case negotiations among allied 
Governments wonld be inevitable, and this would demand a great 
deal of time. 

On the suggestion of the Russian Delegation, an adjournment was 
announced at 12.30 p. m. (10.30 a. m.). 

The session was resumed at 1 p. m. (11 a. m.). 

The President of the Eussian Delegation introduced the following 
formulation of paragraph 1 of the draft armistice proposals (con- 
cerning the term of the armistice) : 

l.Tlie annistice Ije.niiis Ndv. -JT (Dec. 10) at 2 p. iii. (12 noon) and i-ontimies 
to Dec. 2."i, 1917 (.Tan. 7. 1918). at 2 p. m. (12 noon). Eitlier party has tlie 
i-iglit of renewing hostilities on .givinii seven days' notice to this effect. If such 
notice does not ensue, then the armistice is automatically jirolonged until such 
time as one of the parties gives the seven days' notice of the interruption of the 
armistice. 

A. A. loffe stated in explanation that the commencement of the 
armistice on Nov. 27 (Dec. 10) is fixed in anticipation of the agree- 
ment coming into force on Nov. 25 (Dec. 5). If otherwise, then the 
commencement of the armistice must be corresiJondingly postponed. 

General Hoffmann, in order to expedite the negotiations, agreed on 
a 28-day term for the armistice and laid emphasis on the fact that 
by so doing he thought to s>(i far toward meeting the wish qf the 
Russian Delegation. He then proposed passing to the consideration 
of par. 2 of the Russian draft, armistice negotiations. 

General Hoffmann objected to the Eussian text of the draft, point- 
ing out that it would bind the German forces on the West also to an 
armistice, and therefore he proposed the following text for par. 2: 

The armistice affects all land and air forces of the said coimtries 
between the Black Sea and the Baltic and also on the Russo-Turkish 
fronts of Asia. 

General Hoffmann remarked that special agreements would have 
to be made for the Eusso-Turkish fronts in Asia. 

Turkey's plenipotentiary proposed that the armistice should simul- 
taneously affect the neutral countries also, /. e., Persia. 

General Hoffmann remarked that these conditions only concern the 
air and land forces, and that special conditions would have to be 
prepared for the naval forces. 

RtTSSIAN ACCOl^NT, C■0^'TINl'EU. 

I From the (British) nailii Rericw of the Foiikin Picusi. l»i,,/ Picxx Supple- 
ment, 6 February, 1918, pp. a9.3-:«).-,. | 

Pravda (Dec. 11 and 13) publishes the continuation of the re- 
port of the protocol of the session of Dec. 3. the first i)art of Avhich 
■was given in the Pravda of Dec. 22. and the A. P. S. of Jan 30 

(p. 3<a): 

General Hoffmann went through §§ 3-.") of article 3 of the Russian 
draft and pronounced them r_"_-_'i':"'^^*nblp. These demands imposed a 



SESSIONS OF 3 AND 4 DECEMBER. 21 

one-sided obligation on Germany and her Allies as they, in distinc- 
tion from the Kussians. have t\vf) main battle fronts. ' There must 
be established a possibility of moving the troops that need rest on 
lines of eoiiimnnication. Such movements had been going on since 
tlie beginning of the Avar, and were still going on. Besides this it 
•was well known that the Russians were moving troops, chiefly to the 
rear, and perhaps they would have to do so in the future also. 

It stood to reason that mo\ements of whole armies were impos- 
sible, as, if the desired agreement were not come to, the circumstance 
that the Rusbian Army might renew hostilities would always have to 
be reckoned "with. 

Finally the ;icceptance of the Russian text would prevent th." re- 
moval to good quarters of men who were in the trenches, and, thanks 
to this, the desire of both sides to shield the troops from the necessity 
of spending another winter in the trenches would not be attained. 
The Supreme Conmiand ofGermanj' and her allies, however, would 
be ready to bind itself not to move across any troops for the purpose 
of making an attack on the Russian troops. It stood to reason that 
this obligation must be a mutual one. The General proposed to the 
representatives of the Powers in alliance with Germany that they 
should withdraw in order to formulate this point. At 'J p. m. (12 
noon) the session was reopened, and the representatives of Germany 
and her allies put before the Russian Delegation their counterpro- 
posals in the following text: 

The iii'mistice extends to nil land and .ilr fcu'ces of Hie States named on tlie 
fi'outs between the Klaek and Italtir Seas. The armistice befcins simultaneously 
als(] on the lUisso-Turkish thi^ater of war in Asia. 

The ('('iitr:il I'owpis. Bul;;nria, and Turkey bind themselves not to strengthen 
theii- foi-cfs awiinst lUissiu during the armistice and not to imdertake any move- 
ments of troops bavins for their aim the preparation of an advance on the 
Itussiau front between ihc Black and Baltic Seas, nor on the Russo-Turkish 
front in .-Vsia. In the same way Russia also binds herself not to andertake any 
iiHivements of troojis durinc the armistice which mis'ht facilitate attacks on the 
armies of the four f 'entra! Powers, The contracting parties reserve to them- 
selves full ri.ubt of action as i-euards the question of settin.s fi-ee and quarter- 
ing portions of their forces. 

A. A. Jotfe, the President of the Russian Delegation, stated that 
they took notice of this text, but, as he supposed that it would be 
more expedient to defer a final settlement of the text of this article 
until such time as all the remaining articles should have been dis- 
cussed, he begged that the corresponding text of the German counter- 
proposal might be communicated. 

General iToffmann, in an^ wvi 'to this, put forward the following: 
draft of (Jermany's and her Allies' Delegation, with the recpiisite 
explanations : 

.Vrticli; 3. The line of demarcation on the Eiu-o))ean fronts is marked by the 
front defeases of earli iiart.\'s own positions. No one has the right to cross 
this line except pari ementa ires and specially appointed ("onnnissions (Art. (',). 
In tho.se jilaces where there are ,sa|)s in the defenses the line of demarcation 
is taken to be a straight (jue between the terminal points of the defenses. The 
space between the two lines of demarcation is neutral and is not to be tres- 
passed upon. In the same way navi.uable rivers that divide the positions of 
the two jiarties ai-o neutral and navi.gation uiion them is forbidden. On tho.se 
fronts where the ]iositioiis are disposed at a .sreat distance from one another 



22 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFERENCE. 

(leiimi-cation ronmiis'iions (Art. 6) must imraedintely estal)lisli lines of denmr- 
eation, not to be trespassed upon by either party, and clearly marked. 

On the Asiatic theaters of hostilities lines of demarcation must be the sub.iect 
of agreement between the Conniianders in Chief of both parties. 

The article expounded above refers exclusively to hostilities on 
land. As regards the war on the sea, special directions must be 
worked out. 

• Until such should be put forward, General Hoffmann considered it 
necessary to state emphatically that the German Supreme Command 
must decline the Russian proposal respecting the evacuation of the 
islands of the Gulf of Riga (Sound of Moon) . History did not know 
of an example of obligations that were not identical being laid upon 
two contracting parties that had equal rights, as was being done in 
this case. General Hoffmann stated emphatically that, on his part, 
he considered the Russian proposal respecting the evacuation of the 
islands as absolutelj^ beyond discussion. 

Turning to the question of the line of deniarcation on tlie sea. (iren- 
eral Hoffmann continued : 

Artj( i.ii 4. The armistice only extend.s to the naval \var in so far as this is 
established by the following paragraphs: 

(a) Attacks from the sea or the air on harbor.s and coasts that belon.t; to. or 
are occupied l)y, the adversary are forbidden to botli parties. 

())) Xaval wai-fare ceases on the Black Sea. The Russian naval forces 
may not jjass southward across the line Suliua-Trebizond, nor may the naval 
for<-es of the four Allied Powers pass hoiihward aci-oss the line JloutU of the 
StTmtu-Glieorglie-Tireboli. 

The naval forces n-f the Entente that are north of the line vSulina-Ti-ebizond 
are to be detained by Russia. 

(c) In the Baltic Sea the armistice is valid onl.\ to the east of lo" Ion,;;. E. 
of Greenwich. The war vessels of the fotu- Allied Powers nnist not pass into 
the district east of the line Cape Siiitf-hamn-Odeusbolm-Russarii, nor, outside 
this district [pass into | the Finnish three-naval-mile zone. Russian war vessels 
may not leave the above-mentioned districts. Vessels of the Entente that are 
there are to be detained by Russia. 

(d) In the interests of the i-esumjition of mercantile navisation on fixed 
routes, special agreements may be concluded. 

Article 5. In order to avoid unrest and collisions at the front, any infantry 
drill must take i)lace in the rear, not nearer than •"> kilometers from the front, 
and artillery drill not nearer than 15 kilometers. 

.\U the conti-actins parties bind themselves to take care that exact instruc- 
tions, iirohi))iting all their forces from crossing the line of demar<-ation shall be 
issued. 

Worlc on the positions behind the front-wire defenses is sanctioned, but only 
such as can not serve for the preparation for an advance. 

.\(/tive warfare ceases allogelhei-. The military air forces of botli sides must 
keep outside an air zone, 10 kiloujelers wide, reckoned from the front lines. 

Ar.TicLE (>. From the commencement of the armistice there is to be estab- 
lished a Commission (representatives of each belligerent State on a .given por- 
tion of tlie front), whicli will see to the fultillment of all the military conditions 
of the armistice agreement. 

Commissions are to be established at the following jioints : 

(a) In Bi-est-Lltovsk for the front from the Dniester to the Baltic Sea; 

(b) In Czernowice for the front from I'utna to the Dniester ; 



SESSIONS OF 3 AXD i DECEMBEE. 23 

((■) 111 Fokshini for tlie front from tlie Black Sea to Putna ; 

(fl) In nevel (or in another pla<'P proposed by the Russian Delegation) : 

(<■) In ()(lessa fo]- the Black Sea, 

Tliese Coraiuissions are afforded direct and uucen.sored wires for conininni- 
cation with their own (kivernraents. These wires are set up on own territory 
to tlie middle llet^^•een the lines o1" demarcation they are cni-ried through by 
the military authorities.* 

Article 7. All agreements, concluded up to now for separate iiortions of the 
front, respectins" an armistice or cessation of licistilities, are annulled by the 
]ii-esent agreement, and therefore become invalid. 

Article S, The Russian forces in IMacedonia are included in tiie truce. 

The Central I'ower.s are prepared to transport them to Russia. 

Article 9. Central I'crsia is to l)e evacnatea both by Turkish and l)y Russian 
troops. 

Article 10. The contracting parties, directly after the si.unatui-e (if the 
present armistice, enter on peace ne,gotiations. 

Article 11. Kach of the Governments of liotli contracting jiai'ties jvceives a 
cojiy of the given agreement, signed liy the plenipotentiai-y representatives. 

At 2,40 (12.40) p. m. the session was closeil. The next was fixed for Dec. 
•") (Nov. 22). 

The unofficial portion of the session began Avith tlie pronouncement, 
by Admiral Altvater in the name of the Russian Delegation, of the 
following memorandum, putting forward parallel texts: 

(1) Of the German demands; 

(2) Of the objections of the Russian Delegation to those demands: 
and 

(3) Of the Russian formulation of the corresponding articles. 
The memorandum read runs as follows : 

OEEMAX PROPOSAL. 

Article 1. The armistice is concluded for 14 days with automatic 
prolongation of the term of the armistice. The party that intends to 
break off the armistice is bound to give seven days' warning thereof 
to the other party. 

OBJECTIONS OF THE RUSSIAN DELEGATION. 

The term of the armistice is too short, and therefore it must be 
lengthened. The minimum term for the armistice acceptable is 2S 
days. 

RUSSIAN I'ROPOSAL. 

Article 1. The armistice is concluded for 28 days with automatic 
prolongation of the term of the armistice. The party that intends to 
break off the armistice is bound to give seven days' warning thereof to 
the other party. 

GERMAN PE0P0S.\I,. 

Article 2. The ai'mistice extends to all land and air forces of Rus- 
sia, Germany. Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey, on the front 
between the Black and Baltic Seas. Sinuiltaneously with this an 
armistice is established also on the Russo-Turkish theaters of war 
in Asia. The Central Powers, Bulgaria, and Turkey I)ind them- 
selves not to strengthen, during the armistice, their forces opposed 
to Russia, and not to alter the groui^ing of the larger formations of 

♦Literal translation of the original, which is hrri' both ungrammniiral anrt unpunctu- 
atcd. 



24 PROCEEDIXGS OF THE BREST-LITOVSK CONFERENCE. 

troops with the object of prepiirinp an advance on the Russian front 
lietween the Baltic and Bhack Seas, or on the Eusso-Turkish theaters 
of war. In the same way Eussia, too, binds herself not to make, 
during- the armistice, important regroupings that would facilitate an 
attack on the armies of the Allied Powers. 

As regards changing and quartering troops, the contracting parties 
}n'cscrve full freedom of action. 

OBJECTION OF THE lilSSI.VX UEEl''.<!A'ru)>; . 

The proposed text does not take into consideration that on our 
front from the Black Sea to the Baltic there are portions occupied 
by Roumanian troops. The acceptance of the proposed text would 
come to this, that we should prejudge the question as to Roumania 
beforehand. ,xV proviso must therefore be made, by a special note, to 
the elfcct that this question must lie settled separately. 

The word " land "' must be inserted before " front " for it is up to 
now not clear whether the front on the Baltic Sea (including the 
iloon Sound Islands) is reckoned or not.* Therefore the Avord 
'"land" must be added, as the question of the islands must be ke]3t 
separate. 

The proposed text, "not to strengthen their troops opposed to 
Eussia and not to alter the grouping of the larger formations of 
troops with the object of preparing an advance on the Eussian front 
between the Baltic and Black Seas." is not clear, and raises a number 
of ((uestions as follows: 

(a) Is it possible, without strengthening the forces, to strengthen 
the technical means, as, for instance, guns, machine guns, etc.? 

(b) What fixes the number of the troo]is opposed to Eussia, and 
how is it done? Is it the number of them on the front itself, or also 
those in the immediate rear, and, if so, where is the boundary of 
this rear'^ 

(c) How can the principle of "not strengthening"" and "not 
grouping'" be guaranteed under conditions of free changing and 
quartering of troops? 

(d) What guaranty is there that one portion of our front can not 
be weakened and another one strengthened at the expense of the 
former, and \v)\\ is this guaranty attained ? 

(e) What guaranty is there that it shall be impossible for the 
ojiposiiig side to bring up | ?troops] from the rear, distribute them 
far enouah from the front, and so prepare a formation for an 
attack? 

(f ) May we take it that the composition of troops in fi'ont of the 
Eussian line remains unchanged, if we grant a numerical change of 
the fighting forces with the object of pei'sonal mo\ements to other 
portions of the front, not of organized units, but sejiarately, Avhereby 
is secretly achieved a strengthening, or concentration, of forces that 
may be made use of for an attack? 

(g) What guai'antees the impossibility of bringing up troops and 
concentrating them in ports in order that a landing ex])edition mav 
afterwards be quickly carried out? 

In view of the fact that, ])y reason of the text being wanting in 
clearness, Ihere arise the above-mentioned questions, which must be 



' At this point the iirininnl fpxi is viH'y much confiisnil. 



SESSIOISTS OF o AXD 4 DECEMBEE. 25 

absolutely, accurate]}' explained, the text of this article luu&t he 
changed in such a way that these questions drop out. 

RUSSIAN Pr.OPOSAL. 

Article -i. The armistice extends to all land and air forces of 
Kussia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey that are 
on the land front from the Baltic to the Black Sea. 

Simultaneously M'ith this is established an armistice also in the 
Kusso-Turkish theaters of the war in Asia. 

Note. — The conditions of the Armistice on the portion of the said 
land front occupied by Kussian"'' troops must be settled specially. 

The Central Powers, Bulgaria, ancl Turkey, as also Eussia, bind 
themselves not to change during the armistice the quantities of mili- 
tary units that are on the fronts, their composition or numerical 
contents, nor to make regroupings of larger military units for the 
IDurpose of preparing an attack on the front between the Baltic ancl 
the Black Seas or on the Russo-Turkisli theaters in Asia, for which 
purpose : 

(a) The number of military units that are in the Army regions at 
the moment of concluding the armistice must remain unchanged; at 
the same time the contracting parties are perfectly free to change 
and quarter the troops in the Army regions, both on the front and 
the rear, the boundary of the latter being fixed at a distance of 100 
versts from the line of demarcation. 

(b) The contracting parties bind themselves not to concentrate 
tioops in the ports of the Baltic and Black Seas. 

GERMAN PROPOSAL. 

Article 3. Both parties take the front wiie defences of their own 
positions as the line of demarcation on the European front. The 
lines of demarcation may not be crossed by anyone except paiie- 
mentaires or specially appointed Commissions (Art. 6). Where there 
are not uninterrupted positions, the line of demarcation is a straight 
one between the very foremost point occupied by troops. The space 
between the two lines is held to be neutral, and trespassing upon it 
is prohibited. In the same way navigable ri\ers that divide the 
positions of the two parties are held to be neutral, and navigation 
on them is prohibited. On those fronts whei'e the positions are at a 
decided distance one from another Demarcation Commissions (Art. 
6) must settle and mark, as soon as possible, a line of demarcation 
that is not to be crossed by either party. On the Asiatic theaters of 
war the line of demarcation is settled by agreement between the 
Commanders in Chief of the two parties. 

OBJECTIONS OF THE RUSSIAN DELEGATION. 

In substance the proposed text is acceptable; but it is indispensa- 
ble that in it should be included an indication that organized inter- 
course between the troops of both sides are permitted. 

RUSSIAN PROPOSAL. 

Article 3. Both parties take the foremost wire defences of their 
own positions as the line of dcmiu'cation on the European front. 

* Mispi'int in the original for " Ruraanian.*' 



26 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFEEENCE. 

These lines may be crossed only by parlementaires and specially ap- 
pointed Commissions (Art. 6), and, besides this, in order to develop 
and strengthen the friendly relations between the peoples of the con- 
tracting parties, organized intercourse between the troops of the two 
parties is permitted. Where there are no uninterrupted positions, 
the line of demarcation is ;i straight one between the very fore- 
most points occupied by troops. Th-e s])ace between the two lines is 
held to be neutral. Navigable rivers dividing the positions of the 
two parties are held to be neutral, and navigation on them is pro- 
hibited. On those fronts where the positions are at a decided dis- 
tance from one another, the Demarcation Committee (Art. 6) must 
settle and mark as soon as possible a line of demarcation that is not 
to be crossed by either party. In the Asiatic theaters of war the 
line of demarcation is settled by agreement between the Command- 
ers in Chief of the two parties. 

GERMAN PROPOSAL. 

Art. '-1. The armistice extends over the naval war only in so far as 
is established below : 

(a) Attack by sea or by air on coasts or ports belonging to or held 
by the adversary will not be made by either party. 

(b) Naval war on the Black Sea ceases. Russian naval forces will 
not cross the line Sulina-Trebizond southward, and the naval forces 
of the four Allied Powers Avill not cross the line Mouth of the 
Sfantu-Gheorghe-Tireboli northward. War vessels of the Entente 
that are to the north of the line Sulina-Trebizond are to be detained 
by Russia. 

(c) On the Baltic Sea the armistice is valid only to the east of 15 
long. E. of Greenwich. War vessels of the four Allied Powers will 
not sail in the region to the E. of the line Spithamn-Odensholm-Rus- 
saro. nor outside thig region in the three-mile coast-zone of Finland. 
Russian war vessels will not leave the region indicated above. War 
■\-es^:els of the Entente that are there must be detained by Russia. 

(d) A special agreement may be concluded to start the navigation 
of inerchant vessels on fixed routes. 

OBJECTIONS or THE RUSSIA>' DELEOATION. 

As regards pars, (a), (b), and (d), there is no objection. As re- 
gards par. (c), the Delegation considers in this connection that the 
proposal amounts to the establishment of such a line of marine de- 
marcation as is, by its very essence, completely one-sided, as it imposes 
obligations on, and creates difficulties of navigation for, the Russian 
^yar A'essels only, wliile it lays no corresponding compensatory impo- 
sitions on the war vessels of the four Allied Powers. The' line of 
demarcation indicated in the ])roposal does, in fact, prohibit Russian 
war vessels visiting the Gulf of Bothnia, that belongs to Russia, while 
it allows free ingress thither to the vessels of the four Allied Powers 
In just tlie same way the proposal to the Russian vessels to remain in 
the region bounded by the line of demarcation means, in point of fact, 
fastening down the Russian vessels to the region of the Eastern por- 
tion of the Gulf of Finland, while the vessels of the four Allied 
Powers are gi\'en the right to perfectly free navigation in the Mhole 
region of the sea and its gulfs. Further, the proposal made does 
not say a word about cessation of hostiliteis in the region of the 



SESSIONS OF 3 AXD -t DECEMBER. 27 

Baltic marine war theater, and therefore it gives tlie right to excrute 
any oiDerations they lilve, palpably directed against the Eussian Fleet, 
to the vessels of the four Allied Po-wers, that enjoy the right of free 
movement over the ^vhole theater, excepting only the Eastern part 
of the Baltic and the territorial waters of Finland. The indication 
that the armistice on the Baltic theater of, war extends to the me- 
ridian of 15° long. E. of Greenwich, taken with the line of demar- 
cation indicated above, is completely unintelligible. For this reason 
the proposal of the Four Allied Powers is unaccejitable both in sub- 
stance and in form. As regards the proposal that Eus'-ia should 
detain the war vessels of the Entente that are in the Baltic, the ques- 
tion of these vessels must form the subject of a special agreement as 
to which a proviso must be inserted. 

RrSSI..VX PKOPOSAL. 

Article 4. As regards an armistice for hostilities on the war thea- 
ters of the Baltic and Black Seas the following is established: 

(a) The two contracting parties bind themselves not to attack ports 
or coasts belonging to or occupied by the adversary, either liy sea or . 
by air. 

(b) Hostilities on the Black Sea cease. Eussian marine forces will 
not cross to the S. of the line Sulina-Trebizond, and the vessels of the 
four Allied Powers will not cross to the N. of the line ^Mouth of 
Siantu-Gheorghe-Tireboli. 

Xo'i'E. — The question of the war vessels of the Entente must lie 
looked into separately. 

(c) In the theater of the Baltic Sea and its gulfs as far as 15° long. 
E. of Greenwich hostilities cease. The line of demarcation is estab- 
lished on the line Salismiinde-Zerel-Southern extremity of the Goth- 
land Island-SAvedish territorial waters. Eussian war vessels may not 
cross the line of demarkation southwards. The vessels of the four 
Allied Powers may not cross it northward. 

GERMAN PROPOSAL. 

Article 5. In order to avoid misunderstandings and incidents on 
the front, musketry practice must not be carried out by infantry 
nearer than five kilometers, and artillery practice not nearer than 
fifteen kilometers, from the line of the front. Both parties bind 
themselves to take measures that the troops receive emphatic instruc- 
tions prohibiting them from crossing the line of demarcation. Work 
on the positions behind the foremost wire defenses is permitted, but 
not such as ma^' seri e for the preparation of an advance. ^line war- 
fare ceases completely. Aerial fighting forces must keep outside an 
air zone 10 miles wide from the foremost defenses of either side. 

Rl'SSIAN PROPOSAL. 

Article 5. To avoid accidents and incidents, drilling together with 
musketry practice must be carried out not nearer than five versts, and 
artillery practice not neai'ci' than fifteen versts, behind the front. 

Both parties bind themseh'es to take measures that their troops 
receive emphatic instructions prohibiting armed persons from cross- 
ing the lines of demarcation. 

With the object of developing and strengthening friendly rela- 
tions between the peoples of the contracting parties, organized inter- 
course between the troops is permitted. 



28 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BREST-LITOVSK CONFEEENCE. 

Land and mine warfare completely ceases. Aircraft and captive 
balloons ha\ e no right to approach the line of demarcation nearer 
than ten miles. 

GEKMAX PBOPOSAL. 

Article (>. From the beginning of the armistice — 

(a) In Brost-Lito^'sk for the front from the Dniester to the Blace 
Sea I .s«>] ; 

(b) In Fokshani for the front from the Black Sea to Piitna; 

(c) In Eevel (or another populated place proposed by the Eussian 
Delegation) for the Baltic Sea; 

(d) In Czernowice for the front from Pntna to the Dniester; 

(e) In Odessa for the Black Sea, 

assemble Commissions, one each (representati\es of each State that 
share a giAen portion of the front), to whom must be referred all 
militar_y questions about fulfilling the conditions with the correspond- 
ing [f<enteiiee nnffnishcc/]. 

Uncensored wires with telewriting apparatus, in direct communi- 
cation with the GoA'ernnients concerned, are put at the service of 
these Commissions. These Avires, up to the middle space between the 
lines of demarcation, are laid by direction of the military adminis- 
tration concerned. 

OBJECTIONS OF THE lU'SSIAX DELEGATION. 

There are no objections, onl}' the Eussian Delegation proposes as 
the seat of the Baltic Sea Commission not Eevel, b^it Eipa. 

(JEIOIAX PROPOSAL. 

Article 7. All agreements concluded up to this time on separate 
portions of the front for the cessation of hostilities or for an armistice 
are swallowed up by the present contract and lose their validity. 

There are no objections to this. 

(JERJIAX PROPOSAL. 

Article 8. The Eussian forces that are in Maci-donia are included 
in the armistice. The Central Powers offer to transport them back 
to Eussia. 

OBJECTIONS OF the RUSSIAN DELEGATION. 

In view of th(> fact that the Eussian troops that are in Macedonia 
and P'rance are under the command of Allied Commanders in Chief 
concerned, this question must be the subject of a special agreement 
with the Allies. 

RIKSIAN PROPOSAL. 

Article 8. The (luestion of Eussian troojDs that are in Macedonia 
and France re(}aires ]ireliminary discussion between the (Jovernment 
of Eussia and the Pomci's in alliance with her. 

(iER!\rAN proposal. 

Articij': i>. Neutral Persia is evacuated ))y Turkish and Eussian 
forces. 

objection 01' THE RUSSIAN DELEGATION. 

Not considering it possible to occu]n- a neutral country with her 
troops, the Uus.-^ian Delegation presumes that an agreement must be 



SESSIONS OF 3 AND 4 DECEMBEE. 29 

made about this, not with Turkey or Germany, but \Yith Persia lier- 
self. 

EUSSIAX PROPOSAL. 

Article 9. The question of the evacuation of Peisiu requires a 
special agreement with Persia. 

GERMAN PROPOSAL. 

Article 10. The parties directly concerned in the signature of this 
Armistice Agreement enter on negotiations for peace. 
There are no objections. 

GEEMA X PR0P( )SAL. 

Article 11. Each (iiovernjnent of the two parties recinves a copy 
of this Agreement, signed by the plenipotentiai-y representatives. 
There are no objections. 



10. Session of 3 December. 

GER:\rAN account. 

rFroni the (British) Ddilij licricir of the l-'oreij/n Prcxn, 13 December, 1037, 

p. 341.] 

The negotiations with Eussia are described as follows in a seiui- 
official Berlin telegram via Amsterdam (Dec. 11) : 

It appeared on the exchange of credentials with the Russian dele- 
gation that had arrived at the Headqiuirters of the Chief Com- 
mander in the East that both cases were solely authorized to begin 
negotiations for an armistice and not for peace. The Russian dele- 
gation proposed a genei'al armistice for all armies and on all fronts. 
We could not accept this proposal, as Russia's Allies were neither 
represented nor had the Russian delegates been empowered to speak 
on their behalf. We therefore agreed to restrict the negotiatious 
to the conclusion of an armistice between the allied armies of the 
Central Powers and the Russian army. The Russians then ex- 
pressly emphasized that the object of the armistice should be an im- 
mediate entry into negotiations for a general peace between all the 
belligerents. The allied (Central Powers) plenipotentiaries took 
cognizance of this statement with satisfaction, but it was impossible 
immediately to enter upon the discussion of peace questions, as the 
credentials of neither party sufficed for this purpose. 



11. Session of 4 December. 

GERMAN account. 

[From the (British) Daily Review of the Fareiyn Press, 13 December, 1917, 

I). 341.] 

At the second day's meeting the Russian delegates communicated 
to us their armistice proposals. These conditions were in part quite 
astonishingly far-reaching in view of their military situation. The 
Russians demanded, for example, the e\ acuation of the islands in the 
Gulf of Riga, without on their part offering to withdraw their 



30 PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONPEBENCE. 

Iro'ips at any part of the front. Moreover, they wanted to prescribe 
that for the entire duration of the armistice of six months contem- 
plated bjr them we should leave our troops in the trenches on the 
Eastern front, not even their transference to rest quarters being 
permitted. To such conditions, of course, we could not agree. 

In the future discussion of individual points, however, it appeared 
that agreement was easily attainable on all questions save one. The 
sole i3oint for which we found no solution was the question of the 
islands in the Gulf of Eiga, the evacuation of which, of course, 
admits of no discussion. How easily an understanding in itself 
was attainable was shown at the point when the Russian delegates 
declared that they must get further instructions from Petrograd, 
for thereupon, in the shortest possible time and without encounter- 
ing any serious difficulties, we reached an agreement respecting the 
conditions of the ten days' truce, which is now in force. In this 
short-term agreement we should see a good presage for the future. 



GERMAN ACCOUKT, COXTINTJED. 

[From the (Britisli) DaUtt li'rririr of Ihc Farciiin 7'ir«.s', 7 Deoenilipr, 1917, 

p. 287.] 

An official niessaoe from Berlin {via Amsterdam, Dec. 5) states 
that the Russian deputation which had come to arrange the terms 
of an armistice was greeted yesterday afternoon at four o'clock by 
Prince Leopold of Bavaria. Commander-in-Chief in the East, with 
a short speech. 

Negotiations were then begun foi- the conclusion of an armistice. 
Those iDresent, under the presidency of the Chief of the General 
Staff. (General Hoffman, included representatives of the German 
land and sea forces and of the chief Army Commands of Bulgaria, 
Austria-Hungary, and Turkey. 

An official telegram from Vienna (via Amsterdam, Dec. ;">) says 
that the armistice negotiations with Russia were continued yester- 
day. 

A general discussion took place regarding individual points. A 
joint committee of deliberations was held during the afternoon. 
The next full sitting has been arranged for to-morrow morning. 



12. Si;ssiox OF 5 Deckmbek, 1917. 

RUSSIAX ACCOINT. 
[Fnim tliP (P.i-itisli) Ddily 7?<T(r(c of the Foirii/n /'cf.s-.v, 7 T )c<'ciiilier, ]017, 

)). -'01.1 

The following fo/irnnni!'/iu' on the progress of the armistice 
negotiations between the Bol.-lieviks and the enemy's military dele- 
gates, transmitted through the wireless stations of the Russian 
Government, was received (Dec. 0) : 



SESSION OF 5 DECEMBEE. 31 

On Dec. 5. at 10 a. m.. the Conference opened in the presenile 
of the representatives of Germany, Anstria-Hungary. Turlvey, anrt 
Bulgaria. Hinclenburg and Holzendorf have charged with the 
negotiations the Commander in Chief of the Eastern front. Prince 
Leopold of Bavaria, wlio, in his turn, has nominated his chief 
of staflF. General Hoffman. Other delegates have received similar 
authority from the Highest Cononander in Chief. The enemy dele- 
gation is exclusively military. 

Our delegates opened with a declaration concerning our peace 
aims, in view of which the armistice has been proposed. The enemy 
delegates replied that that was a question to be solved by the poli- 
ticians, that they were soldiers, having powers only to negotiate 
the conditions for an armistice, and that they could add nothing to 
the declaration made by Count Czernin and von Kiihlmann. 

Our delegates, taking due note of this evasive declaration, pro- 
posed that they shoulcl immediately address to all countries in- 
volved in the war — including Germany and her allies, and all States 
not represented at the conference a proposal to take part in tlie 
drawing up of an armistice on all fronts. 

The enemy delegates again replied evasiveh' that they did noc 
possess such powers. Our delegation then proposed that they 
should ask their Government for such authority. This proposal 
was accepted, but no reply was communicated to the Russian dele- 
gation up to 2 p. m. on Dec. 5. 

Our representatives submitted a project for an armistice on all 
fronts elaborated by our military experts. The principal points of 
this project were: 

1. An interdiction against sending over forces from our front to 
the fronts of our Allies; and 

•1. The retirement of the German detachments from the islands of 
the Moon S.onnd. 

The enemy delegation submitted a project for an armistice on the 
front from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea. The German proposal 
is being now examined by our military experts. The negotiations 
will be continued to-morrow morning. 

Our conditions are : 

1. The retirement of the German detachments from the Islands 
of the Moon Sound; and 

■1. An interdiction against sending over forces from our front to 
other fronts. 

The enenn- delegation declared such conditions unacceptable, and 
ex])ressed the opinion that such demands could be addressed only to 
a conquered country. On the categorical statement by our pleni- 
potentiaries that they were treating for an armistice on all fronts 
with a vieAV to the conclusion of a general democratic peace on the 
basis established by the All-Eussian Congress of the Councils, the 
enemy delegates again evasively replied that they could not con- 
sider the question in such a manner, because they were authorized 
at tlie present only to negotiate with the Eussian delegation, in view 
of the absence of the Allies of Russia from the conference. 

Our delegates again replied that their task consisted in drawing 
all belligerent countries to the negotiations for the purjjose of secur- 
ing a general peace. Having regard to the evasive replies of the 
enemy, our delegates, as already stated, have submitted the enemj' 



32 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE BKEST-LITOVSK CONFEEENCE. 

conditions for an armistice (o our military- cxj^ei'ts for their cviti- 
cis)n from n purely military point of view and in order that they 
may indicate in what respect modifications are necessai-y in the 
interests of onr armies and onr navv. from the Black Sea to the 
Baltic. 

The first point with regard to the pro])osed enemy armistice was 
the dnration of the armistice, which was at first indicated as being 
for a fortnight to begin from Dec. 8. 

After discussion, the (rerjuan delegates expi'cs^ed their readiness' 
for a prolongation to -28 days, and this terui may be auto- 
matically prolonged provided there is no refusal, which must be 
made seven days liefore the exiiiration of the armistice, which is to 
begin on Dec. 10, if our delegations leave Brest to-morrow; but, if 
they leave later, then the armistice will begin later accordingly. 
Before the commencement of the official armistice it must be defi- 
nitely established that hositilities will cease. 

Fi'om the liegihning our delegates have insisted on a true I'ecord 
of 'all negotiations and of their determination to publish them in 
their omtirety. The minutes and the language of the sessions are, on 
our side, in Russian, and Gerjuan for the- German side. A special 
conmrission has been created, which, after every session, comjiares 
both minutes. 

"We ha\ e made the request that the next meeting of the plenipo- 
tentiaries shall take place on Russian territory, and that there should 
be an interval of seven days in the negotiations in order that our dele- 
gation may return to Petro.aTad. 



RUSSIAN ArCdUX'l", CON'riNUEU. 

[From tile (Britisli) Dfiilij Hcvicir (if Uic Forrifiii J'lexft. S Deceiiil)er, 1917, 

p. 302.1 

A I'etrograd telegi'am (Dec. 5) completes the account of the nego- 
tiations at Brest-Litovsk for an armistice: 

Thus there took part in the negotiations delegates from all the 
enemy counti'ies. With the exception of Russia, no Allied State was 
represented at the negotiations. The peoples of the Allies ought to 
know that the negotiations have begun and that they will be con- 
tinued independently of the present action of Allied diplomacy. 
The negotiations, in which the Russia)i delegation is defining the 
conditions of a general democratic peace, alfecl the fate of all peoples 
including the peoples of the belligeiviits whose diplouutcy is holding 
aloof from the lu'gotiations. The peoples of the Allies, their Parlia- 
ments, and above all their Socialist parties, ought to decide if such 
conduct by their diplomacy is to their interests. Taking into consid- 
eration these interests the Russian Government announces that the 
]3rinci])al condition of the armistice is the nondispatch of troops 
from the Eastern front to the AVestern front. The armistice can not 
and must not benefit one militarism against another militarism. The 
interests of the peoples of the Allies can be successfidly defended 
only if the i^eoples of the Allies wi.sh to take part in the negotiations 
and «how their desire for an immediate armistice and a democratic 
pea '<'. 



SESSION OF 5 DECEMBEB. ' 33 



ANOTHER RUSSIAN ACCOUNT. 



[From the (British) Daily licrieir of the Forciyn Press, December 11, 1917, 

p. 325.] 

The Bolsheviks announce (December 8) that, according to the 
agreement signed at Brest-Litovsk on 5 December, military opera- 
tions from the Baltic to the Black Sea and on the Russo-Turkish 
front in Asia are suspended from 6 December to 17 December. This 
includes the German military forces in the Moon Sound islands. 
Both sides have the right of renewal if three days' warning is given. 
Flights by aircraft in the enemy's country and also ten versts within 
their own lines are stopped. During the armistice troops, numbering 
a division or more, may onlj- be moved if orders therefor had been 
given prior to 5 December. The next meeting takes place on 12 De- 
cember, also at Bi'est-Litovsk. 

According to Pravdu the Bolshevik delegation proposed an armis- 
tice for six months. Among other conditions they put forward the 
evacuation of the Gulf of Riga and Moon Sound by the naval forces 
of both sides. 

The Military Revolutionary Committee proclaims officials in Gov- 
ernment Departments and other institutions who strike to be enemies 
of the people. Their names are to be published in the organs of the 
Soviets and posted up in public places. The Connnittee declares 
" those who foster economic ruin and undermine the supplies of the 
army and the countr}' are outcasts and have no right to mercy." 

The chief Bolshevik delegate, Kamener, states (9 Decemiber) 
that the official regotiations at Brest-Litovsk were followed by a 
semiofficial exchange of views, at which the Germans finally agreed 
not to transfer troops to other fronts. 



ANOTHER RUSSIAN ACCOUNT. 

[From the (British) Daily Rcvieio of the Foreign Press, 10 December, 1917, 

p. 311.] 

A message from Petrograd (Dec. 6) states: 

The Commissioners announce that their plenipotentiaries at Brest- 
Litovsk proposed an armistice on all fronts, the prohibition of the 
transfer of troops from Russian to the Allied fronts, and the evacua- 
tion by the Germans of the Moon Sund islands. 

The German delegates proposed an armistice from the Baltic to 
the Black Sea. They rejected the conditions regarding the transfer 
of troops and the Moon Sund. They declined to discuss the pro- 
posed armistice on all fronts, as their mandate was restricted to 
pourparlers for an armistice with the Russian delegation. They 
agreed to an armistice for 28 days beginning on December 10, with 
automatic continuance in the absence of a seven days' notice of its 
repudiation. Military operations are to be suspended pending the 
beginning of the official armistice. The Russians proposed that the 
next meeting of the plenipotentiaries should be on Russian territory. 

Another account of the armistice proceedings adds that the next 
meeting of plenipotentiaries will take place in a week. 
90244—18 3 



34 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BREST-LITOVSK CONPEB.ENCE. 

The representatives of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and 
Bulgaria attended the conference at Brest-Litovsk, which was of an 
exclusively military character. General Hoffmann, Chief of the 
General Staff of Prince Leopold of Bavaria, was Germany's chief 
representative at the conference. The enemy delegates declined to 
discuss the objects of peace, declaring that they had only been 
authorized to treat with the military conditions of the armistice. 
They also declined the Russian proposal that the members of the 
conference should immediately invite all belligerents to participate 
in the formation of conditions for an armistice. It was, however, 
agreed to telegraph to the respective Governments for instructions 
in this connection. The German delegates qualified the Russian 
conditions as absolutely unacceptable. Such proposals could only 
be made if Germany were beaten. General Hoffmann is described as 
being ^ery indignant, and as having said to one of the Russian 
delegates, " If you rej^eat these conditions we will fight." 



13. Trotsky's Note to the Allies. 

[l''rom the (British) Duily Review of the Foreign Press, 10 December, 1917, 

p. 311.] 

News transmitted through the wireless stations of the Russian 
Government says : 

To-day (Dec. 6) the People's Commissary for Foreign Affairs has 
sent to all the Allied Embassies and Legations the following note: 

The negotiations opened by the delegates of Germtiny, Austria-Hungary, 
Turltey, and Bulgaria, on the one side, and the delegates of Russia, on the other 
side, have been interrrtpted, on the initiat ve of our delegation, for a week, with 
thf? purpose of providing the opportunity during this period of informing the 
peoples and Governments of the Allied countries on the existence of such 
negotiations and on their tendency. 

From Russia's side it has been arranged to declare that the proposed armi- 
stice has for its object the preparation of a peace on a democratic basis as 
i>xpressed in the manifesto by the AU-Russian Congress of the Councils of the 
Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates. 

The armistice can be signed only under the conditions that the troops will 
not be sent from one front to another and that the Islands of the Moon Sounds 
must be cleared by Germans. 

Concerning the aims of the war, the enemy delegates evaded a definite reply, 
indicating that they had been authorized to negotiate exclusively on the mili- 
tary side of the (proposed?) armistice and not concerning the question of a 
general armistice, the delegates of the opposite side declined, on the ground 
that they did not possess powers for dec'ding a general armistice with the 
countries whose delegates are not taking part in the conference. 

The dele;;ates of the opposite side proposed in their turn an armistice on the 
rront from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sen, the duration of this armist'ce to 
be twenty-eiglit days, At the same time the delegates of the opposite side 
promised tn transmit to their respective Governments the projio-'-als made by 
the Russian delegation to invite all belligerent countries (that is, all Allied 
countries except Russia) to take part in the negotiations. Our delegation re- 
fusrd to sign at this .stage of the negotiations a formal armistice, and it was 
ii('(i'!('d again (o .sus])end all hostile activities for a weclc and to interrupt for 
Ihi s.'ime peri'id the negotiaticms on an armistice. 



SESSION OF 13 DECEMBER. 35 

As a result, a period of over one montli will exist between the first decree of 
Nov. 8 by the Council's authority concerning peace and the moment of the con- 
tinuation of the peace negotiations on Dec. 12. This period is, even for the 
present disturbed state of international communication, amply sufficient to afford 
the Allied Governments the opportunity to define their ;ittitude toward the peace 
negotiations; that is, the r willingness or their refusal to take part in the nego- 
tiations for an armistice and peace. In the case of a refusal, they must declare 
clearly and definitely before all mankind the aims for which the peoples of 
Europe may have to lose their blood during a fourth year of war. 

L. Teotskt, 
People's Commissioner for Foreign Affairs. 



14. Session of 5 Decembee. 

german account. 

[From the (British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, 8 December, 1917, p. 

298.1 

German wireless states (Dec. 6) : 

On Dec. 5 the authorized representatives of the Chief Army Ad- 
ministration of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria 
concluded in writing with the authorized representatives of the 
Russian Chief Army Administration a suspension of the hostilities 
for ten days for the whole of the mutual fronts. The beginning is 
fixed for Dec. 7, at noon. The ten days' period will be utilized in 
bringing to a conclusion the negotiations for an armistice. 

For the purpose of reporting verbally regarding the results, a por- 
tion of the members of the Russian deputation has retuined home 
for a few days. The sittings of the Commission continue. 



15. Session of 13 Decembee. 

geeman account. 

[From the (British) Dailii Review of the Foreign Press, 15 December, 1917, 

p. 359.] 

A Berlin official telegram via Amstei'dam (Dec. 13) says that the 
Russian Delegation again arrived at Brest-Litovsk on Dec. 12, as 
prearranged, for the continuation of the armistice negotiations. The 
next plenary sitting of the plenipotentiaries was to be held this 
morning. 

An official telegram from Vienna says that the negotiations for an 
armistice on all the Russian fronts were resumed again this morning. 

ANOTHEB GEEMAN ACCOUNT. 

[From the (British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, 17 December, 1917, 

p. 367.] 

A Berlin telegram via Amsterdam (14 December) officially an- 
nounces that plenary sittings took place at Brest-Litovsk in the morn- 
ing and afternoon of 13 December. The details of both armistice 
proposals were thoroughly discussed. The negotiations are to be 
continued on 14 December.* 

• No account of a session on 14 Deccmljei' has been found. 



36 proceedings of the brest- litovsk conference. 

16. Session of 15 December. 

GERMAN account. 
[From the (British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, 18 December, 1917, 

p. 380.] 

A German wireless (16 December) gives the following account of 
the armistice concluded with Russia: 

The armistice agreement was signed at Brest Litovsk on 15 Decem- 
ber by the plenipotentiary representatives of the Russian Higher 
iVrmy Administration on the one hand and those of the Higher Army 
Administration of Germanv, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and 
Turkey on the other hand. The Armistice begins at noon on 17 
December and remains in force until 14 January, 1918. Unless seven 
days notice is given it continues in force automatically. It extends 
to all the land, air, and naval forces of the. common fronts. Accord- 
ing to Clause 9 of the Treaty, peace negotiations begin immediately 
after the signing of the armistice.* 

17. Russian Proclamation of 15 December. 

[From the (British) Duily Review of the Foreign Press, 18 December, 1917, 

p. 380.] 

A Russian wireless (16 December) gives the following proclama- 
tion by the Commander in Chief: 

To all Commanders of the North, West, South, and the Caucasus. 
To all Commissioners of the North, West, South, and the Caucasus. 
To all Army Military Revolutionary Committees. 
To the Revolutionary Military Committees at the Headquarters. 
To all at the Front. 

In consequence of the signing of the Armistice Treaty, which will 
iDcgin to operate at 2 o'clock in the morning at 17 December of 
this year, I propose, until receiving the full text of the Treaty, to 
cease all military operations (No. 7604). 

Signed by the High Commander Kei'lenko. 
Confirmed. 

Commander Bauevitch. 
15 Decejibee, 1917. 

18. Session or 22 Dec'ejiber. 

GERMAN ACCOUNT. t 

[From the (British) Dailij Review of the Foreign Press. 25 December, 1917.] 

According to a telegram from Vienna via Amsterdam (Dec. 22), 
the newspapers there learn from well-informed quarters that Count 
Czernin, the Austro-Hungarian Minister of Foreign Affairs, and his 
staff arrived at Brest-Litovsk at noon on Thursday last. 

Count Czernin was received at the railway station by the Chief of 
the General Staff of the Supreme Army Command in the East. 

♦The first session of the peace confcrcnci' look place iin 22 Di'ccniber, 11)17, at Brest- 
LltOTSk. 

t The Deutscher Reiohaanneiger of 24 December, 1017, contains an account practically 
Irtentlcnl with this. 



SESSION OF 22 DECEMBER. 37 

The first meeting of the Russian plenipotentiaries took place at a 
dinner and was of a friendly character. The formal peace negotia- 
tions will not begin until early next week, as the German, Turkisv-. 
and Bulgarian delegates only arrived at Brest-Litovsk yesterday anfi 
to-day, therefore only informal discussions are taking place. 

A telegram from Brest-Litovsk, dated Dec. 22, says : 

The German Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Baron von 
Kiihlmann, with his suite^ arrived there on Friday evening, simulta- 
neously with the Bulgarian delegation. The same evening Baron 
von Kiihlmann met the representatives of the four Central Powers 
and the Russian delegates. On Dec. 22, at 4 o'clock in the after- 
noon, peace negotiations were opened at a solemn sitting, attended 
by the following representatives: For Germany — Baron von Kiihl- 
mann, Herr von Rosenberg, Baron von Hoesch, General Hoffmann, 
and Major Brinckmann; for Austria-Hungary — the Foreign Minis- 
ter, Count Czernin ; Herr von Merey ; Freiherr von Wieser, Minister 
of Commerce ; Count CoUeredo ; Count Csaky ; Lieutenant Field Mar- 
shal von Csiscerics; Lieutenant Pokorny; and Major von Glaise; 
for Bulgaria — M. Popoff, Minister of Justice ; M. Kosseff, Secretary 
to the Minister of Foreign Affairs; M. Stoyaonvitch, Director Gen- 
eral of Posts and Telegraphs; Colonel Gantjeff; and Doctor Anas- 
tasoff; for Turkey — Nessimy Bey, Minister for Foreign Affairs; 
Ibrahim Hakki Pasha; Rechad Hikmet Bey, Under Secretary of 
State for Foreign Affairs ; and Geperal Zeki Pasha ; for Russia — MM. 
Joffe, Kamenefi, Bizenko, Pokrovsky, Karachan, Lubinski, Weltman, 
Pavlovitch, Admiral W. M. Altvater, General Samoiilo, Colonel 
Fokke, Colonel Zeplitt, and Captain Lipsky. 

In his capacity as Commander in Chief of the Eastern front. Prince 
Leopold of Bavaria welcomed the representatives of the four Cen- 
tral Powers and Russia in a speech in which, in reference to the 
favorable and successful results of the armistice negotiations, he 
expressed the confident hope that the negotiations which had begun 
might speedily lead to a peace which would bless all peoples. Prince 
Leopold then invited Hakki Pasha, as senior representative, to open 
the negotiations. Hakki Pasha thanked Prince Leopold for that 
honor, welcomed the delegates, and opened the negotiations by ex- 
pressing his best wishes for a prosperous result. He proposed Baron 
von Kiihlmann as First President of the negotiations, which was 
unanimously adopted. Baron von Kiihlmann said: 

It is for the country I represent and for me a great honor to preside ac- 
cording to the decision of the Conference at the first sitting at which the 
representatives of the four Central Allied Powers meet the delegates of the Rus- 
sian people for the purpose of terminating the war and reestablishing a state 
of peace and friendship between Russia and the Powers represented. In view 
of the situation, there can be no question of preparing in the course of the 
deliberations, which are now opened, an instrument of peace elaborated in its 
smallest details. What I have in my mind is fixing the most important princi- 
ples and conditions on which peaceful and neighborly intercourse, especially in 
cultural and economic respects, can speedily be reestablished, and deciding 



38 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BREST- LITOVSK CONFERENCE. 

upon the best means to heal the wounds caused by the war. Our negotiations 
will be guided by a spirit of placable humanity and mutual esteem. They 
must take into account, on the one hand, what has become historical in order 
not to lose our footing on the firm ground of facts, but, on the other hand, they 
must also be inspired by that new great leading motive (LeitgeOanke), which 
has brought us here together. I may regard as an auspicious circumstance that 
our negotiations begin in sight of that festival which for many centuries past 
has promised peace on earth and good will to men. I enter into these nego- 
tiations with the sincere wish that our worli may maiie speedy and prosperous 
progress. 

On the President's proposal the following decisions were arrived 
at: Questions of precedence will be decided according to the alpha- 
betical list of represented Powers. The plenary sittings will be 
alternately presided over by the chief representative of each of 
the five powers. German, Bulgarian, Russian, and Turkish are 
admitted as languages to be used in debate. Questions which interest 
only some of the represented Powers can be discussed among the 
representatives in question in special negotiations. The official re- 
ports of the proceedings will be drafted jointly. On the President's 
invitation, the chief Eussian representative, in a long speech, stated 
the principles of the Eussian peace program, which coincided on 
the whole with the well-known resolutions of the Workmen's and 
Soldiers' Council and the AU-Eussian Peasants' League. The rep- 
resentatives of the four allied Central Powers declared their readi- 
ness to begin the examination of the Eussian program. The re- 
sult of the examination will be discussed at the next sitting. 



19. Session of 22 December. 

ETJSSIAN account. 

[From the (British) Daily Review of the Foreign Prcfis. 27 December, 1917, 

p. 440.] 

Pra/vda (23 December) states: 

At four o'clock on Saturday, 22 December, the first public sitting 
of the delegates was opened by Prince Leopold of Bavaria. Germany 
was represented by Baron von Kiihlmann, Secretary of State for 
Foreign Affairs, Austria-Hungary by Count Czemin, Turkey by the 
Grand Vizier, and Bulgaria by M. Popov, Minister of Justice'. Baron 
von Kiihlmann proposed that each delegation in its turn should 
preside. 

Our delegation demanded and obtained publicity for the sittings 
and the right to publish the protocols. The Eussian delegation, in 
conformity with the clearly expressed wish of the Eussian revolu- 
tionary peoples to arrive as soon as possible at the conclusion of a 
general democratic peace, considers that the only principles of a 
peace equally acceptable for all are the principles enunciated in the 
peace decree which was accepted unanimously by the Congress of 
Russian Peasants. The Eussian delegation "proposes to base the 
peace pourparlers on the six following points : 

(1) The union Ijy violence of territories conquered during the 
war will not be tolerated. The troops in occupied territories shall 
evacuate them within a brief time. 



SESSION OP 25 DECEMBER. 39 

(2) The entire restoration of the political independence of peoples 
who have been deprived of their independence during the course of 
the present war. 

(3) The groups of different nationalities \Yhich did not enjoy 
political independence before the war shall have guaranteed to them 
the right of deciding freely the question of Avhether they shall belong 
to one State or another, or shall enjoy national independence by 
means of a referendum. At the referendum entire liberty- to vote 
shall be given to all inhabitants of the respective territories, includ- 
ing refugee immigrants. 

(4) In territories inhabited by different nationalities, the rights 
of minorities shall be guaranteed, with special rights of national in- 
dependence regarding culture and administrative autonomy. 

(5) No belligerent country shall pay an indemnity. In regard to 
j^o-called costs of war, payments already made shall be returned. As 
for indemnities levied on private persons, special funds shall be con- 
stituted by proportional payments from all belligerent countries. 

(6) Colonial questions shall be settled in conformity with the 
first, second, third, and fourth clauses. 

The Russian delegation also regards as intolerable any restriction 
of the liberty of weaker nations bj' stronger, such as an economic 
boycott, the subjection of one country to another by means of the 
imposition of commercial treaties, and separate customs conventions 
hindering freedom of commerce with a third country. 

After this declaration, Baron von Kiihlmann stated that the other 
delegations required an interval to consider their reply. It was 
accordingly decided that the delegation should adjourn until four 
o'clock 24 December.* 

20. Session of 26 December. 

GEEMAN account. 
[From the (Briti.sh) Daily Reriav of the Foreign P)'css, 29 Deceml)er, 1917. t] 
A telegram from Brest-Litovsk (dated Dec. 25) via Vienna says: 

At the sitting of Dec; 22 the Russian Delegation had declared that 
it started from the standpoint of the clearly expressed will of the 
peoples of Russia to attain as soon as possible the conclusion of a 
general and just peace, equally acceptable to all. Appealing to the 
resolution of the All-Russian Congress of Workmen and Soldiers' 
Deputies and the All-Russian Peasant Congress, the Russian Delega- 
tion pointed out that it considered the continuation of the war merely 
with the object of annexations a crime. 

Starting from these principles, it proposed that the peace negotia- 
tions should be based on the following six points: 

(1) No forcible union of territories conquered during the war shall 
be permitted. The troops occupying such territories shall be with- 
drawn within the shortest period. 

(2) The political independence of peoples that have lost their 
independence during the war shall be restored in its fullest extent. 

* The second meeting of the peace conference, which had been fixed for 24 December, 
was postponed until the following day. [Daily Review of the Foreign Press (British), 
28 December, p. 446.] , 

t The Deutscher Reichsanseiger of 27 December, 1917, contains an account practically 
Identical with this. 



40 PROCEEDINGS OP THE BREST-LITOVSK CONFEEENCE. 

(3) National groups which before the war were not politicallj' 
independent shall be guaranteed the possibility of deciding by refer- 
endum the question of belonging to one State or another, or enjoying 
their political independence; this referendum must be arranged in 
such a manner that complete independence in voting is guaranteed 
for the entire population of the region in question, including emi- 
grants and refugees. 

(4) In regard to territory, of mixed nationality, the right of the 
minority shall be protected by special law giving it independence of 
natural culture and, if practicable, autonomous administration. 

(5) None of the belligerent countries shall be obliged to pay an- 
other country any so-called war costs. Contributions already levied 
are to be paid back. Regarding the indemnification of losses suffered 
by private persons in consequence of the war, these shall be met out 
of a special fund, to which the belligerents shall proportionally con- 
tribute. 

(6) Colonial questions shall be decided in conformity with the 
principles laid down in points 1 to 4. 

Supplementing the foregoing, the Russian Delegation proposed to 
the contracting parties to brand every kind of covert combating of 
the freedom of weak nations by strong as not permissible, as, for 
example, by economic boycott, economic predominance of one coun- 
try over another on the ground of forced commercial treaties, by 
special tariff treaties which restrict freedom of trade with a third 
country, or by a sea blockade which does not pursue a direct war 
aim, etc. 

At the plenary sitting held to-day Count Czernin, who presided, 
made the following statement in the name of the Delegations of the 
Quadruple Alliance: 

The Delegations of the Allied Powers proceed from the clearly expressed will 
of their Governments and peoples to reach as soon as possible the conclusion 
of a general and just peace. The Delegations of the Allies are (in accord with 
the repeatedly announced standpoint of their Governments) of opinion that the 
main lines iLeitmtxe) of the Russian proposals form a discussible basis for 
such a peace. The Delegations of the Quadruple Alliance are in accord with 
an immefliate general peace without forcible acquisitions of territory and with- 
out war indemnities. When the Russian Delegation condemns a war prose- 
cuted only for purposes of conquest, the Delegations of the Allies are in accord 
with its view. The statesmen of the Allied Governments in their programmes 
have repeatedly emi:>hasized that the Allies would not prolong the war a day 
in order to make conquests. The Governments of the Allies have without 
deviation adhered to this standpoint. They solemly declare their determina- 
tion to sign without delay a peace that will end this war on the foregoing basis 
without exception and with the same just conditions for all the belligerent 
Powers. It must, however, be expressly pointed out that all the Powers now 
participating in the war must within a suitable period, without exception and 
without any reserve, bind themselves to the most precise adherence to condi- 
tions binding all nations in the same manner, if the suppositions of the Rus- 
sian exposd are to be fulfilled; for it would not do for the Powers of the Quad- 
ruple Alliance negotiating with Russia one-sidedly to tie themselves to these 
conditions without a guaranty that Russia's Allies will recognize and will 
carry out these conditions honestly and without reserve also as regards the 
Quadruple Alliance. 



SESSION OF 25 DECEMBBE. 41 

This having been stated beforeliand, the following observations must be 
made regarding the six points which are proposed by the Russian Delegation 
as a bfisis for negotiations. 

(1) It is not the intention of the Allied Governments to appropriate forcibly 
territories A\hich are at present occupied. The question of the troops in occu- 
pied territories must be settled in the sense of the withdrawal of troops from 
such and such places. 

(2) It is not the intention of the Allies to rob of its independence any of the 
nations which in the course of this war have lost their political independence. 

(3) The question of the State allegiance of national groups which possess no 
State independence can not, in the opinion of the Quadruple Alliance, be regu- 
lated as between States, but is, if required, to be solved by every State with its 
peoples independently in a constitutional manner. 

(4) Likewise, according to the declaration of the statesmen of the Quad- 
ruple Alliance, protection of the right of minorities forms an essential com- 
ponent part of the constitutional right of peoples to self-determination. The 
Allied Governments also grant validity to this principle everywhere in so far as 
it is practically realizable. 

(5) The Allied Pov.-ers have frequently emphasized the possibility that not 
only could both sides renounce indemnification for war costs, but also indemnifi- 
cation for war damage. Accordingly, every belligerent Power would only have 
to indemnify for the expenditure for its nationals who have become prisoners 
of war, as well as for damoge done in their own territory by illegal acts of 
force committed against civilian nationals belonging to the enemy. The Rus- 
sian Government's proposal for the creation of a special fund for this purpose 
';ould only be taken into consideration if other belligerent Powers were within 
a suitable period to join in the peace negotiations. 

(6) Regarding this point Germany is the only one of the four allied Powers 
that disposes of overseas colonics. (_>n this subject the German delegation, in 
full accord with the Russian proposa.ls, makes the following declaration : 

The return of colonial territory, forcibly occupied and captured during the 
war, is an essential component part of the German demands, which, under no 
■iircumstances, can be departed from. The Russian demand for the speedy evacu- 
ation of such regions as are occupied bythe enemy likewise corresponds with 
German views. In view of the nature of the German colonial territory, the 
form proposed by the. Delegation on the basis of the principle previously dis- 
cussed, seems at present impracticable. The fact thatt he natives of the 
German colonies, despite the greatest difficulties and the slight prospects of 
success in the struggle against anenemy many times superior, and disposing 
of unlimited overseas reinforcements, have, through thick and thin, loyally 
adhered to their German friends, is proof of their attachment and their resolve 
under all circumstances to remain wtih Germany, a proof which in seriousness 
and in weight far exceeds every possible demonstrations ofw ishes by voting. 
The principles for economic intercourse propounded by the Russian Delegation 
In association with the six points just discussed meets with the unconditional 
agreement of the Delegations of the Allied Powers, which have always advo- 
cated the exclusion of all economic oppression, and which see in the restoration 
of a regular economic intercourse, which takes fully into account the interests 
of all concerned, one of the important requisites for consolidating friendly 
relations between the present belligerents. 

Following this declaration, Count Czernin, basing himself on the 
principles just laid down, said: 

We are ready to enter into negotiations with all our enemies ; but, in order 
to avoid unnecessary loss of time, the Allies are ready to enter upon the con- 
sideration of those special points the examination of which seems in any case 
\ecessary for both the Russian Government and the Allies. 

The leader of the Russian Delegation replying, said : 



42 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BREST-LITOVSK CONrEEBNCE. 

The Delo;4-ation notes with satistiictiou that the i-eiiiy of the Delegations of 
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey aecepted the principles of a 
general democratic peace without annexations. The Delegation recognizes the 
enormous importance of this advance on the road to a general peace. It must, 
however, observe that the reply contains an important reservation on point 
three. The Ku.ssian Delegation has fui'ther noted with satisfaction in the 
declaration of the four allied Powers on point five the recognition of the 
principle of no indemnities. It has made a reservation, however, regarding 
indemnification for the support of war prisoners. 

The Eussian Delegation further declared that it attached impor- 
tance to the indemnification from an international fund of private 
persons who have suffered from acts of war. The Delegation also 
recognized that the evacuation b} the enem_y of occupied German 
colonies corresponds to the principles it has laid down, and it pro- 
poses that the question whether the principle of the free expression 
of the people's will is applicable to colonies should be reserved 
for a special commission. Finally, the head of the Russian Delega- 
tion declared that, despite the differences mentioned, the Delegation 
is of opinion that the frank statement contained in the reply of the 
four allied Powers, namely, that no aggressive intentions are enter- 
tained, offers a real possibility of an immediate start with the nego- 
tiations for a general peace betAveen the belligerent States. The 
Russian Delegation therefore proposed that negotiations be inter- 
rupted for ten days from Dec. 2.') until Jan. 4 so that the peoples 
whose Governments have not yet joined in the negotiations pro- 
ceeding here for a general peace may have an opportunity of making 
themselves acquainted with the principles of such a peace as now set 
forth. After the expiry of this period the negotiations must under 
all circumstances be continued. 

Count Czemin then asked the Russian Delegation to present its 
answer in writing and proposed an immediate start with the nego- 
tiations on those special points which in any case have to be settled 
between the Russian Government and the Governments of the Allied 
Powers. The head of the Russian Delegation agreed to Count Czer- 
nin's proposal and expressed his readiness immediately to enter upon 
a discussion of those points which in the event of general peace 
negotiations would have to form the object of special discussions 
between Russia and the four Allies. On the proposal of Baron von 
Kiihlmann, it was unanimously decided, v^ith a view to avoiding all 
loss of time and in regard to the importance of the task to be ful- 
filled, to begin these negotiations to-morrow morning (Dec. 26). 



21. Session of 25 December. 

eitssia^' accodn't. 

[From the (Briti.sh) Diiiln Reriew of the Forckm I'rcxst. -IW December, 1917, 

p. 455.] 

Prarda (Dec. 26) states that with regard to the German reply on 
the third of the points laid down by the Russian delegation as the 
basis for peace negotiations, the Russian delegation pointed out that 
the German reply contained a rcsevA'ation. 

The abolition of annexation is the logical consequence of the o-en- 
eral principle of the right of peoples to regulate their own destinies. 



SESSION OF 28 DEOEMBEE. 43 

This right is recognized in existing constitutions only in a small 
degree, and consequently to speak of constitutional channels as the 
sole means to achieve this right is to nullify this principle. It must 
be said that the Four Allied Powers, while they agree not to apply 
the right of the strongest in territories occupied during the war, never- 
theless do nothing for small nationalities in their own territory. The 
war can not come to an end without the restoration of independence 
to small nationalities. The Eussian Delegation, as formerly, insists 
on the_ rights of these nations being protected in the peace treaty. 
Historical prescription does not justify one people being subservient 
to another. 



22. Session of 26 December. 

[From the (British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, Enemy Press Supple- 
ment, 10 January, 1918, p. 419.] 

Following the agreement made yesterday, deliberations took place 
to-day between the representatives of Germany and Austria-Hungary 
on the one side and of Eussia on the other, the essential part of 
which was concerned with the restoration of trade communications 
(Verkehr) between the Powers named. The deliberations will be con- 
tinued. 



23. Session or 27 December. 

[From the (British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, Enemy Press Supple- 
ment, 10 January, 1918, p. 419.] 

The deliberations of the Delegations of the Allies with the Eepre- 
sentatives of Eussia were continued in the course of to-day also. The 
deliberations have been carried so far forward that a short interrup- 
tion of the negotiations can be contemplated, in order that the Dele- 
gations, some of which, have to get into touch with their authorities 
at home, may have the opportunity to do so. 



24. Session op 28 December. 

GiaiMAN account. 

[From the (British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, 1 January, 1918.*] 

A telegram from Brest-Litovsk (via Berlin, dated Dec. 28) says: 

In the course of to-day's discussion between the delegations of 
the Allies and Eussia, the provisional discussion was terminated 
of those points which in the event of a general peace would have to 
be settled between Eussia and these Powers. The discussions were 
conducted in a spirit of conciliatoriness and mutual understanding. 
On the whole series of important points a basis of agreement was 
reached. Besides political questions, legal and economic questions 
were satisfactorily settled under reserve of examination by the 
home authorities. 

* The Deutscher Reichacmzeiger of 29 December, 1917, contains an account practically 
identical with this. 



44 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFERENCE. 

Firstly, an agreement was reached regarding the restoration of 
the treaty situation {Vertragszustand) interrupted by the war. 
Further, it was agreed that both legally and economically one 
country should not be treated by another worse than any third 
country which can not appeal to treaty rights. War laws {Kriegs- 
gesetze) are to be abolished and those affected restored to their 
previous rights or indemnified. 

The rules settling war costs and war damage were defined in 
more detail. An agreement was reached about damage accruing to 
civilians outside the war area. An agreement in principle was 
reached regarding the reciprocal liberation and sending home of 
war prisoners and interned civilians. The same applies to the re- 
turn by each party of merchant ships. 

Finally, provision was made for the speedy ^resumption of diplo- 
matic and consular relations. In the economic field there was com- 
plete agreement about the immediate stoppage of economic war, the 
restarting of commercial intercourse, and the establishment of an 
organized exchange of commodities. 

Substantial agreement has been reached regarding the basis on 
which the economic relations of the two countries should be perma- 
nently settled. 

Eegarding the important question of the treatment of occupied 
territories, the Russians made the following proposal : 

In full accord with the public declarations of both contracting parties that 
they cherish no bellicose plans and that they desire to conclude peace without 
annexations, Russia will withdraw her troops from all parts of Austria-Hun- 
gary, Turkey, and Persia occupied by her, while the Powers of the Quadruple 
Alliance will withdraw theirs from Poland, Lithuania, Courland, and other 
regions of Russia. In accordance with the principles of the Russian Govern- 
ments, which has declared the right of all peoples living In Russia to self- 
determination, including even separation, the populations in these districts will 
be given an opportunity within the shortest possible period of deciding entirely 
and freely the question of their union with one or other empire or of their 
formation into independent States. In this connection the presence of any troops, 
apart from the national or local militia, in the territories which are voting 
is not permissible. Until this question Is decided the Government of these 
regions will remain in the hands of representatives of the local population, 
elected democratically. The date of evacuation in other circumstances and the 
commencement of the demobilisation of the army Is to be fixed by a special 
military commission. 

Germany then proposed to give the following form to the two first 
articles of the preliminary treaty which is to be concluded : 

(1) Russia and Germany are to declare the state of war at an end. Both 
nations are resolved to live together in future in peace and friendship. On the 
condition of complete reciprocity vis-a-vis her allies, Germany would be ready, 
as soon as peace is concluded with Russia and the demobilisation of the Rus- 
sian Armies has been accomplished, to evacuate her present positions and 
occupied Russian territory, in so far as no different inferences result from 
Art. 2. 

(2) The Russian Government having, in accordance with its principles, pro- 
claimed for all peoples without exception living within the Russian Empire 
the right of self-determination, including complete separation, takes cognizance 
of the decisions expressing the will of the people demanding full State inde- 



SESSION OF 28 DECEMBER. 45 

pendence and separation from the Russian Empire for Poland, Litliuania, Cour- 
land, and portions of Estlionia and Livonia. Tlie Russian Government recog- 
nizes that in the present circumstances these manifestations must be regarded 
as the expression of the will of the people and is ready to draw conclusions 
therefrom. As in those districts to which the foregoing stipulations apply, the 
question of evacuation is not such as Is provided for in Art. 1, a special Com- 
mission shall discuss and fix the time and other details in conformity with the 
Russian idea of the necessary ratification by plebiscite, on broad lines, and 
without any military pressure whatever, of the already existing proclamations 
of separation. 

The Austrian Delegation made a similar statement. 
The Russian Delegation took cognizance of these statements and 
defined their standpoint as follows : 

Our standpoint is that only such a manifestation of will can be regarded as 
de facto the expression of the will of the people as results from a free vote 
taken in the districts in question with complete absence of foreign troops. We 
therefore propose, and must insist, that clearer and more precise formulation 
of this point be made. We, however, consent to a special commission being 
appointed for the examination of the technical conditions for the realization of 
such a referendum and also for the fixing of a definite time for evacuation. In 
view of the course which the negotiations have hitherto taken, it can be stated 
with satisfaction that as regards the settlement of the most important ques- 
tions the views of the represented Powers tally on many points, while as 
regards others their views approach each other, so that also regarding the latter 
points the hope of arriving at an agreement is well founded. 

A further telegram from Brest-Litovsk (via Berlin, dated Dec. 
29) says: 

To-day's sitting, the third, and last before the adjournment until 
Jan. 4, was opened by the Bulgarian Minister of Justice, M. Popoff, 
who, referring to the significance of the peace negotiations as promis- 
ing a basis for a new era in the development of International Law, 
said that humanity owed much to the Quadruple Alliance and to the 
delegation from Russia, which represented the sense of justice of the 
great Russian people. M. Popoff then asked M. loffe, the leader 
of the Russian delegation, to preside at the meeting. 

M. loffe, who then took the chair, pointed out that it was resolved 
at the last plenary session, after the discussion of certain special 
questions between the representatives of the Quadruple Alliance and 
Russia, to fix Jan. 1 (new style) for the next full meeting. In 
accordance with the decisions arrived at during, the present delibera- 
tions, to-day's sitting will be the last until Jan. 4, 1918. 

H. H. Ibrahim Halfki Pasha then asked leave to speak in order to 
address a few words to the meeting before the interval of six days 
which was to ensue. He pointed out that the hope he expressed at 
the opening of the Conference that he would soon see a satisfactory 
end to their labors had shown itself not to have been too bold. 
Almost all the difficult questions which have arisen out of three and 
a half years of war had been discussed and examined. It may be 
said that the majority of them are to-day on the way toward a prac- 
tical solution. A very satisfactory result had been obtained during 
the six days of negotiations. Thanks were due to the Russian dele- 
gation for this outcome of the deliberations, during which they have 



46 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE BREST-LITOVSK CONFEEENOE. 

shown such frankness, fairness, and practical good sense. These 
Enssian gentlemen have proved that they are both good diplomatists 
and good statesmen. In conclusion, Hakki Pasha wished the mem- 
bers of the Russian delegation a safe return home, and expressed the 
hope that he would see them safely back again on the day fixed. 

The leader of the Russian delegation also expressed the opinion 
that the negotiations entered upon had made a good beginning and 
led to the hope that this devastating war would soon come to an end. 
"In the interval now commencing," concluded M. loffe, "we shall 
all have the feeling that we have at the back of us millions of suffer- 
ing people who are looking for the termination of the war. Con- 
scious of this responsibility before our peoples, before humanity, 
and before history, we cherish the hope and mner strength that we 
shall find a way to general peace. In this hope I declare the sitting 
closed." 

25. RiTPTTJEE OF Negotiations. 

RUSSIAN ACCOUNT. 

[Prom the (British.) Daily Rcciew of the Foreign Press, 5 January, 1918, 

p. 501.] 

Pravda (Jan. 3) announces: 

Comrade Joffe, President of the Russian Delegation, sent (Jan. 
2) to the Presidents of the German, Austro-Hungarian, Bulgarian, 
and Turkish Delegations the following telegram : 

The Government of the Russian Republic considers it urgent that the peace 
pourparlers should be ultimately conducted on neutral territory, and proposes 
that they be transferred to Stockholm. 

The Delegation awaits a reply on this subject at Petrograd. 

In so far as the proposal of Dec. 25 by the German and Austrian Delega- 
tions is concerned, at least in the draft containing the two first articles, The 
Government of the Russian Republic, as well as the Central Executive Commit- 
tee of the Soviets, in full agreement with the opinion expressed by our Dele- 
gation, considers the proposal to be contrary to the principle of free national 
self-determination even in the limited formula of the reply of the Quadruple 
Alliance to the President of the Peace Delegation. 

(Signed) Joffe. 

26. Rupture or Negotiations. 

GERMAN ACCOUNT. 

[From the (British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, 8 January, 1918, 

p. 524.] 

An official communique issued from Berlin (5 January) states 
that the Brest-Litovsk negotiations have been temporarily broken pff. 

This decision was taken at the Crown Council, for which Hinden- 
burg and Ludendorff came specially to Berlin to-day. 

German wireless reports from Brest-Litovsk (4 January) : 

Owing to the Russian demand for a transfer of the Brest-Litovsk 
negotiations to Stockholm, the pence negotiations have been tem- 
porarily broken off by the Quadruple Powers. The Russian peace 



KTJSSIANS DECIDE TO EETTJEN TO BEBST-LITOVSK. 47 

delegates, in spite of the agreement, have not returned to Brest- 
Litovsk from Petrograd. 

A telegram from Brest-Litovsk (via Amsterdam, 7 January) 
reports that the following joint wireless message has been sent to 
Comrade Joffe, the President of the Russian peace delegation, by 
Bahon von Klihlmann, Count Czernin, M. Popoff, and Nassimi Bey, 
the heads of the respective delegations of the Quadruple Alliance : 

In their reply to the proposals of the Russian delegation the 
delegations of the Central Powers outlined on 25 December at Brest- 
Litovsk certain guiding principles for the conclusion of an imme- 
diate general peace. In order, however, to avoid any one-sided com- 
mitment they expressly made the validity of these guiding princi- 
ples dependent upon the obligation that all the Powers engaged in 
the war, without exception and without reserve, should within a 
suitable period bind themselves strictly to observe these conditions, 
which were equally binding upon all peoples. With the consent of 
the four allied delegations, the Russian delegation then fixed the 
term of ten days within which the other belligerents should take 
cognizance of these principles for the conclusion of an immediate 
peace as laid down at Brest-Litovsk, and decide as to whether they 
would join in the peace negotiations or not. The delegations of the 
Allied Powers now place on record the fact that the ten days' terms 
agreed upon lapsed on 1 January, and that no declaration regarding 
participation in these peace negotiations has so far been received 
from any of the other belligerents. 



27. Russians Decide to Return to Beest-Litovsk. 
[From the (British) Dailii Rericw of the Foreign Press, 8 January, 1918, p. 527.] 

In re]Dly to a telegram sent to the German representatives offering 
to meet in Stockholm for the continuation of the peace negotiations, 
the Russian delegation, Pravda (Jan. 6) announces, has received a 
telegram from the German delegation announcing its arrival at 
Brest-Litovsk and asking the Russian delegation to come there. 

To this telegram the Russian delegation replied as follows: 

The transfer of the negotiations to a neutral country is in con- 
formity with the progress achieved in the negotiations. In view, 
however, of the arrival of your delegation at_ Brest-Litovsk, our 
delegation, with M. Trotsky, tlie People's Commissioner for Foreign 
Affairs, will leave to-morrow for Brest-Litovsk. We are convinced 
that the transfer of the negotiations to neutral territory will not 
complicate the negotiations. 

[From the (British) DaUy Rrrieir of the Foreign Press, 9 January, p. 534.] 

A telegram from Brest-Litovsk to the Austrian Press says that, in 
reply to the note sent yesterday to Comrade Joffe by the delegation 
of the Quadruple Alliance, the Russian delegation telegraphed that 
owing to the arrival of the delegation of the Quadruple Alliance at 
Brest-Litovsk on January 5 the Russian delegation would also start 



4:8 PBOOEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK OONPEKBlirOE. 

for Brest-Litovsk with M. Trotzky, the Commissary for Foreign 
Affairs. 

A Brest-Litovsk telegram of 7 January to the German Press 
received via Berlin says that the Russian delegates, including 
Trotsky, arrived there this morning. 

28. Busso-Persian Pourparlers. 

[From the (Bi-itisli) Dally Rcinciv of the Foreign Press, 11 January, 1918, 

p. 559.] 

The Russian wireless circulates the following (5 January) : 

The Assistant to the Commissary for Foreign Affairs had addressed 
to the Minister for Persia under date 1 January, 1918, the following 
letter : 

In the name of the Commissary of the People for Foreign Affairs, I have to 
inform you that by virtue of the treaty concluded by Russia with Germany, 
Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria at Brest on December 15, in accordance 
with Article 12 of the Treaty, " the contracting parties immediately after hav- 
ing signed the present armistice treaty agree to enter into peace negotiations 
and declare themselves ready to withdraw their troops from Persia. In order 
to elaborate the details of the evacuation, as well as to carry out the prin- 
ciples above indicated, the Russian and Ottoman Commanders in Chief will 
enter into pourparlers without delay with the Persian Government. In con- 
sequence the Council of Commissaries of the people expresses its consent im- 
mediately to open up negotiations with Persia for the withdrawal of their 
troops from Persian territory on condition that the Turkish Government observe 
the Treaty and is waiting for the Persian Government to take the correspond- 
ing steps to this end. 

( Signed ) Polivanoff. 

The Assistant to the Commissary for Foreign Affairs. 

I have just received from the Charge d'Affaires of Persia in 
Petrograd the following note : 

I hereby believe it my (Uity to state that the I'ersian Government, having been 
informed in due course of the contents of Article 12 of the Armistice Treaty 
concluded in the town of Brest on 15 December of this year, of which the text 
is reproduced nbove, has ;iuthorized me to enter into jiourparlers for the evacu- 
ation of the troops within the Persian boundaries with the competent Russian 
Authority iirovided with powers to that effect, and, that in accordance with a 
dispatch received from the Government at Teheran by the Persian Legation at 
Petrograd similar instructions have at the -same time been sent to the Per- 
sian Ambassador at Constantinople to enter into negotiations with the Otto- 
man Government regarding the evacuation of Persian territory liy Turkish 
troops. 

In comnmnicating the above, the undersigned retiuests that he be in- 
formed as soon as possible of the day and hour when pourparlers on the 
evacuation of Ihe Russian troops from Persia may commence. 

(Signed) M. Assad Ki-ia.n. 

Petrograd. 

It is believed necessary : 

(1) To elaborate as general plan of evacuation of Persia by Rus- 
sian troops as soon as possible, and to propose to Turkey, through 



AEBIVAL OF UKRAINIAN DELEGATION. 49 

the intermediary of the Persian Government direct through the 
Turkish Legation- (delegation?) at Brest-Litovsk to coordinate the 
plan of evacuation of Turkish troops with that of the Russian troops. 

(2) To commence immediately the evacuation of the units which, 
by their separation from the main body, have no importance from the 
militarj' point of view, and which have merel>' served as the instru- 
ment of occupation of Persian territory. 

(3) To recall from Persia our military mission which was there 
in the capacity of instructors of the Cossack Brigade. 

(4) To appoint immediately with the Eussian authorities in 
Persia commissaries who ^^ould explain to the units spread through- 
out Persia the political condition of Russia and the aim of our 
new international policy, based upon the rights of each nation, inde- 
pendent of its strength or weakness. 

The duties of these commissaries would be to take such measures 
as would avoid the Persian population becoming the victim of any 
violent offense on the part of the less conscious elements of the army. 

(.)) It is necessary to take measures so that the provisioning of the 
Eussian Army, during the time that it still remains in Persia, will 
weigh as lightly as possible on the masses of the poor population of 
Persia. 

I would request yovi, without delay, to take the measures which 
you intend to adopt in the sense indicated. This question demands 
the greatest speed in the settlement, so that the acts of violence which 
Tsarism and the bourgeois Governments of Eussia have committed 
against the Persian people may be brought to an end as soon as 
possible. (Signed) L. Trotsky, 

Commissary of the People for Foreign Affairs. 

29. Arrival or Ukrainian Delegation. 

[From the (British) Daily Revicio of the Foreign Prcsy, 7 January, 1918. 

p. 509.] 

(lerman wireless states (3 January) : 

The Ukrainian delegation has reached Brest-Litovsk in order 
to take part in the peace negotiations. Secretary of State von Kiihl- 
mann, in a telegram, expressed his willingness to treat in Brest- 
Litovsk with the representatives of Ukraine. 

The Ukrainian delegates will present a decree concerning- the inde- 
pendence of Ukraine. 

According to a telegram from Brest-Litovsk (via Amsterdam, t 
January), the T^kraine peace delegation has arrived at that place.- 
Its members are MM. H. F. Lewitcky, N. M. Ljubinsky, M. N. Polo- 
sow, and A. A. Sewrjuk. They all belong to the Eada and are 
authorized by the Ukraine People's Government to conduct peace 
negotiations. They state that their Government is preparing to 
conduct its own international relations. They declare their with 
for a speedy democratic peace and say they hope to be able to act 
together with the Bolshevik representatives at the peace negotiations. 
Some more members of the Ukraine mission and its president are 
expected to arrive shortly. 
90244—18 4 



50 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFEBENCE. 

30. Session or 8 January. 

GERMAN ACCOUNT. 

[From the (British) Daily Rri-lctr nf ilir ForcUm Prrsx. 12 .lanuiiry, 1918, 

p. 556.] 

German wireless states (9 January) : 

In the afternoon of 8 January a preliminary discussion was held at 
Brest-Litovsk between the Presidents of the Delegations who have 
gathered there, in which State Secretary von Kiihlmann; the For- 
eign Minister, Count Czernin ; the Minister for Justice, Popow ; the 
National Commissary for Foreign Affairs, Trotslry; the Grand 
Vizier, Talaat Pasha; and the Ukrainian State Secretary for Com- 
merce and Industry, Wsewolod Holubowytch, participated. After 
the announcement of the questions on the agenda, a general sitting 
was decided upon for 9 January, at 11 o'clock in the morning. Dis- 
cussion afterwards took place between the representatives of the 
Quadruple Powers and the Ukrainian representatives. 

Count Adam Tarnoswky has been appointed Polish delegate to 
Brest-Litovsk. 

A telegram from Brest-Litovsk to the Dutch Press, dated 10 Janu- 
ary and received via Berlin, states that at the morning's sitting of 
the Conference the Russian delegation declared itself ready to con- 
tinue the peace negotiations at Brest-Litovsk. 

The telegram adds : 

It is further confirmed that the account of the sitting held on 28 
December published by the Wolff Bureau corresponds to the actual 
facts. The Bolsheviks' protest, which the Petersburg Telegraph 
Agency reiterates, was not lodged with their delegates at Brest- 
Litovsk. The statements made there were published in extenso. 
Joffe, the Eussian leader, himself declared that the Central Powers' 
proposal that conditions should be settled by a special Military Com- 
mission had his full approval. No more than this was said at Brest- 
Litovsk. 

A similar statement to this has been published by the Vienna 
Agency. 

ANOTHER GERMAN ACCOUNT. 

[Fi-oiii the (Briti.sh) Diiilii Rcrinr of the Forcii/n Prcnn. 11 .January, 1918, 

1). 550.1 

A telegram from Brest-Litovsk to the German Press (Jan. 9) 
states that a preliminary discussion took place on Tuesday after- 
noon between the leaders of the delegations of the Quadruple Powers 
and Eussia. 

The mec'tiiio- wa.s attended by Baron von Kiihlnv.mn, Count Czernin, 
Talaat Pasha, and M. Trotsky. After discussing various questions 
of procedure, the plenary sitting was fixed for Wednesday morning. 
Laid- a conference was held between thj representatives of the 
Quadruple Alliance and the r€presentati^'cs of the Ukrainian Re- 
public. 



SESSION OF 9 JANUARY. 51 

31. Session of 8 January. 

russian account. 

[From the (British) Daily Ecvicic of the. Foreign Press, 11 January, 1918, 

p. 559.] 

According to Isvcstiija (Jan. 9) the first sitting of the resumed 
peace negotiations at Brest-Litovsk took place Jan. 8, and the dis- 
cussion centered around the selection of a place in some neutral 
country in which to continue the deliberations. An official note on 
the subject says there is every probability of a satisfactory arrange- 
ment being reached. 

32. Session of 9 January. 

GERMAN account. 

[From the (British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, 14 January, 1918, p. 

575.*] 

A telegram from Brest-Litovsk to the German Press (Jan. 10) 
says that this morning (Jan. 9) at eleven o'clock took place a plenary 
sitting at which all the delegations and the Ukrainian representa- 
tives participated. Talaat Pasha opened the sitting and then gave 
up the chair to Baron von Kiihlmann, who made the following dec- 
larations : 

The formalities which have hitherto held good for these sittings will, I as- 
sume, be unauimou.sly regarded as further also holding good. Since changes 
have taken place in the composition of some of the delegations, it does not ap- 
pear superfluous at the beginning of our work to make a short survey of the 
antecedent history and the course of the negotiations up to now. The present 
Russian Government on Nov. 28 had, by a wireless messr.ge, addressed to 
all, while communicating certain decisions, announced its readiness to enter 
into peace negotiations with all the belligerents. Thereupon the Imperial Chan- 
cellor, in his introductory speech before the plenary assembly of the Reichstag, 
on Nov. 29, stated: 

The Russian Government yesterday dispatched a wireless telegram, signed 
by M. Trotsky and M. Lenin, to the Governments of all the belligerents, pro- 
posing shortly to enter into negotiations for an armistice and a geeral peace. 
I do not heslttate to declare that, in the Russian Government's proposals, as we 
know them so far, a discussable basis for negotiations can be perceived, and I 
am reay to enter Into such as soon as the Russian Government sends pleni- 
potentiaries for the purpose. I hope and desire that these efforts will soon 
assume definite shape and bring us peace. 

The leading statesmen of the other Allies made similar declara- 
tions. On Dec. 3 began the negotiations about an armistice, which 
were concluded on Dec. 15 by the signature of an armistice treaty. 
According to a stipulation of this treaty in Article 9, " the signatory 
pa;rties will, immediately following this treaty, enter into peace 
negotiations." The four allied Powers sent plenitpotentiaries to 
Brest-Litovsk, who began peace negotiations on Dec. 22 with the rep- 
resentatives of the Kussian Government. These fell into two sep- 

• The Deutachrr Beiclisanzeiger of 11 January, 1918, has an account substantially 
Identical with this. 



52 PEOOEEDINGS OF THE BKEST-LITOVSK CONFERENCE. 

arate parts, in the discussion about the possibility of a general peace, 
and in the discussion of those points which in all circumstances 
would have to be discussed between Quadruple Alliance and the Rus- 
sian Government. 

As was proposed by the Eussian dek-gntion, at the sitting on Dec. 
25, there ensued ten days' interruption of the negotiations, so that, 
according to the Russian declaration, peoples whose Governments 
liad not yet joined in the negotiations might have an opportunity 
to become acquainted with the principles of such peace as that which 
now had been proposed. After the expiry of this period negotiations 
were to be renewed, apart from the question whether any, and, if so, 
how raanv belligerents had joined the negotiations. This period 
expired at midnight on Jan. 4. The allied Governuients thereupon 
circulated the following joint decision by wireless after they had 
learned that fi'om the Entente Governments no appropriate com- 
munication had yet been received: 

In reply to tbe proposals of the Kussian delegation, the delegations of the 
Quadruple Alliance had laid down at Brest-Litovsk on Dec. 2.5 certain guiding 
lines for the conclusion of an immediate general peace. To avoid binding them- 
selves one-sidedly, they had expressly made the validity of these guiding lines 
dependent on all the belligerents within a certain definite period, without ex- 
ception and without reserve, binding themselves to the most exact 'observance 
of conditions binding all peoples in the same way. In agreement with the 
representatives of the Quadruple Alliance, a ten days' period v/as fixeil by the 
Russian delegation, within which the other belligerents should take cogulzanc 
of the principles laid down at Brest-Litovsiv for an inunediate general peace, 
and should decide about joining the peace negotiations. The delegations <if the 
allied I'owers state that this ten days' period elapsed ou Jan. 4. and from no 
other belligerent has any declaration arrived regarding joining the peace nego- 
tiations. 

The communication of Dec. 25 of the allied Governments shows 
that the fii'st essential provision made therein was the unanimous 
acceptance by all enemy Povv-ers of conditions equally binding all na- 
tions, and the nonacceptance of this provision and the lapse of the 
perif;d v/ould have the consequen; es indicated in tlie communication. 
This document, therefore, l)ecanie null ;nvl vokl. 

The first task of our conference would be to resume negotiations 
at the point where they were before the Christmas adjournment. 
The delegation, howevev. informed him that the Government of the 
EuEs'aT Republic considered it necessary to " conduct further peace 
negotiations at Stockholm." In a subsequent telegiram it again made 
known its desire to remove the place of the negotiations to a neutral 
country. I will not here further dilate on the gi'ounds which render 
it impossible to conduct the negotiations elsewhere than at Brest- 
Litovsk, and which have been mnde known before elsewhere to the 
delegates; but I must stnte that it is the fixed and unchangeable deci- 
sion of the four allied Powers that they are not in a position to con- 
duct elsewhere the negotiations over a preliminary peace which were 
begun here. As I have already informally explained, they were 
willing from courtesy that the formal final negotiations and the sig- 
nature of the preliminaries should be conducted at some place to be 
agreed upon with the Russian delegation, and that the choice of such 
place should be made the subject of debate. As for the conduct of 



SESSION OF 9 JANUARY. 53 

the negotiations, the atmosphere in which they take place is extremely 
important. 

It must be mentioned that since the conclusion of the exchange of 
views before the temporary interruption of the negotiations much 
has happened which has appeared calculated to create a doubt about 
the sincere intention of the Russian Government to arrive at the con- 
clusion of a speedy peace with the Powers of the Quadruple Alliance. 
- 1 may, in this connection, refer to the tone of certain semiofficial 
declarations by the Russian Government against the Powers of the 
Quadruple Alliance, especially a declaration by the Petrograd Tele- 
graph Agency, which is regarded abroad as the semiofficial Russian 
Agency. In order not to make my speech too long, I will for the 
present abstain from repeating it textually, but will reserve, if neces- 
sary, its repetition for the further course of discussion. It repro- 
duced in detail a reply by Joffe, which he was alleged to have made 
at the sitting of Dec. 28, and which, as the protocol shows, origi- 
nated purely in the imagination of its author. 

This entirely unfounded report had a considerable share in con- 
fusing judgment about the course hitherto of the negotiations and 
endangering their results. 

If, nevertheless, I do not fully gi^•e up hope that the negotiations 
may lead to a salutary result, this hope is, in the first place, based on 
what we know and on what the Russian Delegation has eloquently 
expressed, namely, the wish of the Russian people for a lasting and 
assured peace, and also on the experience which we have had during 
the negotiations of the working methods of the Russian Delegation. 
So far as can be judged from the negotiations up to the time of the 
interruption, I consider the difficulties of a material nature not great 
enough to establish the failure of our work for peace, and there- 
with, presumably, to justify the resumption of the war in the East, 
with its unforeseeable consequences. 

Count Czernin then said : 

I have the following to add to the remarks of my German col- 
league. The reasons for which we categorically refuse to transfer 
the negotiations at the present moment to a neutral country are of a 
twofold character. The first is technical. You and we are here in 
direct telegraphic communication with our respective Governments. 
You exchange views daily with Petrograd and Kiev, and we with our 
capital. ^Xe, none of us, can forego this apparatus, except at the cost 
of interminably prolonging the negotiations and rendering them 
difficult. Still more important than this reason, however, is the 
second motive. You, gentlemen, invited us to general peace nego- 
tiations. We, accepted the invitation, and came to an agreement 
about the basis for a general peace. On this basis you presented 
a ten days' ultimatum to your Allies, who have not answered it, 
and to-day it is no longer a question of negotiations for a general 
peace, but a separate peace between Russia and the Quadruple 
Alliance. The transfer of the negotiations to neutral territory would 
give the Entente the desired opportunity to interfere in a disturb- 
ing manner. The Government of England and France, both before 
and behind the scenes, would make every endeavor to prevent this 
separate peace. We refuse to give the Western Powers this oppor- 



54 PEOOBEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFEKENCE. 

tuiiity, but we ai'e readj^ to conduct the formal final negotiations and 
the signature of a peace treaty at a place to be fixed. 

As regards the portion of the negotiations in which agreement 
betAveen you and us has not yet been attained, we had come to a bind- 
ing agreement at the last plenary sitting to submit these questions to 
an ad hoc commission, which was to begin work at once. All four 
allies are entirely agreed to conduct the negotiations to the end on the 
basis explained by Baron von Kiihlmann and myself, and bindingly" 
agreed upon with you Russian gentlemen. If not, then things will 
take their necessary course; but the responsibility for the continua- 
tion of the war will then fall exclusively on the gentlemen of the 
Russian Delegation. 

Talaat Pasha and the Bulgarian Minister of Justice, M. Popov, 
adhered in the name of the Turkish and Bulgarian delegations to 
these declarations, whereupon General Hoffmann made the following 
statement : 

I have here before me a number of wireless messages and appeals 
.signed by representatives of the Russian Government and the Rus- 
sian Chief Army Command which partly contain abuse of German 
Army institutions and of the German Chief Army Command and 
partly appeals of a revolutionary character to otir troops. These 
wireless messages undoubtedly transgressed the spirit of the armis- 
tice concluded by both armies. In the name of the German Chief 
Army Command, I make the strongest protest against the form and 
contents of these wireless messages and appeals. 

Field Marshal von Csicserics, Colonel Gantcheff, and General 
Izzet Pasha associated themselves with this protest in the name of 
the respective armies of their countries. 

GERMAN WIRELESS ACCOUNT. 

[JYom the (British) DaiJi/ Rcriew of tlie Foreign Press, 14 .Tanuary, 1918, 

p. 575.] 

On Trotsky's proposal the sitting was interrupted. 
German wireless, which gives a similar account of the proceedings, ■ 
ii dds the following : 

In the sitting which was held in the morning of Jan. 10 the Rus- 
sian Delegation declared itself prepared to continue the peace nego- 
tiations at Brest-Litovsk. It also stated that the representation 
published by the Wolff Bureau of the proceedings of the sitting of 
Dec. 26 is in keeping with the actual facts, while the report of the 
proceedings of this sitting circulated by the Russian Telegraph 
Agency was, on the part of the Russians, declared to be incorrect. 

33. Session of 9 January. 

RUSSIAN account. 
[From the (British) Daily Rcvirir of ihc ForvUin I'rvxx. V.) .January, 1918, 

p. 629.] 
The Stenographic report of the meeting of the Peace Delegations 
at Brest-Litovsk o n the 10th inst.,* which has just been issued at 

• Should be " 9th Inst." 



SESSION OF 9 JANUARY. 55 

Petrograd, is largely taken up with a report of a long discussion 
between Baron von KiiMmann and M. Trotsky on questions of pro- 
cedure. The German Minister wished for arrangements to be made 
by which certain economic and legal questions touched upon before 
the Christmas recess might be taken up and discussed by some mem- 
bers of the delegations independently of and concurrently with 
the main negotiations which were likely to occupy some time. He 
thought a lot of pi'eliminary work could thus be got over, and a good 
deal of time saved. Having set forth his views on this point, Baron 
von Kiihlmann proceeded to propound the procedure he considered 
should be adopted as regards the political and national questions 
touched upon at the sitting of Dec. 27. A discussion arose as to 
whether the national questions to be dealt with in the first place 
were to include that of Armenia or not. Baron von Kiihlmann 
maintaining that the Armenian question had had little place in the 
previous discussions, while M. Trotsky maintained that it was not a 
new question, inasmuch as before the recess there had been pour- 
parlers on the subject with the Turkish delegation. In the course 
of the discussions which ensued M. Trotsky spoke as follows: 

The pourparlei'K at Brest-Litovsk are being conducted by Two parties who 
have become enemies not througli any cliance political combination; the negoti- 
ations are being carried on by those who are enemie : not only on the war 
basis but also on the basis of the difference between social clas es, and this 
fact has made it'^ imprint on the negotiations. The German Command under- 
stood that from the outset, and clung on to Brest-Lltovsk as the scene of the 
pourparlers. It unmasked the big gun of an ultimatum firing even before 
the Russian Delegation had been able to express its point of view. The idea 
of the German Command was to isolate the Russian Delegation from the 
popular masses. The ideals of the Russian Revolution and of its pncific pro- 
gramme were forced to find expression in a space hermetically sealed. Gen- 
erals and diplomats impervious to those ideas are to form a safety curtain 
shutting off the fire of the Russian Revolution from the German workers and 
all Europe. The Russian Delegation knows perfectly well what it is losing 
by conducting peace pourparlers at Brest-Litov k, a capital of the German 
conqueror, but it also knows what greater loss it would suffer in breaking 
off the pourparlers over the question of locality. The peoples are thirsting 
for peace, and for this the Rus^ian Delegation can frankly admit that it 
has submitted to the ultimatum. Yuu are the stronger from the military 
point of view, but you are forced to hide the motives of your policy from 
the masses. We are the weaker, but our strength increases in proportion as 
we unmask your policy, and that is why we are staying. 

In another speech, says the report, M. Trotsky put the blunt ques- 
tion: 

Do you agree to evacuate Poland, Lithuania, and Oourland and to leave the 
people freedom of decision? Do you renounce the idea of tearing away these 
territories, of imposing military and customs conventions upon them, and of 
establishing a Monarchical Government on the strength of the decision of little 
groups of exploiters? 

The Eussian report proceeds: 



56 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BBEST-LITOVSK CONFEBENCE. 

And in spite of the artistic fencing of the representative of Ger- 
man Imperialism, Monsieur von Kiihlmann could not conceal the 
fact that German Imperialism intended to proclaim a resolution ot 
the Barons of Courland aild an infinitesimal portion of the Polish 
bourgeoisie as a resolution of the people which will mean the tortur- 
ing of the peoples to the quick, and will overwhelm them with future 
obligations. * * * , ,. -r^ , 

The report' goes on to declare that if the workers of Europe only 
get to know how the pourparlers at Brest-Litovsk have proceeded, 
they will realize that the Russian Delegation at Brest-Litovsk is 
fighting the battle of the international proletariat against German 
Imperialism, and concludes: 

We hope soon to receive the good news that the German and the International 
proletariat will proclaim itself the judge of German Imperialism in this case 
that we are conducting against it. 

34. Session or 10 Januaet. 

GERMAN ACCOUNT. 

[Prom the (British) Dailij Rcricw of the Foreign Press, 14 January, 1918, 

p. 577.*] 

A telegram from Brest-Litovsk to the German Press (Jan. 11) f 
says that the interrupted plenary sitting was continued at eleven 
o'clock this afternoon I under the presidency of Baron von Kiihl- 
mann. The Ukraine Secretary of State of Commerce, M. Bolu- 
bowyisch, said : 

Nations exhausted and tortured by war yearn for peace. In this yearning 
for peace the representatives of the Great Russian Democracy, without heeding 
the attacks by Russian society and by the Press, boldly crossed the -trenches 
of the belligerents in order to attain a general peace, not on the battle field 
by blood and iron, but by friendly agreement between the peoples. After the 
peace negotiations had begun and the principles of peace had been made known, 
you rightly proposed a truce of ten days in order to give the States which 
hitherto had not participated an opportunity of joining negotiations. Our 
Ukrainian Republic, whose people are always inclined for peace, was the first 
to answer your appeal. 

The Ukrainian People's Republic, its position as a State having been settled 
liy the Central Rada on Nov. 20, 1917, resumes its international existence, which 
it lost more than 250 years ago, and enters now to the full extent of the rights 
due to it into international relations. On the basis of the foregoing representa- 
tion of the facts, the General Secretariat of the Government of the Ukrainian 
Republic considers it right to adopt an independent attitude toward the present 
peace negotiations, and it has the honor to hand tlie following note to the Dele- 
gates of the Powers represented here : 

The Go\('rnnient of Ihe Ukrainian People's Republic, through its General 
Secretariat, brings the following hereby to the. knowledge of all the belligerent 
and neutral States : 

The Ukrainian Peoiile's Republic was proclaimed by the Ukrainian Central 
Rada on Nov. 20, 1917, and Ijy this act of State the international position of 

•The Deutschcr Itcicliianrcigcr of 11 January has an account substantially identical 
with this. 

t Jan. 10, according to the Jlcichsaii.^ehjrr. 

t Should be "forenoon," according to the ltei(hn<in:cigi:r- 



SESSION OF 10 JANUAEY. 57 

the Republic was determined. Striving for the creation of a confederation of 
all the republics which have arisen on the territory of the former Russian 
Empire, the Ulsrainian People's Republic, throusrh its General Secretariat, pro- 
ceeds to enter into independent relations, pending the time when the formation 
of a federal Government in Russia' shall have been completed and the regula- 
tion of the relations between the Uliraine on the one hand and the Government 
of the future federation on the other shall have been encompassed. 

The General Secretariat considers it necessary to inform all States and 
peoples of the world as to the situation of the Ukrainian People's Republic 
and as to the peace negotiations which have recently been begun at Brest- 
Litovsk between the representatives of the Council of the People's Commis- 
saries on the one hand and the Government of the Powers making war against 
Russia on the other hand. Unshakably abiding by the view that the present 
WAV means the most serious evil for all States, and especially for the working 
classes, and that all belligerent States should renounce eventual intentions 
of conquest and Immediately start peace negotiations, the "Ukrainian Central 
Rada, the parliament of the Ukrainian Republic, found it imperative imme- 
diately after the in-oclamation of the Ukrainian Republic to inaugurate an 
active policy in the peace question. The Central Rada, therefore, after it had 
in its turn announced urbi et orbi the necessity of the immediate conclusion of 
peace, considered It imperative to strive for the conclusion of an armistice. 
For this purpose representatives of the General Secretariat were sent to the 
Southwestern front and the Roumanian front, which is at present united in a 
single Ukrainian front under the leadership of the Ukrainian People's Republic. 
Simultaneously, the Ukrainian Central Rada instructed the General Secretariat 
to inform the Allied Powers of its doings, which was accordingly done by the 
General Secretariat. Consequently, wlien the Council of the People's Commis- 
saries in agreement had taken in hand on all the Russian fronts the question of 
an armistice the General Secretariat sent its representatives to Brest-Litovsk 
for the purpose of control and information. In this connection the General 
Secretariat considers it necessary to point out that the representatives of the 
Council of the People's Commissaries, regardless of the fact that they had been 
made acquainted with the arrival of the Ukrainian delegates for the purpose of 
taking part in the negotiations, did. independently, without any agreement 
with the Ukrainian People's Republic, arrange a general armistice. 

Being aware that the Council of People's Commissaries, in accordance with 
the last point of the conditions for a general armistice, is beginning peace 
negotiations at Brest-Litovsk with the Governments of Germany-. Austria- 
Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria, the General Secretariat declares, in the name 
of the Ukrainian People's Republic, firstly, that the entire democracy of the 
Ukrainian State is striving for the termination of the war and for peace 
throughout the entire world and a general peace between all the belli.gerent 
States ; secondly, that the peare which is to be concluded between all the Powers 
must be democratic, and must assure to every people, even .the smallest, full 
and unlimited self-determination ; and, thirdly, that In order to render possible 
the real expression of the people's will, proper guarantees must be given. 



GERMAN ACCOUNT. CONTINUED. 

[From the llSritisli) Daili/ Rerieir of the /'orcifin rrcss. 1." .Tanuary, 191S. 

p. 585.*] 

The folloAving is a continuation of the Ukrainian statement, pub- 
lished in the Daily Review (Jan. 14), and follows on to the words, 

• The Deiitsclier Relclinan:ciiicr of tl .Tanuary, 1918, has an account substantially iden- 
tical with this. 



58 PROCEEDINGS OP THE BBEST-LITOVSK CONFEEENOE. 

" Thirdly, that, in order to render possible the real expression of 
the peoples' will, proper guarantees must be given." It appears that 
this statement was read on Jan. 10, not on Jan. 11, as stated in the 
Dail}' Eeview (Jan. 14). 

Fourthly, any annexation that means annexation by force or the surrender 
of any portion of territory without the consent of its population is, therefore, 
inadmissible. 

Fifthly, any war indemnities, without regard to the form siven them, are, 
from the standpoint of the interests of the working classes, also inadmissible. 

Sixthly, conformably to regulations to be drawn up at the peace congresses, 
material assistance must be given to .small nations and States which, in conse- 
quence of the war, have suffered considerable losses or devastations. 

Seventhly, the Ulvraininn Penjile's Republic, which at present occupies the 
Ukrainian front on its own territory and is represented in all international 
affairs by its Government, whose duty Is the protection of the Ukrainian Peo- 
ple's interests and when acts independently, must, like other Powers, be allowed 
to participate in all peace negotiations, conferences, and congresses. 

Eighthly, the powers of the Council of People's Coinml.ssioners does not extend 
to entire Russia, and therefore, not to the Ukrainlun People's Republic. Any 
eventual peace resulting from negotiations with the Powers waging war against 
Russia can, therefore, be binding fta- the Ukraine only if the terms of this peace 
are accepted and signed by the Government of tire I'kr:!ine People's Republic. 

Ninthly, in the name of entire Russia, only such a Government (and it must 
be an exclusively federal .Government) can conclude peace as would be recog- 
nized by all the Republics and regions of Russia pos.sessing .a State organism. 
If, however, such a Government can not be formed in the near future, then this 
peace can only be concluded by the united representatives of those Republics 
and regions. Firmly adhering to the principle of a democratic peace,.the General 
Secretariat at the same time is striving for the speediest possible attainment of 
this general peace and attaches great weight to all attempts which can bring its 
realization nearer. The General Secretariat therefore considers it imperative 
to have its representative at the Conference, while at the same time it hopes 
that a final solution of the peace question will be reached at an international 
congress to which the Government of the Ukrainian Republic summons all the 
belligerents to send delegates. 

(Signed) Winnitschenko. 

President of the Secretariat. 

SCHULGIN, 

Secretary of Stale for Internatioiwl Affairs. 

Replying to M. Bobubo-svytsch's statement, Baron von Kiihlmann, 
the President of the Conference, said : 

Gentlemen, with great interest we have. taken cognizance of the statement of 
the President of the Ukrainian delegation and of the information he has given 
us. I propose that the Ukrainian Note be placed on the records of the Congress 
as an important historical document. The representatives of the Allied Powers 
welcome the Ukrainian repre.sentatives present at P.rest-IJtovsk in the spirit of 
their telegram of Dee. 2(;, 1917. The representatives of the Allied Powers re- 
serve their attitude toward the details of the Ukrainian delegates' statement. 

In this connection Baron von Kiihlmann expressed a desire to 
ask several questions in order to furnish a basis for the decision of 
the Allied Powers. 



SESSION OF 10 JANUARY. 59 

The negotiations, he said, had taken place hitherto with represent- 
atives from Petrograd regarding the affairs of the entire Russian ter- 
ritory. Therefore tlie question must be asked of the President of 
the Delegation from the Petrograd Government whether he and his 
Delegation intended also in the future diplomatically to represent the 
affairs of the whole of Eussia. 

M. Trotsky then made the following statement : 

Having taken cognizance of the note of the Secretariat General of the Ulcrai- 
nlan People's Republic published by the Ulvriuiau Delesation, the Russian bele- 
gation on Its part declares that it, in full accord with the fundn mental recogni- 
tion of the right of self-determination of every nation, even to complete sever- 
ance, sees no obstacle to the participation of the Uljrainain Delegation in the 
peace negotiations. 

A long discussion followed as to the meaning of this statement, 
which was finally condensed into the question whether the Ukrainian 
Delegation was a subcommission of the Russian Delegation or 
whether it must diplomatically be treated as the representation of an 
independent State. M. Trotsky replied that he regarded the ques- 
tion as settled, inasmuch as the Ukrainian Delegation acted at Brest- 
Litovsk as an independent body vrhich was recognized by his dele- 
gation, and inasmuch as no other party had brought forward any 
other proposal. The President of the Ukrainian Delegation expressed 
his thanks. He said he assumed that the independent position which 
his deputation had to take at the peace negotiations was thus settled, 
and that the Ukrainian and Russian deputations would form two 
separate and independent delegations of the same party. 



GERMAN ACCOUNT, CONCLUDED. 

[From the (British) Daihi Revieiv of the Foreign Press, 14 January, 1918, 

p. 577.*] 

A later telegram from Brest-Litovsk to the German Press (Jan. 
11), continuiilg the report of the negotiations there, says: 

Baron von Kiihlmann, with the assent of the meeting, had declared 
that this preliminary question (that of the separate representation 
of the Ukraine) would first be discussed between the delegations of 
the Allies, and that its further discussion would be reserved for the 
plenary sitting. 

M. Trotsky spoke. 

He said that he first considered it necessary to remove a misunder- 
standing which had crept into the negotiations. The Russian delega- 
tion confirmed that the official protocol published in the German 
papers of the sitting of Dec. 27 corresponded, as regards the portion 
in which the speech of the chairman of the Russian delegation was 
reproduced, with what had occurred at that sitting. With regard to 
the real or fictitious telegram of the Petrograd Telegraph Agency, 
which was entirely unknown to the Russian delegation, to which the 
German Press and Baron von Kiihlmann had referred, the Russian 

• The Deutsoher Reicfiaanmeiger of 11 January, 1918, has an account substantially iden- 
tical witli this. 



60 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BKEST-LITOVSK OONPEEENOE. 

delegation must first obtain information on the point. M. Trotsky 
then expressed regret that a misunderstanding which was in no wisf 
connected with the delegation's work had occurred. 

In regard to General Hoffmann's protest, which was supported by 
the military representatives of three other delegations, against 
articles in the Press and wireless messages and appeals, he must state 
that neither the conditions of the armistice nor the character of the 
peace negotiations limited the freedom of the Press or of speech. 
After these preliminary remarks M. Trotsky dealt with the declara- 
tion made by the chairman of the German and Austro-Hungarian 
delegations. 

Firstly, we confirm that in full accord with our former resolution we 
desire to continue peace negotiations quite apart from the fact whether the 
Entente Powers take part or not. We take cognizance of the Statement of 
the delegations of the Quadruple Alliance that the bases for a general peace 
formulated in their declaration of Dec. 25 are now null and void, as the 
Entente countries during the ten-days' period allowed them did not join the 
peace negotiations. We, on our side, adhere to the principles of a democratic 
peace proclaimed by us. 

As regards the Russian proposal to transfer the further negotiations to neu- 
tral soil it is due to the wish to create equally favorable conditions for both 
sides. Public opinion in Russia, moreover, takes umbrage at the fact that 
the Russian delegation is conducting negotiations in a fortress occupied by 
German troops, especially as it is here a question of the fate of living peoples. 
The Russian delegation can no more recognize the validity of the technical 
difBculties which the transfer of the negotiations to neutral soil might en- 
tail, than it can recognize the fear of Entente intrigues, against whlcli Russia 
knows how to protect herself. Referring to the hitherto consistently pursued 
peace policy of the Bolshevik Government and the independence which It had 
shown, M. Trotsky further remarked that he had absolutely no reason to 
assume that Entente diplomacy could operate with greater success against 
the conclusion of peace on neutral soil than in Petrograd. As regarded the 
fear expressed by the chairman of the Austro-Hungarian delegation that the 
Governments of England and France might before and behind the scenes en- 
deavor to hinder the conclusion of peace, he considered it necessary to declare 
that Bol.shevik policy managed without coulisses, as this weapon of the old 
diplomacy, together with many other things, had been abolished by the 
Russian people in the victorious Revolution of Oct. 25. If thus in the Rus- 
sian delegation's opinion technical and political circumstances did not bind 
the fate of peace absolutely to Brcst-Litovsk, so, too, the Russian delegation 
could not pass over another argument mentioned by the Imperial Chancellor. 

I mean that portion of Count Hertling's statement in \yhich, besides i;ood 
rifflit and biyal conscience, he also referi-od to Germany's itowcrful position 
(Machtstellimg). The Russian delegatidu neither can nor intend to deny 
that their country, owing to the policy of the classes until recently in iiower, 
is weakened, Init the world position of a country is not determinod by the 
momentary condition ef its technical apparatus, hut also liy inherent possibili- 
ties, as indeed (iei-many's eeonomic stren(j;tli should not be .ludged by the present 
conditions of its means of supply (Verpflegungsmittel). Just as the great 
reformation of the sixteentli century and the great revolution of the eighteenth 
century vitalized the erentive fonrs of the German and French peoples, so, too, 
the cr(nttive foi-ces of the Russian people have been awakened and developed 
by the great revolution in Russia. The Russian Government, however, wrote 
fit the head of its pro-am the word " Peace." The great sympathies of the 



SESSION OF 10 JANUABY. 61 

Russian people for the peoples of the Allies strengthen It in its desire to attain 
the speediest peace based on an understanding among the peoples. To remove 
from the Powers of the Quadruple Alliance the pretext of breaking ofC peace 
negotiations on technical grounds the Russian delegation accepts the demand 
to remain in Brest-Litovsk. It remains at Brest-I>itovsk in order not to leave 
any possibility in the fight for peace unutilized. The Russian delegation, in 
renouncing the proposal regarding the transfer of negotiations to neutral soil, 
proposes the continuation of the negotiations. 

On the proposal of the President it was then decided to hold a 
private deliberation between the delegations of Germany and Austria- 
Hungary on the one hand, and the Russian delegation on the other. 



35. Session of 10 Jaxuaky. 

russian account. 

[From the (British) Duilij Review of the Foreign Press, 1.5 January, 1918, 

p. 590.] 

The following is a complete report of the statement made by the 
Russian delegation at the resumption of the peace negptiations at 
Brest-Litovsk on Jan. 11 :* 

Before dealing with the questions raised by the declaration of the Quadruple 
Alliance, we deem it necessary to dissipate the misunderstandings which have 
arisen in regard to the progress of the official pourparlers at the sittings of 
Dec. 27. 

In response to the first and second paragraphs of the Austro-German pro- 
posal, the Russian delegation opposed the wording of these two paragraphs 
dealing with the destiny of the occupied territories, and intimated that the 
Russian Government could not regard as the will of the people a declaration 
made by privileged classes in these territories. 

We confirm the official protocol of the last sitting as published by the German 
newspapers reporting a speech by the President of the Russian delegation, 
which report corresponds with what took place at the sitting of Dec. 27. 

With regard to the telegram of the Petrograd Telegraph Agency, of which 
we find mention in the German, newspapers, and which is unknown to us, as 
also with regard to the statement of Baron von Klihlmann, it is impossible for 
us, without further Information on tiie subject, to determine which tele.gram 
can be referred to as a correction and addition to the protocol of the sittings 
of Dec. 27. In our opinion, the reference U'ade to this telegram has no refer- 
ence whatever to any statement by the Russian delegation at Brest-Litovsk, 
but to the resolution passed by the Central Executive Comuiiitees in Petrograd 
after the report made liy our delegation on the progress of the pourparlers, 
being in perfect accord with the delegation in having resolutely declined the 
German point of view, by which the will of the peop'e was in reality replaced 
by the will of a privileged group acting under the control of the authorities 
administering the occupied territories. 

The Russian delegation then proceeded to deal with the essential 
points of the statements of Baron von Klihlmann and Count Czernin, 
and declared notably : 

In the first place, we confirm, in full accord with our previous resolution, 
that we propose to continue the peace negotiations regardless of the adhesion. 



• This must be Jan. 10, by comparison with the Reichsamelger account of that session. 



62 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE BKEST-Lia;:0,VS:K; OONFEKENOE. 

or otherwise, of the Entente Governments therein. Taking cognizance of the 
declaration of the Quadruple Central Powers that the bases for a general peace, 
as formulated on December 25, have become null and voil, the Entente Powerg 
not having adhered thereto in the course of the ten days' suspension of negotia- 
tions, we now declare for our part that we shall not cease to defend the demo- 
cratic principles of peace proclaimed by us without taking into account any 
delays whatever. 

With regard to the question of the transfer of the scene of the 
conference to a neutral countr}', the Kussiaii delegation explained 
that, by this proposal, they sought to place both sides in analogous 
positions which would favor the normal course of the pourparlers 
and expedite the conclusion of peace. The delegation said: 

We share the view of the President of the German delegation that the atmos- 
phere in which the negotiations are conducted is of the greatest importance. 
Without seeking to establish to what extent the atmosphere at Brest-Litovsk 
facilitates in the case of the opposite side the conclusion of peace, we are, 
however, of the undoubted opinion that for the Russitm delegation the stay in 
the fortress of Brest-Litovsk, at the iJeadquarters of the enemy Armies under 
the control of the German authorities, creates all the disadvantages of an 
artificial isolation vifhich is in no way compensated foi- by the enjoyment of a 
direct telegraph wire. This isolation, while creating an atmosphere unfavor- 
able to our labors, is at the same time causing alarm and uneasiness in the 
public opinion of our country. 

The delegation then pointed out that all these considerations ac- 
quired the more importance, as precisely during the recent sittings 
thei-e had arisen profound divergencies of views on the subject of 
the political future of the Polish, Lithuanian, Lettish, and other 
peoples. The statement continued: 

Therefore, we consider it very undesirable to continue these labors in con- 
ditions which might justify the allegation that we are taking part in a settle- 
ment of the future of existing peoplefs. isolated from all sources of informa- 
tion regarding the public opinion of the world and without any guaranty that 
our opinions and declarations reach rlie peoples of the Quadruple Alliance. 
^'\'ith retard to the fears expressed by Count Czernin that agents of Russia's 
Allies might engage in intrigues with the object of bringing about the failure 
of the negotiations, the Russian deies^itlon points out, on the contrary, that the 
Russian Itevolutionary power has sufliciently shown its independence in regard 
to diplomatic intrigues tending to 1;he oppression of the laboring masses. 

The delegation then reviewed the efforts made to effect peace 
ever since the Russian troops victoriously entered Galicia until the 
Maximalists assumed power in defiance of the warnings and threats 
of the Allied Embassies. Says the statement : 

We replied, and we continue to reply, by severe repression to all counter- 
revolutionary intrigues and maneuvers of the Allied diplomatic agents In Rus- 
sia, seeking to render abortive the cause of peace. We do not believe that 
Allied diplomacy can operate on neutral territury with greater success than 
at Petrogiad. As to the sincerity of our aspirations for peace we think that in 
this domain account nuist be taken of facts in preference to indulgence in 
psychological conjecture. The sincerity of our aspirations for peace is suffi- 
ciently proved by our attitude in regard to the free right to development of 
Finland, Armenia, and Ukrainia. The hostile side has, therefore, only to show 



SESSION OF 10 JANUARY. 63 

an tmalogous attitude to the regions occupied by it. We see, then, no political 
or technical reason for binding the fate of peace to Brest-Litovsk. We can not 
pass over in silence the argument advanced yesterday by the Chancellor of the 
Empire, namely, his statement with regard to the powerful position of Ger- 
many. The position in the world of a country is defined not only by its present 
state, by its technical machinery, but l)y its Internal resources, which, once re- 
called to life, manifest their power sooner or later. Our Government has 
placed at the head of its program the word " Peace," but it has engaged itself 
at the same time before its people to sign only a democratic and just peace. 
The Russian delegation then entered into considerations on the sympathies of 
the Russian people for the working people of Germany and her Allies, and 
showed that years of war has not hardened the hearts of the Russian soldiers, 
who, moved liy the sentiment of fraternity, had stretched out their hands to the 
peoples on the other side of the trenches. " The refusal of the delegations of 
the Central Powers," they said, '• to transfer the conference to a neutral 
countrj- is only explicable by the desire of their Governments and their power- 
ful annexationist circles, based not on principles tending to the reconciliation 
of all nations, but on the \\ar map." But war maps disappear while peoples 
remain. AVe rejected as tendencious the assertions of the German Press that 
the refusal to transfer the conference was of the nature of an ultimatum. We 
thought that there could be no question of an ultimatum, but of a practical 
agreement arrived at in good faith. We wei-e wrong. An ultimatum was 
delivered to us — pourparlers at Brest-Litovsk or no pourparlers. This ulti- 
matum is a proof that the elements of the Quadruple Alliance, which pursrfe 
a policy of annexation, regard as more favorable to that policy a 'rupture of 
pourparlers on technical grounds than a settlement of the political future of 
Poland, Lithuania, Courland, and Armenia. A rupture of pourparlers on 
technical grounds would make it more difficult for the working masses of 
Germany and her Allies to understand the causes of the dispute and would 
facilitate the efforts of the semiofficial annexationist agitators who are seek- 
ing to make the German people believe that behind the open and frank policy 
of Russia is to be foimd a British or other manager. In view of these con- 
siderations, ^^-e think it necessary to declare that we accept the ultimatum 
handed to us. We remain, therefore, here at Brest-Litovsk so that the slightest 
possibility of peace may not be left unexhausted. Notwithstanding the extraor- 
dinary attitude of delegates of the Quadruple Alliance, we think it our duty to 
the peoples and armies of all countries to make a fresh effort to establish 
clearly and distinctly here at the headquarters of the Eastern front whether 
immediate peace with the Quadruple Alliance is possible without violence to 
the Poles, Lithuanians, Letts. Esthonians, Armenians, and other nationalities 
to whom the Russian Revolution assures on its side full right to free develop- 
ment without reservation, without restriction, without anifre peiisee. 



ANOTHER RUSSIAN ACCOUNT. 
[Prom the British) Daily Rcricir of the Foreign Press. 10 .lauuary, 1918, p. .599.] 

The following passage lelating to the Note submitted by the 
Ukrainian Delegation on Jan. 11* to the delegates of the Powers 
represented at Brest-Litovsk has jnst been received from Petrogrud : 

Regarding the fixing of the frontiers of the Uki'aine, the Note 
particularly mentions the Black Sea regions and says that the fron- 

* Should lie " Jan. 10." 



64 PROCEEDINGS OF a?H:E BEEST-LITOVSK CONFEEENCE. 

tiers of the country must be determined if the Black Sea was to be 
discussed with representatives of the Ukrainian Delegation. M. 
Trotsky in reply said that the question of the Ukrainian frontiers 
could not be considered as definitely settled because the Ukraine 
Republic was still in process of formation, and questions regarding 
frontiers, and especially those of the Black Sea, could not become 
the cause of conflict between the Russian and Ukrainian Delegations, 
because in case of a divergency of opinions this question could be 
settled by a referendum of the populations concerned. To this state- 
ment Baron von Kiihlmann answered : 

I did not wish to discuss here the litigious question of frontiers, but I want 
to know precisely the character of tlie relations existing between the two 
Delegations. 

M. Trotsky replied : 

I consider that all these questions can be solved successively for each par- 
ticular case. An agreement will be reached between our delegation and the 
■Ukrainian, and thus no difficulties will arise for the enemy delegations. 

Baron von KiJhlmann. It is not a question of particular questions, but we 
must clearly understand the general attitude of the Russian Delegation toward 
the Ukrainian Delegation, so that we may know how to reply to the highly 
important declaration made to-day by the Ukrainian Delegation. The ques- 
tion to be decided is : Are we to consider the Ukrainian Delegation as a 
section of the Russian Delegation or as representing a separate State? 

Teotsky. As the Ukrainian Delegation has acted here as an independent 
aelegation, and as we have recognized its participation without reserve or 
restrictions, it seems to me that this question no longer exists. 

Baron von KtiHLMANN. I thank the representative of the Russian Delega- 
tion for the statement he has just made. This statement will serve as a basis 
to decide the character of the participation of the Ukrainian Delegation at 
the Conference. 

The President of the Ukraine Delegation, M. Goloubovitch, de- 
clared he was satisfied with the explanations of the Russian Dele- 
gation, which determined the character of the plenipotentiaries of 
the Ukrainian Delegation. 

In all verbal transactions, he addt'd, "we shall figure a. two com- 
pletely independent representations of the old Eu^pire of Russia." 

This question having been settled, M. Trotsky read the declaration 
telegraphed yesterday accepting the proposal of the Central Empires 
to continue the negotiations at Brest. M. Trotsky then expressed 
the hope that his declaration would be brought to the knowledge of 
the nations, with whom the Russian people wish to live in peace. 
M. Goloubovitch, having expressed a desire to ask for more complete 
instructions as to the attitude of the Ukrainian Delegation to the 
points raised at the meeting, Baron von Kiihlmann insisted on the 
negotiations being continued as rapidly as possilble, and, although 
M. Trotsky's declaration probably necessitated a discussion by the 
representatives of the Quadruple Alliance, the German Secretary 
of State said he considered that there was no reason to suspend the 
sittings while waiting for a reply. 



sessions of 11 january. 65 

36. Russian Statement Concerning Session of 10 Januaet. 
[From the (British) Daily Rerieic of the Foreign Press, 24 January, 1918, p. 643.] 

The following messages are transmitted through the wireless sta- 
tions of the Eussian Government : 

Brest-Litovsk, Jan. 14-, 1918. 

The follo^Ying• declarations to be published, sent to foreign coun- 
tries and by wireless to all. It is a reply to the distortion of the 
minutes of the meetings of the Conference, especially a misrepre- 
sentation of our declarations. In the German newspapers of Jan. 
11, received by us to-day, an official statement is published concern- 
ing the meeting of Jan. 10. 

In the name of the Eussian Delegation I protest in the most ener- 
getic manner against the tendencious arrangement to which the text 
of the declaration of the Eussian Delegation has been subjected in 
this statement. It is sufficient to say that in the case of Point 7, 
which reads : " Our Government has written at the head of its pro- 
gramme the word ' peace ' but at the same time it has undertaken 
the obligation to sign only a just democratic peace." Only the first . 
half of the phrase is cited. This throws a vivid light upon the whole 
statement which is intended to serve not so much for the information 
of the German public as to mislead it. In attaching an enormous 
significance to the conveyance of exact information to the public in 
all countries regarding the real course of the peace negotiations, the 
Eussian Delegation asks that credence shall be given only to the 
stenographic minutes as published, without alterations and in their 
entirety in the Eussian Press. 

L. Trotsky, 
Peo'pWs GommAsshoner for Foreign Affairs. 

We beg that all our communications, especially stenograms, should 
be immediately and in extenso sent to foreign countries by wireless, 
because we are the only source of unaltered information. 

L. Kaeahan. 



37. Session of 11 January, 1918. 

[From the (British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, 15 January, 1918, 

p. 586.] 

A Brest-Litovsk telegram to the Dutch Press (12 January) states: 

In the spirit of yesterday's resolution a plenary sitting of the Ger- 
man, Austro-Hungarian, and Eussian delegations met this after- 
noon and agreed to form a committee, as vi^as proposed by the Eus- 
sians, for discussion of political and territorial questions, and another 
committee of experts, representing the various delegations, for the 
preliminary discussion of economic and legal questions. The first- 
named committee has already met. 
90244—18 5 



66 proceedings op the bkest-litovsk confebence. 

38. Skssidx of Committee ox Tereitorial Questions, 11 January, 

gei;:man account. 

[Prom tile (British) Daily Revicio of the Foreign Press, IG January, 1918, 

p. 599.*] 

A telegram from Brest-Litovsk gives the following account of fur- 
ther negotiations: 

The Committee of German — Austro-Hungarian and Russian dele- 
gates, which was formed at Brest-LitoA^sk on Jan. 11 for the discus- 
sion of territorial questions, held three long sittings on Friday and 
Saturdaj', Jan. 11 and 12. 

After a brief introductory discussion on formal questions, it was 
settled that among the first points of the Peace Treaty which is to be 
. concluded the termination of the state of war between the belligerent 
parties should be announced. Following on this, M. Trotsky refused 
to declare that the contracting parties were resolved henceforth to 
live in peace and friendship, M. Trotsky considered this to be a 
decorative phrase which does not describe the sense of the relations 
which in the future would exist between the Russian and the German 
people and the peoples of Austria-Hungary ; and he hoped quite other 
things would influence the relations between the peoples. After a 
discussion on this point it was decided to return to it later. 

In the course of further discussion it was confirmed that an agree- 
ment had been obtained as to placing the evacuation of the occupied 
territory by both parties in principle on the basis of full reciprocity, 
so that the evacuation of the Russian territories should be linked with 
the evacuation by Russia of the occupied regions of Austria-Hungary, 
Turkey, and Persia. At a further stage in the negotiations Persia 
was struck out in this context, as it is not a belligerent party. M. 
Trotsky proposed to insert at the end the following sentence : " Rus- 
sia undertakes to remove as speedily as possible her troops from the 
occupied territory of neutral Persia " ; and added that he had no other 
ground for this proposed alternation than the desire to emphasize the 
crying wrong committed by the former Russian GoA-ernment against 
a neutral country. 

Baron von Klihlmann then said that he was all the more glad to 
hear this declaration, as the liveliest sympathies were entertained by 
Germany for the old Persian Kultur and for the Persian nation, and 
thoy wished for nothing more than that in the future the Persians, 
free from oppression, should be able to devote themselves to their 
national Kultur. 

The question as to the date for the evacuation of the occupied 
districts was then discussed. The German proposal was to the effect 
that the evacuation should take place after the conclusion of peace 
when Russia would have demobilised. It was necessary to make the 
evacuation follow the Russian demobilization, the Germans de- 

• The Deutscher Reichsanzeiger of 14 January, 1918, has an account substantially Iden- 
tical with tWa. 



SESSIONS OF U JANUARY. 67 



clared, because there was the danger that Russia, before demobiliz- 
ing, might be able to carry out offensive operations owing to changes 
in the governmental system and intentions at any future tune. 
M. Trotsky then expressed a wish that the evacuation should be 
carried out simultaneously with the demobilization of both parties, 
with regard to which a further agreement could be reached. After 
Baron von Klililmann had pointed out that according to the Russian 
proposal the evacuation of the occupied districts would be prolonged 
until tlie conclusion of a general peace, the discussion on this point 
was broken off. 

The question was then discussed as to what parts of the occupied 
territories evacuation should apply. Baron von Kiihlmann, speak- 
ing on this subject, said: 

In accordance with the definition of the word evacuation, it can only extend 
to those regions whicli are still parts of the State territory of that Power with 
which peace is concluded. It does not extend to such regions which on the 
conclusion of peace no longer form part of this State territory. It would there- 
fore be a matter for investigation as to whether and what portions of the 
former Russian territory could, on the conclusion of peace, be regarded as 
belonging to Russian territory. The Russian Government, in accordance with 
its principles, has proclaimed for. all peoples without exception living in Russia 
the right of self-determination, even going as far as complete separation. We 
maintain that in the regions now occupied by us, the de facto plenipotentiary 
bodies representing the peoples in question, have exercised the right of self- 
determination in the sense of separation from Russia, so that in our view these 
regions can no longer be considered as belonging to the Russian Empire in its 
former shape. 

To this M. Trotsky replied : 

We fully maintain our declaration that peoples inhabiting Russian territory 
have the right of self-determination, without external influence, even to the 
point of separation. We can not, however, recognise the application of this 
principle otherwise than in regard to the peoples themselves, and not in regard 
to certain privileged parts of them. We must reject the view of the President 
of the German Delegation to the effect that the will of the occupied districts 
has been expressed by de facto plenipotentiary bodies, because these de facto 
plenipotentiary bodies could not appeal to the principles proclaimed by us. 

Following on these statements of principle, a long and mainly 
theoretical debate arose on the question as to under what conditions 
and at what time a new State arises by the separation of its com- 
ponent parts from an existing State. 

Baron von Kiihlmann, summing up the point of view of the Cen- 
tral Empires in this question, said : 

Our view is that State individuality emerges and is in a position to make 
legally binding declarations as to the bases of its existence as soon as any 
representative body suited to represent and to act as a mouthpiece announces, 
as the expression of the undoubted will of the overwhelming majority of the 
people in question, a decision to be independent and to exercise the right of 
self-determination. Our view appears to me to approach' considerably nearer 
the character and fundamental correctness of the right of self-determination 



68 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE BBEST-LITOVSK OONFEBENOE, 

than tlie view laid down here by the representative of the Russian Delegation, 
because the latter has not yet told us how a body can arise or be created which 
in a national entity not yet organized is to organize a vote on a broad basis, 
which organization forms, in the opinion of the Russian chairman, the pre- 
requisite condition for the emergence of such a legal entity (Rechtsperson- 
lichlieit). 

In this connection Baron von Kiihlmann referred to the examples 
of Finland and the Ukraine, which had constituted themselves in 
the sense of the principles enunciated by Germany and whose inde- 
pendence the Petrograd Government had recognized, although they 
had not arisen on the principles now represented by it. 

As against this, M. Trotsky adhered to his standpoint by making 
the following remarks respecting the examples cited by the German 
State Secretary. Eegarding Finland, he pointed out that it was 
not occupied by foreign troops. The will of the Finnish people had 
expressed itself in a fashion and manner which could and must be 
designated democratic. Not the slightest objection could be raised 
on the Russian side to the expressed will of the Finnish people be- 
ing actually put into practice. Eegarding the Ukraine, the process 
of such democratic self-determination had not yet been carried 
through there; but as the Ukraine, on the other hand, was not oc- 
cupied by foreign troops and they (the Russians) were also of opin- 
ion that the evacuation of Ukraine territory by Russian troops could 
not produce difficulties of any kind, especially as this was purely a 
technical and not a political question, they saw no hindrance of any 
kind to the self-determination of the Ukraine people leading to the 
recognition of the independent Ukrainian Republic. 

The outcome of the statements of the two sides on this point was 
summed up by Baron von Kiihlmann as follows : 

M. Trotsky, proposed the establishment of representative bodies which should 
be intrusted with the organization and fixing of methods of procedure under 
which popular votes or popular manifestations, which were for the time being 
(einstweilen) purely theoretically conceded by us, shall follow on a broader 
basis, while we take, and must take, the standpoint that in the absence of 
other representative bodies the existing bodies, which have become historical, 
are the presumptive expression of the people's will, especially in the vital 
question of a nation's will to be a nation. 

In the subsequent debate on the character and significance of the 
popular representative bodies operating in occupied territories Baron 
von Kiihlmann and Count Czernin said that their impression was 
that in the December negotiations the Russian Delegation was in- 
clined to recognize the popular representative bodies in the occupied 
territories as de facto representative bodies and to presume that 
their decisions as such expressed the will of the peoples concerned. 

At that time an understanding was reached that in such a provi- 
sional solution of the question of what was the desire of the peoples 
concerned respecting their political attachment a big step might be 
made toward the common goal. 

_M. Joffe, who had taken the lead on the Russian side in the earlier 
discussions, replied that he had always accentuated the necessity of 
carrying out the popular vote with no occupying troops, but he did 
not desire to deny having declared in conversation that in one or 



SESSIONS OP U JANUARY. 69 

two parts of Eussia the existing organs might play a certain role in 
establishing the necessary popular vote. 

M. Trotslq^ hereupon remarked that expressions of will by such 
rtiets, of course, possessed great political importance, and he did not 
want to exclude from expression of their will that part of the coun- 
try's population represented in these Diets. 

Again summing up, Baron von Kiihlmann said it would seem from 
M. Trotsky's statements that the latter was ready to recognize the 
existing organs if these parts of the country were not militarily 
occupied. He would then also attribute to them competency to carry 
out the referendum demanded by him. 

M. Trotsky hereupon declared that the utterances of Diets, munici- 
pal bodies, and such like organs might be regarded as expressions 
of will of a certain influential part of the population, but such 
expressions only constituted a ground for the assumption that the 
jjeople in question was not satisfied with its political position. 

The conclusion followed that a referendum must be taken, for 
which, however, the preliminary condition was the creation of a 
body which could guarantee a free vote of the population. 

In the further course of the discussion M. Trotsky asserted that 
there was a contradiction between the declaration made by the repre- 
sentatives of the Central Powers on Dec. 25 and the formulation of 
points 1 and 2 on Dec. 27, which, indeed, was shown clearly in the 
comments of the German Press. 

Baron von Kiihlmann, in reply, said that both documents were 
emanations of the same spirit and the same policy as was announced 
by the Chancellor in his programme speech in the Reichstag. This 
speech, in effect, already contained the Allies' declaration of Dec. 25, 
and thus also indicated that German policy intended to direct its 
relations toward Poland, Lithuania, and Courland, with due con- 
sideration for the people's right of self-determination. 

In further remarks. Baron von Kiihlmann took up the standpoint 
that the parts of Eussia striving for severance after declarations of 
the will of the organs already existing were, even now, justified in 
making such agreements as they held to be good and useful for 
their future. Should such agreements contain dispositions relative 
to intended frontier rectifications it was not clear why these terri- 
tories should not be just as free to do what they pleased in these 
questions as in others. 

M. Trotsky thought he could not but see in this conception an 
undermining of the principle of self-determination, and raised the 
question why these organs of the peoples in question had not been 
invited to the Brest-Litovsk negotiations if they ought to have the 
right of disposal even over portions of territory. Such participation 
of representatives of these peoples in the negotiations was naturally 
not thought of, because these nations were regarded, not as subjects, 
but as objects of the negotiations. 
In reply, Baron von Kiihlmann said : 

The previous speaker has complained that we have here no representatives 
of the nations under discussion. If by that he wished to express the opinion 
that in his view these national individualities have now been created, and can, 
in the exercise of the right of self-determination, undertake foreign relations. 



70 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BBEST-LITOVSK CONFEBENCE. 

I, on my part, am ready fully to recognize this admission of the Russian Dele- 
gation and discuss the idea whether, and In what form it would be possible for 
representatives of the nations in question to take part in our negotiations. 

Count Czernin also expressed his readiness to enter into further 
discussion as to inviting representatives of the regions under dis- 
cussion, but he wished to know how they would be selected if the 
Eussians did not acknowledge that the representative bodies in ex- 
istence in these regions were entitled to speak in the name of the 
nations which they represented. 

Hereupon M. Trotsky, having regard to these extraordinarily im- 
portant declarations of the representatives of the Central Powers, 
moved the adjournment of the sitting in order to enable the Russian 
Delegation to hold a consultation and to get into touch with their 
Government. 

39. Session of CoMariTTEE on Territorial Questions, 11 Januart. 

RUSSIAN ACCOU^IT. 

[From the (British) Daily Revieio oj the Foreign Press, 22 January, 1918, p. 650.] 

The Petrograd account of the negotiations of Jan. 12, now to hand, 
reports the discussion wliich followed on lines generally in accord- 
ance with the German account printed in the Daily Review (Jan. 16, 
p. 599), but the more detailed report given of the debate on the 
evacuation of Persia has some interest. In the course of the debate 
on the evacuation of occupied territories, M. Trotsky asked permis- 
sion to make an alteration in the proposed agreement on this point, 
which includes the sentence : 

Russia Avithdraws her troops from the territories occupied by them 
in Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Persia. The Persian Charge 
d'Aff aires in Petrograd had oVijected to Persia being thus coupled, 
as she was not the Ally of any of them, and he (M. Trotsky) con- 
sequently proposed to eliminate the word Persia and substitute for it 
the words : " Russia pledges herself within the shortest possible time 
to withdraw her troops from neutral Persia." 

Baron von Kiihlmann, taking note of this, said : 

An immediate definition of our respective points of view is probably not 
necessary. I do not doubt that the misgivings of the Persian Ambassador (sio) 
regarding the wording proposed by the Russian delegation are based on some 
foundation. Nevertheless, as I have said, it would be difficult to express oneself 
immediately on so vast a question. We will express our point of view if the 
Russian proposal is communicated to us in writing. 

M. Teotsky. I would only add that our only object in suggesting the change 
is to emphasize the crying injustice done by our former Government to a neutral 
country. 

Baron von Kuhlmann. I welcome this declaration the more Inasmuch as the 
greatest sympathy is entertained by the Central Powers for the Persian people 
as the representative of an ancient civilization, and we hope that it may be able 



SESSIONS OF 11 JANUARY., 71 

to id-omote its national civilization witliout being subjected to oppression from 
its neighbors. 

[Note. — The following passage does not appear in the German 
report at all.] 

M. Trotsky. "We, on our part, will supplement such a declaration if it is made 
on behalf of Turkey. 

Baron von KunLiitAiS'N. I am not empowered to speak in the name of Turkey. 
I will, however, mention the matter to our Turkish allies, and I can already 
promise that if the President of the Russian Delegation will ask his British 
friends also to evacuate Persia, then not a single Turkish soldier will long remain 
on Persian soil. 

JI. Tkotsky. I can not enter into obligations with a country which is not tak- 
ing part in the jjourparlers, and if the question were given a wider basis, then 
it would be necessary to put it forward in connection with some other neutral 
countries — Belgium, for example. 

Baron von Kiihlmann objected to this digression, and the delega- 
tions then proceeded to discuss the question of evacuation of the 
occupied territories from the points of view of neutrality and time. 
While the Russians considered that evacuation and demobilization 
should take place simultaneously on both sides, the Austrian and 
German delegations said they could not consent to this for two rea- 
sons, firstly, because while a conclusion of peace between the countries 
represented would mean the end of the war for Russia, the Central 
Powers would still have to fight on; and, secondly, they would have 
no security against changes in Russia which might alter the situation 
to their detriment. 'SI. Trotsky said : 

We quite understand the ideas expressed by the President of the German 
Delegation regarding possiljle changes. We on our side anticipated them also 
in the natural order of things, but we reckon. that any changes resulting from 
the ordeal of the war A-s'ill conduce not to an exacerbation of the relations between 
peoples, but, on the contrary, to an ever-growing elimination of the danger of 
fresh conflicts. We are, therefore, of the view that that consideration should 
in no way be an obstacle to the simultaneity of evacuation and demobilization. 

Again, no decision is recorded, and on the motion of Baron von 
Kiihlmann the discussion of the extent of the occupied territories to 
be e\acuated and demobilisation. 

Again, no decision is recorded, and on the motion of Baron von 
Kiihlmann the discussion of the extent of the occupied territories to be 
evacuated was taken up. 

[Note. — The Russian account here closely follows the German 
account already published of the speech of Baron von Kiihlmann on 
the point, but a much longer account is given of the speech of M. 
Trotsky.] 

The President of the Russian Delegation, replying to Baron von 
Kiihlmann said : 

We must cate.gorica]ly reject the interpretation given to the view of the 
President of the German Delegation regarding the votes of what he called really 
plenipotentiary organs. These " really plenipotentiary organs " could not cor- 
respond to the principles proclaimed by us, for these principles had a purely 



72 PBOCEEDINGS OF THE BREST- LITOVSK CONPEEENCE. 

deinncratic basis constructed by the will of the peoples affected. At the same 
time we consider that the will of the people can only be expressed freely and 
without restraint on condition that the foreign troops are first evacuated from 
the occupied territories. We understand ))y foreign troops and troops of occu- 
pation the German and Austro-Hungarlan troops, and similarly the Russian 
troops after the withdrawal of the German and Austro-Hungarian armies. 
The occupied territory does not correspond to the real boundaries of the re- 
gions inhabited by the peoples affected, but we, as we have often laid down,' 
are ready to give the same right of self-determination to the Inhabitants of 
the provinces adjoining the occupied provinces on condition that the correspond- 
ing institutions, upon the character of which an understanding must be reached, 
shall guarantee that the line indicating the whole of the territory of the peoples 
who are freely to determine their own fate shall go beyond the limits of 
occupation. 

[Note. — Owing to the fact, it is pointed out from Petrograd, that 
Baron von Kiihlmann spoke in German, the Russian stenographic 
report now becomes very confused, and it differs from the German 
account, the Russian account continuing, as follows :] 

After further discussion. Baron von Kiihlmann, speaking in Ger- 
man, observes : 

I have said that the limited boundaries of the occupation of Lithuania or 
Courland should not be confounded with the ethnographical limits of Russian 
territory ; that they should be provisionally fixed by bodies with sufficient 
powers to determine subsequently the free national frontiers ; and that this 
question should be solved by means of a referendum. For the' moment I do 
not wish to discuss the question just touched upon by the previous speaker, 
because that would lead us outside the limits of tlie matter which I wished to 
present for discussion. At the present moment we find ourselves engaged in a 
discussion on the fundamental question of all our debates, especially what pre- 
liminary steps are indispensable for the declaration of a people wishing to 
separate itself in carrying out its right of self-determination. The President 
of the Russian Delegation made his declaration, at least, with the implication 
that the source of the right of self-determination was found in the will of the 
Russian people. Tliis declaration was made without any indication of condi- 
tions or any terms whatsoever, and it created for this reason such a judiciary 
position that it can by no means be said that its consequences will be limited 
exclusively to the internal relations of the Russian State. On the contrary, this 
question without doubt affects in a very Important degree questions of inter- 
national relations. 



[From the (British) Daily Ttcvictr of the Foreign Pres:<, 23 .January, 1918, 

p. 663. .1 

A further section of the Russian stenographic report of the sit- 
ting of the peace delegations at Brest-Litovsk on Jan. 11/12 is tele- 
graphed by the Petrograd Telegraph Agency under date Jan. 21. 
The following is a continuation of Baron von Kiihlmann's speech, 
part of wltich M-as piinted in the Daily Review (Jan. 22). It should 
again be noted that, as the Petrograd Agency points out, the text 



SESSIONS OF 11 JANUARY. 73 

of Baron von Kiihlmann's speech, which was delivered in German, 
is in many places obscure. 

Baron von Kiihlmann continued : 

According to the most substantial views, to the right of self-determination 
there also belongs, without doubt, the possibility of defining in a certain degree 
the people's international relations, for this right appears automatically at 
the moment when the people springs into being as a separate entity. From 
the moment when the new State has expressed its will to enter into interna- 
tional relations with States situated outside the borders of the Russian State, 
new and grave international questions arise. We have already witnessed 
such cases. For example, we have heard the proclamation of independence 
made by Finland. Finland immediately communicated to the foreign States 
her decision to enter into international relations, and has already obtained to a 
wide extent an acknowledgment of her independence. 

Yesterday, thanks to the significant declaration of the Ukrainian delega- 
tion, a similar question, but of much greater importance and gravity, arose 
before our intimate circle. By a thorough -analysis of the difference in the 
conceptions of the Chairman of the Russian delegation and those of the Allied 
(Central) Powers, it is evident that there is no agreement as to the exact 
moment when a new people's independent legal condition and full power of 
action appear. Our opinion amounts to this : That the national individuality 
of a people carries with it the right to declare its necessary legal constitution, 
and that the principles of its individual existence should be accepted as soon 
as this constitution is declared by some representative institution adopted by 
the masses of the people, and really capable by reason of its origin to appear 
as representing the expression of the will of an overwhelming majority of the 
people and demonstrating its free character by its leaning toward justice. 

It seems to me that our conception approaches considerably nearer the char- 
acter and excessive gravity of the right of free disposal than the conception 
set forth, albeit in general terms, by the representative of the Russian dele- 
gation, for although he declared to us that such an explanation should in his 
view be made on a democratic basis, nevertheless he did not tell us what should 
be the manner of the formation or the nature of the composition of the body 
which will be obliged to undertake in the midst of peoples not yet organized, 
but tending toward individuality, the organization of an inquiry on the most 
extensive basis, destined, according to the Russian representative, to be the 
preliminary to the formation of such a legal entity. 

In my view this is one of the most important of the preliminary fundamen- 
tal questions, for the questions placed in the forefront by the Chairman of the 
Russian delegation, as to how much the presence of armed forces in the voting 
may influence the result of the polls, appears to be a question which can only 
be discussed as supplementary to that of the presence of troops. If the Chair- 
man of the Russian delegation wishes it, I shall suggest the opening of a 
discussion of this question: When, in the opinion of the Chairman of the 
Russian delegation, such a people makes its appearance, what are, according 
to him, the means by which such a people, which has recently made its ap- 
pearance, can set forth in a form which he allows to be satisfactory its desire 
for its independence in general and its separation in particular? 

M. Trotsky replied : 

Morally, the Chairman of the German delegation is perfectly right, and I 
note the divergence of opinions when he spoke of what should be the reply to 



74 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BREST-LITOVSK CONFEEENCE. 

the question : At what juncture precisely do new nationalities and new States 
appear in the international arena? 

B:iron VON KtJHLMANN. You refer to the legal form of the State. 

ax. Teotsky. In any case, I can not agree — and this is the view of otir Gov- 
ernment — that anybody affected by the occupation of the territory in question, 
and ■\:hirh regards itself as tlio appointed organ of the people concerned, while 
using as its support the claims of foreign troops which are in solid occupation, 
can be concerned, or that it ouj^lit to be so recognized. In any case, especially 
where a State is created by the people and not artificially formed by the 
superior authority of such or such powerful empire, if the body which claims to 
represent the will of the people has always the means of exercising control, 
then the will of that body can only be considered as the expression of personal 
policy. Control should consist in an inquiry put to the whole population con- 
voked to exercise the right of free self-determination. Such an inquiry is called 
a referendum. 

As to the provinces which interest us, it is just in them that are to be found 
bodies incomparably more competent than those of which the Chairman of the 
German delegation spoke — competent by reason of their support from the mass 
of the people, whom they encourage to express themselves just before they 
depend on their support. Thus we arrive at the theory that each body is 
historically evolved which first expressed itself in the name of the people ; this 
theory is the principle, or rather the right of free self-determination. And 
now, at a time when a decisive significance attaches to bodies historically 
evolved, the right of self-determination has not been asserted at all, and can 
not be asserted. As regards Finland, It is here that we have the most favourable 
example for the purpose of illustrating our idea. . Finland was not occupied by 
foreign troops. The will of the people, expressed through democratic channels, 
formulated itself immediately. 

As to the Ukraine, there this democratic self-determination is not yet com- 
plete. But as in the Ukraine there are no foreign troops, and neither we nor 
the Ukrainians doubt that the Russian troops will withdraw themselves from 
Ukrainian territory and set no obstacle in the way of the self-determination of 
the Ukraine, and as this is purely a technical and not a political question, 
accordingly we find absolutely no reason why the self-determination of the 
Ukrainian people should not become a declaration of the independence of the 
Ukrainian Republic. The scheme elaborated by the President of the German 
delegation excludes in practice, in the present state of the masses of the people, 
the possibility of a solution to this question. A solution can not be reached in 
practice, because the will of this or that Landtag may come into conflict with 
the opposite will of other sections of the population which have a proper and 
organised means of social and political expression. 



RUSSIAN ACCOUNT — C0NT1>;UED. 

[From the (Britisli) Dailii Roricir of the Forciijn Press, 2^ .January, 1918, 

p. GS3.] 

A further section of the Russian stenographic report of the sitting 
of the peace delegations at Brest-Litovsk, on the 11th inst., is tele- 
graphed by the Petrograd Telegraph Agency, under the date Jan. 
22. The following is the continuation of Trotsky's speech, part of 



SESSIONS OF 11 JANUARY. 75 

which was printed in the Daily Revieio (Jan. 23, p. 664). The Ger- 
man version is given in the Daily Review (Jan. 16, pp. 599-601). 
M. Trotsky continued: 

* * * And we shall not find any other means of settling a conflict 
between the toUs of an entire people. Let us take as a single example the 
question of Riga. The former municipality there was replaced by a new one, 
and as a result the whole question of the will of the people of Riga depended 
upon which of the two representations we should have to consider as being 
the most faithful interpretation of the will of the urban population ; and if it 
is remembered that all the provinces of Russia were undergoing at the moment 
of occupation a process of complete democratization it is, because from the point 
of view of the President of the German Delegation, the destiny of these terri- 
tories would depend on the date and moment of the invasion of the provinces 
by the occupying troops and on the political regime they found in these prov- 
inces. Such a solution of the question would ruin the future relations of the 
State, no matter how stable that State may be. 

We are of opinion that in order that the will of the people in the new prov- 
inces may be expressed without respect of persons it is indispensable to create 
an organ of revision which would represent the State and its social and polit- 
ical organizations and groups with sufficient fullness and that the immediate 
problem would be to institute referenda of the peoples in order that they should 
decide their own destinies. 

Kdhlmann. Regarding the last point which the speaker had brought up, I 
must ask who would be responsible for the creation of this organ and from 
whom it would receive its commands and its authority for the creation of such 
organs? Who would give the creator of these organs the right to impose a 
referendum on these people? In the opinion of the last speaker, it is a perfect 
ideal ; but it is quite possible that it will correspond neither with the desire 
nor the disposition of these peoples. 

Tkotskt. I am taking part with much interest in the debates on these ques- 
tions, which, thanks to the kindly forethought of the President of the German 
Delegation, are reaching ever-increasing proportions. As regards the legal 
difliculties brought forward by the President of the German Delegation, it may 
be pointed out, if we pursue this example, that none of the Diets have received 
from anyone the right to settle the political fate of their provinces, and if one 
or other of the Diets expressed its wishes regarding the existence of an inde- 
pendent State, that would constitute an infraction of an absolutely revolu- 
tionary character. I say that not as an objection to such Infringements of 
law. As regards the Russian Delegation, that is understood. The question 
for us is simply this : In what form and by whom can legal continuity be 
interrupted in the interest of the peoples concerned ? We take into account the 
fact that these social organizations, which represent large masses of people, 
have a right mucli greater than a revolutionary right to interrupt the con- 
tinuity of a State and to take the initiative in a referendum of the people, in 
the name of the classes on which they rely. If it is shown that the people 
reject the referendum, then the people will always have the power by their 
votes of conferring their plenary powers on a suitable Diet. I do not know, 
however, a single instance in history where it has seemed good to the people, 
or where they have ever claimed, that the right of voting or a referendum 
Imposed from outside has not been in accordance with their ideals. If this 
danger threatened us, therefore, I think the matter could be settled to our 
mutual advantage without any difiiculty whatsoever. 



76 PROCEEDINGS OP THE BREST-LITOVSK CONPEEENOE. 

KtJHLMANN. Judging from the tone of his remarks, the President of the Rus- 
sian Delegation does not appear to wish that the scope of our negotiations 
should be extended. 

Tkotsky. On the contrary. 

KiJi-iLMANN. In view of the exclusive importance of these questions which we 
are debating and the great responsibility which is imposed on us in their solu- 
tion, I admit it is necessary to discuss them thoroughly from the theoretical 
point of view. In answer to my questions whence these authorities obtained 
their power to grant the peoples such and such a form of government, the 
President of the Russian Delegation replied that even a revolution should not 
impose its will on others. I think that the President shares my opinion that a 
revolution bases its justice on force. The ob.iect of our negotiations, however, 
• is to pass from the region of force into the region of understanding. 

Teotsky. I am absolutely in agreement, and my entire argument is based 
on that. In other Words, I suppose that, if one or other of the provinces was 
formed, not on the definite will of the people, which had time to evidence itself, 
but on a will imposed from an outside source, or even on a hereditary and out- 
of-date organization, tlien there will always remain for that people the right 
of appeal and revolution. But just on that account I find that the problem of 
the negotiations consists in freeing a people from the extremely difficult task 
of restoring its lost rights by revolutionary means. To (?for) that reason we 
propose to create such organs as will give to the people themselves the responsi- 
bility of choosing the form of self-determination which they desire. 

KttHLMANN. The reason why I referred to the source from which these new 
organizations and institutions might be founded is that I affirm that, in the 
cases where representative and ]iistorlcal organs are wanting, the present rep- 
resentatives must be accepted temporarily as repesentation of the people. I 
must deny as totally without foundation all reproaches that these organs are 
formed by an external influence, or that their decisions are influenced by ex- 
ternal pressure. 

Baron von Kiihlmann proceeded to propose the establishment of 
representative organs, the details and forms of which vsrould have to 
be settled, and dealt with the bases of a wider referendum for the 
expression of the will of the peoples, who were still, though theoreti- 
cally, a part of the Russian people. 

Our standpoint is now, and must continue to be, that failing other representa- 
tive organs, the existing organs and those which have arisen in the process 
of historical development must be presumed to express the will of the people, 
especially as regards the vital question of the nation's desire to maintain its 
individuality. 

M. Trotsky said : 

In order to avoid possible misvmderstandings, to which my attention has 
been drawn )iy my colleague, M. Kamenev, and others, I think it is absolutely 
necessary to repeat exactly what our position is. Giving to the fact that the 
peoples to which we refer belong to the Russian Empire, we desire to make 
no suggestion which might in the smallest degree limit or prevent freedom of 
action on the part of the peoples themselves. The question for us is entirely a 
matter of securing that the free expression of the peoples in the future shall 
be really a free and unhindered expression. At the same time I am obliged 
to draw the attention of the Commission to the fact that differences of opinion 
exist, not only regarding the constitution but also the powers of these pro- 
visional organs. For example, the President of the German Delegation agrees 



SESSIONS OP 11 JANTJAKY. 77 

with us as to the possibility of there being no organs endowed with full powers 
for the expression of the peoples' will on a particular territory. He finds it 
absolutely necessary, in view of the absence of such organs, to accept the 
competency for the time being of the existing organs as regards other purposes 
than those for which they were established. But he immediately proceeds to 
enlarge this competency to an extent which is not called for by the circum- 
stances of the case. Instead of proposing to acknowledge these organs as 
qualified to cooperate with the other organs which serve to express the popular 
will, he acknowledges their declarations as being in themselves adequate expres- 
sions of the people's will. For our part, as regards the provisional institutions 
which we shaU find it indispensable to create, we propose — as accords naturally 
with their position — to look upon their task as serving solely toward a more 
complete expression of the popular will. With reference to the protests against 
the assertion that the ideas or, if you like, the will of the " Landtag " would 
be subjected to external pressure, I conceive it necessary to point out the 
essential fact of the situation, which is incontestable, namely, that these organs 
represent very scanty populations, and that they voice their opinions at a 
moment when foreign troops are in occupation of the territory for which they 
speak; that, to our view, contains the whole gist of the matter. 

Baron von Kuhlmann. I should like to point out that before the pourparlers 
were interrupted the Russian Delegation was disposed to acquiesce in our 
contention that the existing organs of popular representation ought to be ac- 
cepted as representative bodies entitled to express the will of the people. 
This was one of the things which enabled me to take an optimistic view as to 
the final issue of the negotiations. Our point of view has been made sufficiently 
clear by what I have said. 



KUSSIAX ACCOUNT COXCLtJDED. 

[From the (British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, 26 January, 1918, 

p. 696.] 

The following message is a continuation of the Eussian steno- 
graphic report of the sitting of the peace delegates at Brest-Litovsk 
on the 11th inst. It follows on the long report printed in the Daily 
Eeview (Jan. 25). which concluded with a statement by Baron von 
Kiihlmann. 

Baron von Kiihlmann continued : 

I would hail it as a distinct result of our debates on this question if the 
President of the Russian delegation would take the same point of view as it. 
seemed the delegation was ready to take. 

If, in spite of my hopes and desires, that does not take place, I should be very 
grateful if the President of the Russian delegation would make known to us 
his exact proposals and teU us who is to form these temporary administrative 
organs, and in what relation they must stand to the already existing repre- 
sentative bodies. Does the President desire to give a reply immediately, or 
later? I have begged the Russian delegation briefly to explain why it is 
unwilling to take up the point of view, which it adopted before the Christmas 
interruption, and in clear terms asked it to consent to recognize the existing 
administrative organs as a convenient instrument for the expression of the 
will of the people who, in the opinion of the Russian delegation, ought to ap- 



78 PROCEEDINGS OP THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFERENCE. 

point these provisional administrative organs to the existing organs, and what 
are the precise problems of the new organs? 

Tbotsky. As regards the Christmas interruption of the negotiations, which 
has been twice called here an interruption which had a political significance, 
that is an entirely unfounded statement. I think that my old friend, M. Joffe, 
will be able to give a better reply, and he will do it immediately. I ought to 
say, for my part, that the delegation returned home to Petrograd before the 
Christmas interval with two proposals, in which could be perceived the extent 
of the divergence of views between us and the delegation of the other side — a 
divergence of views which still exists. 

51. Joffe. I desire to supplement what has been said by the President of the 
Russian Delegation in my capacity as its previous President. It is my duty to 
testify that the records of our sittings before Christmas show that the Russian 
Delegation demonstrated beyond any question the Inadmissibility of the taking 
of a vote in the occupied territories while actually invaded by foreign troops, 
and that it declared the impos.sibility of regarding a vote so taken as an accept- 
able expression of the will of the people. Taking up this standpoint we insist 
that the U\o formulas bring out strongly the divergence of our views on the 
matter. 

Baron von Kuhlmann. What M. .JofCe has just told us does not altogether 
meet my objections. What he has said is pei-fectly correct, but I have an 
impression that, although the fact was not actually recorded in the protocol, 
the gentlemen of the Russian Delegation were disposed to recognize the pro- 
visional organs as organs that could be held qualified to express the will of 
the people. 

Count CzEKNiN. I should like to add to what my German colleague has said 
that, although the fact was certainly uot recorded in the prosolution, we did 
understand in the course of our private conversations that such a temporary 
solution might help to carry matters a step forward. 

M. Joffe. Naturally, I can not be responsible for the German and Austro- 
Hungarian delegation, but I would emphasize once more that both in the in- 
formal conversations and during the official discussions none of us ever gave 
the slightest reason for the supposition that the proposals contained in Nos. 1 
and 2 of the Austro-German draft could be accepted in any form by the Russian 
Governnient. 

Baron auk Kxthlmann. That clearly appears to be the impression made on 
Count Czernin, and I would ask the President of the Russian Delegation to 
give a reply to the questions which I have put, or, if he pleases, to postpone it 
until later. 

M. Teotsky. Before replying to this question I would like to say a few 
words: For us all the declarations of a Landtag are of the greatest political 
importance. We do not exclude the common will of the people from this party, 
•which is represented by the Landtag, and, even if there had been no occupation, 
such a Landtag would have declared that it demanded for Lithuania or Cour- 
land an independent existence. We have deemed it sufficient to put the question 
of a referendum on the order of the day. In this matter we are all united, 
independently of the Christmas Interruption. As to the questions put here, 
they are not without their importance, but they have more of a technical and 
subordinate .significance, and we will give our \\-ritten reply as soon as we have 
formulated it. It seemed, however, to us to be absolutely necessary to have a 
preliminary discussion of the guiding principles governing the creation of such 
•1 provisional organ. 

Baron von KiJi-iLMANN. I have nothing to object to in that. I would merely 
like to assure myself that I have properly understood the preceding speaker. 



SESSIONS OF 11 JANTJABY. 79 

AS I understand him, he suggests, with regard to Courland and Lithuania, that, 
if the occupation had not talien place, he for his pai-t would have agreed to 
recognize the existing organs as provisional organs which could have full power 
to hold the nest public elections, which he calls the referendum. I would be 
glad if that could be stated perfectly clearly so as to avoid all misunder- 
standing. 

M. Tkotsky. As regards the general question of the future fate of a people, 
forming part of a present State, it is necessary that, from the midst of this 
people, an authoritative expression of opinion as to its destiny should be made. 

Similar demands may take different forms. In one case it may be a rebel- 
lion, as in India and Ireland ; in another, it may take the form of declarations 
by a Landtag or by municipalities and Zemstva, anji we should regard the voice 
of the Landtag as an expression of opinion on the part of a certain influential 
party of the people ,iust as if such declarations were made in the same country, 
let us say, by representative bodies of peasants, by unions of workmen or pro- 
fessional men, or by political parties. All that would enable us to understand 
that there existed among a certain people a feeling of discontent with its posi- 
tion. The only possible deduction would be that an inquiry would have to be 
instituted by the authorities as to the definite opinion of the people themselves, 
and, for that purpose, it would be absolutely necessary to establish .such a pro- 
visional organ which, in the conditions given, would elfectively assure a free 
vote of the people interested. 

Baron von Ktjhlman. I think it is now necessary to adjourn the sitting, and 
I propose, in order not to lose time, to continue it to-day after dinner at 5.30. 
That means that we will meet again at 5.30 p. m. 

The sitting was adjourned at 1.15. 



[From the (British) Daih/ Revieio of the Foreign Press, 21 January, 1918, 

p. 643.] 

The following pvirports to be a Knssian wireless message regarding 
the above session: 

Beest-Litovsk, Jan. 18. 

The meeting to-day, during the further discussion of the Russian 
Delegation's point of view regarding the manner of the self-deter- 
mination of the population in the Russian regions occupied by the 
Germans, showed clearly still greater divergence upon this question 
of both sides. The solutions of the contested questions ^s proposed 
by the Russian Delegation caused a sharp protest by General Hoff- 
mann, who even said that the suggested solutions could be accepted 
only by a defeated side. The meeting ended with the proposal to 
ask the approval of the Governments concerned in the newly created 
situation. 

The date of the continuation of the negotiations was not fixed. 

(Signed) Samoilo. 



80 proceedings of the bbest-litovsk conference. 

40. Session of Committee on Territorial Questions, 12 Januaey. 

GERMAN account. 

[From the (British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, 16 January, 1918, 

p. 600.*] 

At the sitting on Jan. 12 (the following day) Baron von Kiihl- 
mann, after summarizing the result of the previous deliberations, 
finally remarked: 

We expressed the view that the peoples dwelling on the western frontier 
of the former Russian Empire had already expressed their will in a manner 
that was adequate and was for us authoritative. On the suggestion of the 
Chairman of the Russian Delegation we also declared it an idea quite open to 
discussion wliether and under what conditions these new States might par- 
ticipate in the peace negotiations. We have not yet, however, been clearly 
informed by the Russian Delegation whether in their view these States already 
exist as independent legal entities, and therefore whether, to use an expression 
employed by the Russian Delegation, they can participate as subjects at the 
discussion or whether until further notice they are to be regarded merely as 
objects of statesmanship. I should be grateful if the Russian Delegation 
would answer this question in a manner excluding all doubt. 

Without entering upon the question under discussion, M. Trotsky 
hereupon asked the Delegates to hear M. Kameneff. The latter said 
that the Russian Delegation had come convinced that to avoid all 
misunderstandings it was necessary to make certain changes in the 
methods of procedure employed hitherto. 

It proposed that both parties should put in writing their views 
unfolded during the discussion. In connection with this proposal 
the Eussian Delegation reiterated its inability to recognize, as ex- 
pressing the will of the people in the occupied districts, declarations 
made by one or other social group or by institutions in so far as 
these declarations were made under foreign occupation and emanated 
from organs whose rights did not rest on popular election and which 
could only maintain their life by keeping within limits which did 
not bring them into conflict with the plans of the military occupation 
authorities. 

The delegation further made the following declaration : 

As during occupation nowhere, either in Poland, Lithuania, or Courland, 
could there be constituted, or could there exist, any democratically elected 
organs which could lay claims, with any right whatever, to be considered as 
expressfng the will of large circles of the population as regards the substance 
of any declaration deaUng with any efCort to attain complete State independ- 
ence, the Russian deleRation declares : 

(1) From the fact that the occupied territories belong to the former Russian 
Empire the Russian Government draws no conclusions which would impose any 
constitutional obligation on the population of these regions in relation to the 
Russian Government. The old frontiers of the former Russiim Empire, frontiers 



* The Deutsoher RelcliaoMiselger of 14 January, 1918, has an account substantlallv iden- 
tical with this. 



SESSIONS OF 13 JANUARY. 81 

formed by acts of violence and crime against peoples, especially against the 
Polish people, have, together vs'ith Tsarlsm, vanished. The new frontiers of the 
Fraternal League of the Peoples of the Russian Republic and of the peoples 
which desire to remain outside its borders, must be formed by free resolutions 
of the peoples concerned. 

(2) The main task of the present negotiations (or the Russian Government 
does not consist therefore in defending in any way whatever a further forcible 
retention of the territories mentioned within the borders of the Russian Empire 
but in safeguarding real freedom of self-determination as to the internal State 
organization and the international position of such territories. The Russian 
Republic will feel itself secure against being dragged into any territorial dis- 
putes and conflicts only when it is convinced that the line which separates it 
from its neighbors has been formed by the free will of the peoples themselves, 
not by violence from above which could only suppress that will for a short time. 

(3) Our task thus understood presupposes a previous understanding on the 
part of Germany and Austria on the one hand and Russia on the other, of four 
main points relative to the extent of territory over which any population will 
be called upon to exercise the right of self-determination ; relative to the gen- 
eral political prerequisites governing the solution of the question of the political 
destinies of the territories and nations concerned ; relative to the transitional 
regime that shall exist until the moment of the final political constitution of 
these territories ; relative to the nature and form in which the population of 
these territories will be required to make their will known. The aggregate of 
replies to these questions is formed by the paragraphs of the Peace Treaty 
which are to replace Paragraph 2 of the German proposal of Dec. 28, 1917. 

The Russian delegation on its part proposes the following solution 
of these questions : 

(1) The right to territory and self-determination belongs to nations, not to 
those parts thereof that are occupied, as is provided by Paragraph 2 of the 
German Treaty of Dec. 28. Accordingly, the Russian Government, on its 
own initiative, grants the right of simultaneous self-determination also to 
those parts of nations which are outside the occupied regions. Russia binds 
herself not to compel these territories, either directly or indirectly, to accept 
this or any other State organization nor to restrict their independence through 
tarifE or military conventions that might be concluded prior to the final con- 
stitution of these regions on the basis of their right to self-determination. 

The Governments of Germany and Austria-Hungary, on their part, categori- 
cally confirm the absence of any claims whatever, either to the annexation of 
the territories of the former Russian Empire now occupied by the armies of 
Germany and Austria-Hungary, or so-called frontier rectifications at the cost 
of these regions. They further undertake not to compel these regions to accept 
this or that State form, nor to restrict their independence by any tariff of 
military conventions which might be concluded before the constitution of these 
regions on the basis of the political right of self-determination of the nations 
inhabiting them. The solution of the question regarding the fate of regions 
which are determining their own lot must take place under conditions of full 
political freedom and in the absence of external pressure. The voting must 
therefore take place after the withdrawal of foreign armies and the return 
of the fugitives and of the population removed since the beginning of the 
war The date for the withdrawal of the armies will be determined by a special 
commission in accordance with the situation as regards transport and food 
supply. After the termination of the world war the protection of law and 
90244—18 6 



82 PROCEEDINGS OP THE BBEST-LITOVSK CONFERENCE. 

order in regions undergoing the process of self-determination devolves on the 
national armies and local militia. 

Fugitives and those removed by the occupation authorities since the begin- 
ning of the Avar will be given full freedom and the material possibility of return- 
ing. lte;;ar(Ung (3), from the moment of the signature of peace until the final 
political constitution of the territories named their internal administration 
and the direction of their local affairs, finances, etc., passes into the hands of 
the temporary organ formed liy understanding between political parties which 
hare proved tlieir vitality in the midst of their people before and during the 
war. The main tasl-c of these temporary organs consists, simultaneously with 
the maintenance of tlie normal course of social and economic life, in the organi- 
zation of a plebiscite. 

(4) The final solution of the question of the State position of the territories 
in question and the form of their State organization v/ill follow by a general 
referendum. "With a view to expediting the work of the Peace Conference, the 
Russian Delegation considers it extraordinarily important to receive from the 
German and Austro-Hungarian Delegations a complete and exact reply to all 
those questions which are raised in this declaration. As regards other ques- 
tions, they might be so treated that they were answered in conjunction with 
the exact reply to these points. 

General Hoffmann then spoke. He said : 

I must first protest against the tone of these proposals. The Russian Delega- 
tion talks to us as if it stood victorious in our countries and could dictate condi- 
tions to us. I would like to point out that the facts are just the reverse ; that 
the victorious German Army stands in youi- territory. I would like^ then, to 
state tliat the Russian Delegation demands for the occupied territories the appli- 
cation of a right (if self-determination of peoples in a manner and to an extent 
which its Government does not apply to its <iwn country. Its Government is 
founded purely on power and, indeed, on power which ruthlessly suppres.sed 
by force all who tliink otlierwise. Everyone with different views is simply, 
as a counter-revolutionary and bourgeois, declared an outlaw. I will only sub- 
stantiate this my view by two examples. During the niglit of Dec. 30 the 
First White Russian Congress at Minsk, which desired to put into force the 
self-determination right of the White Russian people, was broken up by Jlaxi- 
malists with l)ayonet and machine gun. 

When the Ul^rainians claimed their right of self-determiuation, the Petrograd 
Government sent an ultimatum and endeavored to carry through their will by 
force of arms. As far as I can make out from wireless messages here before 
me, civil war is still in progress. Thus do the Maximalists apply the self-deter- 
mination right of peoples in practice. The German Supreme Army Command 
must, therefore, decline to interfere in the settlement of the occupied territories. 
As far as we are concerned, the peoples of the occupied territories have already 
clearly and unmistakably expressed the wish for severance from Russia. Among 
the most important decisions of the population, I should like to point out the 
foUoAiing: On Sept. 21, 1917, the Courland Diet (Landesversammlung), which 
described itself expressly as representing the entire population of Cour- 
land, requested the protection of the German Empire. On Dec. 11, 1917, 
the Lithunnian Landesrat, which is recognized liy Lithuanians at home and 
abroad as the sole authorized representative of the Lithuanian people, pro- 
claimed its desire for severance from all cimstitutional connections which have 
hitherto existod with other peoples. On Dec. 27 the Municipal Council of 



SESSIONS OP 12 JANUAEY. 83 

Riga made a similar request of the German Empire. This request was sup- 
ported by tlie Riga Cliamber of Commerce, the Great Guilds, representatives of 
the rural population, and seventy societies. 

Finally, in December, 1917, representatives of the Orders of Knighthood, the 
rural, urban, and ecclesiastical communities on the islands of Oesel, Dago, and 
Moon, in various declarations, severed themselves from their previous connec- 
tions. For technical administrative reasons, too, the Supreme German Army 
Command must refuse to evacuate Courland, Lithuania, Riga, and the islands in 
the Riga Gulf. None of these regions has administrative organs, legal or judi- 
cial organs, railways, telegraphs, or posts. All is in German possession, under 
German management. They are also unable within measurable time, owing to 
lack of the appropriate organs, to establish their own militia or soldiery. 

Bar Oil von Kiihlmann said : 

I would like to point out that it is impossible for us to take up any attitude 
whate\er regarding the Russian written declaration just read. I must reserve 
a further statepient of our position on all points. But, speaking personally, I 
should like to say that the modus procedendl proposed by the Russian Delega- 
tion, namely, that the Delegations should each present declarations in writing, 
will he conducive neither to the accelerations in writing, will be conducive neither 
to the acceleration of the negotiations, nor. If the documents resemble those 
presented to-day, will it contribute in the least to placing In an especially rosy 
light the prospects of the negotiations which we are now conducting. 

Personally I am of opinion that it would have been better to continue in the 
manner commenced yesterday until the whole material had been dealt with, 
and, after the conclusion of the oral discussion, lay down in vi-riting the result 
of such discussion, if necess3.ry. As, however, the Russian Delegation, by its 
proposal of to-day, thinks othervsase, I propose to adjourn for the purpose of 
consulting our ajlies. 

M. Trotsky said : 

Of course, it is not our object to put difficulties in the way of progress by 
raising technical points. If the other party maintains that the time has not 
come to present a written statement, then our proposals of to-day would come 
up for discussion and we would reserve the right to return, in the course of the 
further negotiations, to our declaration as such, or to single points thereof, with- 
out in any way desiring to force similar treatment of the matter on the other 
party. 

Baron von Kiihlmann replied : 

I can not accept that proposal. It would be highly undesirable to have written 
and worked out propositions on one side with no corresponding formulation from 
the other side. I must, therefore, adhere to my opinion that before taking up any 
attitude on the new situation a fresh consultation with our allies is necessary. 

The sitting was thereupon adjourned. The date of the next sitting 
has not yet been fixed. 



84 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BBEST-LITOVSK CONFEEENCE. 

41. Session or Committee on Tereitoeial Questions, 12 Jantjaey. 

RUSSIAN ACCOUNT. 

[From the (British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, 21 January, 1918,. 

p. 639.] 

The following Russian declaration was issued from Brest-Litovsk 
via Petrograd on Jan. 16 : 

At the time of our meeting on Jan. 2 with the Ukrainian Delegation 
we declared that we should regard it as inadmissible that any confer- 
ence whatever, either official or private, should take place without the 
knowledge of the Ukrainian Delegation, and we stated that we would 
keep them informed of the progress of the pourparlers with the oppo- 
site parties. M. Golubovitsch, the Secretary General, got into com- 
munication with his Government at Kiev and said he had no doubt 
that he would be able to make the same declaration as regards our- 
selves. Eight days have passed, and up to the present we have not 
received any such declaration as regards ourselves. On the other 
hand, in spite of our request to be informed of the subject of the pour- 
parlers which took place between the Ukrainians and the Austro- 
Germans before our arrival, and which appear to have continued to 
the present time, we have received no reply on the subject. On Jan. 
15, during the pourparlers at the morning meeting on the question of 
occupied territories, Baron von Kiihlmann stated, among other things, 
that the question of territorial limits had been discussed by the 
Ukrainians and that this discussion would have an influence on the 
negotiations. Seeing that the Ukrainian Delegation entered, without 
our knowledge, into diplomatic pourparlers, we to-day sent the fol- 
lowing letter to the Delegation through the President of our Delega- 
tion, Comrade Trotsky : 

To-d;iy, in the course of our negotiations, the President of the German Dele- 
gation informed us that with regard to the question of occupied territories, the 
Ukrainians had entered into pouriDarlers as to the limits of these territories, 
and that these pourparlers might have an influence on the whole question. 
"We affirm once more that the delegation of the Secretariat-General, in spite 
of the very definite understanding between us, and notwithstanding that the 
present state of things requires that we should put forth our united strength 
against .the common enemy, is acting in opposition to every revolutionary 
principle, which forbids any secret understanding with impei-ialists, and that 
it continues to conduct behind our back its pourparlers Avith the Austro-German 
Delegation, refusing, notwithstanding our formal demand and its own promises, 
to give us any account of the proceedings. Being of opinion that the vital 
interests of the mass of Russian workmen and peasants and those of the 
Ukraine are at stake, we have decided to repudiate publicly all responsibility 
for these pourparlers. "\A'e again address ourselves directly to the Ukraine 
Central Executive Committee at Kharkciv, and request them to take all neces- 
sary measures to safeguard the interests of the Ukrainian Republic and people, 
and to protect the Delegation and the Secretariat-General against secret and 
perfidious machinations. We are aware that the Central Executive Committee 
at this moment possesses more right to speak for the Ukrainian Republic than 



SESSIONS OF 12 JANUARY. 85 

tlie Rada at Kiev. If hitherto we have not protested against your participation 
in the pourparlers it is because we hoped that face to face with the common 
enemy you would be able to base your conduct on the elementary principles of 
democracy. From the moment that your policy was based on secret under- 
standings and betrayed democratic interests, we found it necessary to reveal 
our real authority, which in no way gives you the right to speak in the name of 
the independent republic. 

Speaking on behalf of the Eussian Delegation at the Conference, 
M. Kameneff read the following declaration: 

The discussion has revealed differences of opinion which may have the 
greatest importance. As analysis of the details, during the adjournment, shows 
that if we wish to avoid an unnecessary misunderstanding and difficulties we 
must change our method of M'ork. We have, therefore, the honor to make the 
following communication to you which will clearly define our relations, and will 
determine the future course of the negotiations. The fate of the occupied 
territories having been discussed during two sittings, the Russian Delegation 
considers it necessary that both parties should put in a written resume of 
the opinions expressed during the discussions so that the Government and 
public opinion may have a clear idea of the views of both parties. To expe- 
dite matters the Russian Delegation declares with regard to Article II, of the 
German proposal of Dec. 28, that it can not consider decisions arrived at by 
any public institutions in occupied territories as being a real expression of the 
will of the populations of these territories, being decisions taken in time of 
occupation by foreign troops — by bodies not elected by the people. The Dele- 
gation points out that since the occupation no democratic body, which would 
pretend to represent the will of the people, has been formed either in Poland, 
I/ithuania, or Gourland. 

All that has so far been said has had reference solely to the formal side of 
the question, notably whether these bodies should be recognized or not as 
representing public opinion. As regards the substance of the declaration as 
to the desire for the complete independence of the territories referred to in 
Article II, of the German proposals, the Delegation declares that the Russian 
Government does not make any assumption from the fact of the territories at 
present occupied having previously belonged to the Russian Empire, or make 
any assumption which might impose on the peoples of these territories any 
obligation toward the Russian Republic. 

The old boundaries of the Russian Empire, boundaries which were created 
by violence and as the result of crimes committed against the peoples brought 
Into subjection, especially in the case of Poland, disappeared at the same time 
as Tsarism. The new boundaries, based on the fraternal union of the Russian 
Republic, and the peoples who wish to be united with it, must be created by 
the free decision of these peoples. Conseauently, the fundamental aim of the 
Russian Government in these pourparlers consists not in the desire to retain 
by force the above-mentioned peoples within the boundaries of the Russian 
State, but in the desire really to obtain for these peoples freedom to decide 
for themselves their interior political organization, as well as their interna- 
tional relations. The Russian Republic will feel itself truly guaranteed 
against any attempts to initiate new territorial conflicts when it is sure that 
the line separating the Republic from its neighbors has been freely fixed by 
the will of the people and not by violence, which could only stifle this will for 
a time. 



86 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFERENCE. 

The aim to be achieved presupposes a preliminary understanding between 
Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia, based upon the following four funda- 
mental points : 

1. As regards the proportion of territory over which the people will be free 
to exercise the right of self-determination. 

2. As regards the political procedure by which the governmental conditions 
of the territories and of the corresponding nations will be fixed. 

3. As regards the temporary change of Government which will have to be 
made pending the construction of permanent Governments for the territories 
affected. 

4. As regards the means by which the peoples of these territories will be 
called uijon to express their will. 

Altogether, the reply to these questions will represent the articles in the 
peace treaty which will take the place of Article II of the German proposal 
of Dec. 28, 1917. For its part, the Russian Delegation indicates the following 
solutions for the above questions : 

1. AA'ith regard to the right of self-determination of the nations and not only 
the portions which find themselves in occupied territories affected by Article 
II of the German proposal of Dec. 28, the Russian Government, by its owil 
initiative, gives an opportunity to the portions of the nations in unoccupied ter- 
ritories to profit by the right of self-determination. Russia binds herself not 
to compel, either directly or indirectly, these territories to adopt any particulai' 
form of government, nor to interfere with their independence by customs, 
conventions, or war treaties prior to the constitution of these territories on 
the basis of the political self-determination of their ihhabitants. The Austro- 
Hungarian and German Governments, for their part, categorically affirm the 
absence of any pretensions on their side toward the inclusion in their Empires 
of the territories previously in the possession of the Russian Empire and now 
occupied by Austro-Huhgarian and German troops, or toward a so-called recti- 
fication of the frontiers of these territories. Similarly, they bind themselves 
not to compel these countries, either directly or indirectly, to adopt any particu- 
lar form of government, nor to Interfere with their independence by customs, 
conventions, or war treaties prior to the construction of these countries on the 
basis of the free political self-determination of their inhabitants. 

2. The decision of the question of the future fate of these territories should 
be reached tinder conditions of full political liberty without any external pres- 
sure. Consequently, the election should take place after rhe evacuation of the 
foreign troops and after the return of the inhabitants who liad gone away dur- 
ing the war. The date of the complete evacuation of the troops should be fixed 
by a Special Commission in accordance with the transport situation and the 
other conditions of the World war. The preservation of order and of the rights 
of these territories is a matter for the national troops and the local militia. 
Complete liberty and material means should be placed at the disposal of 
refugees deported since the commencement of hostilities by the military authori- 
ties. Prom the moment of the signing of peace until tlie definitive constitu- 
tion of the said territories, the conduct of loctll atfail-s should be placed in the 
hands of temporary bodies created by the consent of the political parties, which 
shall have ijroved their vitality amongst the people as before the war. The 
initial task of these temporary bodies should consist in the restitution of 
normal social and economic life, and, above all, in the organization of a refer- 
endum of the population. The final decision as to the form of government of 
the said territories, and the form of their interior arrangement should be 
arrived at by means of a referendum of the people. 

The message ends at this point and is clearly incomplete. 



SESSIONS OF 12 JANUARY. 87 

RUSSIAN ACCOUNT, CONTINUED. 

[From the (British) Daily Eevino of the Foreign Press, 22 January, 1918, p. 0.32.] 

Eiissian wireless gives the following conclusion of Kameneff's dec- 
laration read at Brest on Jan. 12 * (see Daihj Berieir, Jan. 21) : 

"With the view of speeding up the work of the Peace Conference, 
the Russian considers it very important that it should receive from 
the Delegations of Germany and Austria-Hungary an absolutely defi- 
nite reply on all the questions raised in the present declaration. In 
regard to other and secondary questions — these can be elaborated co- 
incidently with the solution of the more fundamental questions. 

According to a telegram from Petrograd (Jan. 18), replying to 
M. Kameneff's declaration, General Hoffmann said : 

I am obliged, first of all, to protest against the tone of tliese declarations. The 
Russian Delegation spoke like a conqueror who had invaded our country. I 
should like to draw attention to the facts, which are exactly contrary to that. 
The victorious German troops are on Russian soil. Then I should like to point 
out that the Russian Delegation demands the avowal of the right of peoples 
under a form and under conditions which are not admitted in their own country. 
Its Government is founded exclusively upon violence, which suppresses every 
opinion but its own. Everybody whose vie\^'s differ is simply denounced as 
counter-revolutionary or bourgeois, and, therefore, outside the law. I should 
like to illustrate my opinion by two examples only. On the night of Oit. 30-31 
the first Bielo-Russian Congress took place at Minsk, which wished to Insist 
upon the right of self-determination of the Bielo-Russian people. It was dis- 
solved by the Bolsheviks by means of bayonets and machine guns. When the 
Ukrainians claimed their right freely to settle their own Government, Petrograd 
opposed them by the issue of an ultimatum, and endeavored to impose its will 
by the force of Its army. 

That is how the principle of the right of self-determination appears in prac- 
tice under the Bolshevik Government. The German High Command finds it 
necessary to prevent anyone from interfering with the affairs of the occupied 
territories. It is clear to us that the people of the occupied territories have 
already declared their desire for separation from Russia in precise terms, which 
leave no doubt whatever. As the most important of the decisions of these peo- 
ples, I should like to point out the following : Cm Sept. 21, 1917, the Assembly of 
the people of Courland, which was decidedly representative of the whole peoiole, 
asked for the protection of the (Jerman Empire. On Dec. 11, 1917, the Lithu- 
anian Council, which is recognized by Lithuanians at home and abroad as the 
only legalized organ of the Lithuanian people, proclaimed its desire for a com- 
plete rupture of all the ties which existed at the moment between Lithuania and 
other States. On Dec. 24 the Communal Council of Riga expressed the same 
desire to the German Empire, and with this resolution the Mercantile Syndicate 
of Riga, a great guild representing the rural population as well as sixty associa- 
tions in' Riga, associated themselves. Finally, the nobility of the rural, village, 
and ecclesiastical communities of the islands of Oesel, Dago, and Moon have all 
renounced in numerous declarations the bonds which existed up to the present 
between themselves and Russia. Further, for technical, geographical, and ad- 
ministrative reasons the German Military Command is forced to refuse the 
evacuation of Courland, Lithuania, Riga, and the islands of the Gulf of Riga. 



(British) Dailu Revicic gives date as January IG ; should, evidently be January i:;. 



88 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BREST-LITOVSK CONPEEENCE. 

All tliese territories are without administrative organs, and they possess neither 
tribunals nor legal bodies. They have no railways, posts, or telegraphs. All 
these things belong to Germany and are being provided for. These peoples are 
unable to create in the near future their own troops and militia, for the want of 
public bodies who have the power to organize them. 

After General Hoffmann, Baron von Kiihlmann spoke and said : 

I must point out that an immediate detailed reply to all the points raised In 
the declaration which has been read is impossible. I reserve to myself the right 
to reply later, but I should like to formulate my personal opinion that the 
method indicated by the Russian Delegation, particularly the proposal that the 
two sides should exchange written documents, will not accelerate the pour- 
parlers, especially if those documents resemble the declaration which has been 
made. I am of opinion that it would be better to continue in the form begun 
yesterday, so long as all the material which has to be discussed is not ready. 
After oi-al discussion we shall be able to fix in writing the results of our oral 
pourparlers. But, as the Russian Delegation has taken up a different point of 
view, I propose to interrupt the sitting in order to give us an opportunity to dis- 
cuss the question that has been raised with our allies. 

M. Trotsky said : 

It is easy to understand that the Russian Delegation has no desire to encumber 
the technical side of the pourparlers. If the enemy side thinks that the time 
has not come to discuss exact formulas, our declaration Will be a proposal to be 
discussed, and we shall have retained our right in the course of future discus- 
sion to return to our declaration, entirely or partially, without wishing to impose 
on the enemy side a similar method of discussing the question. 

Baron von Kiihlmann replied : 

I regard such a proposal as undesirable. As our pourparlers are published, 
written pourparlers are not desirable. I maintain my point of view, that is to 
say, that before I reply to your declaration it is necessary for us to consult with 
our allies. 

The sitting then terminated. 



42. Plbxaky Session or 12 jA^'UAEr. 

GERMAN ACCOUNT. 

[Prom the (British) Daily Revieiv of the Foreign Pfess, 15 January, 1918, 

p. 585.*] 

A message from Brest-Livovsk to the Dutch Press (Jan. 13) states 
that on Jan. 12 at the opening of the plenary sitting, at half -past 
eleven in the morning, the President, Count Czernin, made the follow- 
ing declaration : 

In the plenary sitting on .Ian. 10 the Secretary of State for the Ukrainian 
Republic handed the delegates of the four Allied Powers a note from the Secre- 
tariat-General of the Ukrainian Republic, dated Dec. 11/24 and numbered 726. 
This note contained, under clause 7, a declaration that the " Ukrainian People's 
Republic, represented by the Secretariat-General, acts independently in matters 



♦The Deutsche!- Ttiichxan-eiger of 14 .Tanuary, 1018, has an account substantially iden- 
tical with thla. 



SESSIONS OP 12 JANUARY. 89 

of International Law, and desires, like other Powers, to participate in all the 
peace negotiations, conferences, and congresses." In reply, I have the honor, 
in the name of the delegations of the four Allied Powers, to declare the follow- 
ing : " We recognize the Ulirainian delegation as an independent delegation of 
plenipotentiaries representing the independent Ukrainian Republic. Tlie formal 
recognition of the Ukrainian Republic as an independent State by the four 
Allied Powers is reserved for the peace treaty." 

In connection with the question just dealt with in the declaration of the 
delegations of the Quadruple Alliance, I consider it necessarj for the purpose 
of information as well as the removal of possible misunderstandings, to make 
the following statement : Such conflicts as have occurred between the Russian 
Government and the General Secretariat, the facts concerning which are more 
or less known to all present, had and have no connection with the question of 
the self-determination of the Ukrainian nation. They arose through the Ukrain- 
ian contradictions of the policy of the Soviets and People's Commissioners and 
the General-Secretariat's contradictions which are expressed both on Ukrainian 
territory and outside its frontiers. As regards the self-determination of the 
Ukraine, which is actually in force in the form of the People's Republic, this 
can give no scope for a conflict of opinion between two brother Republics. Con- 
sidering the fact that there are no troops of occupation in the Ukraine, that the 
political life there is carried on freely, that there are neither medieval organs 
there which desire to represent the country nor mock Ministries appointed from 
above on the ground of power and position which act within the limits ceded 
them from above, considering that everywhere in the territory of the Ukraine 
freely elected Soviets are in existence, that in the election of all organs of self- 
government the principle of a general, equal, direct, and secret suffrage is 
applied, there is, and can be, no doubt that the process of self-determination 
of the Ukraine within the geographical limits and political forms corresponding 
to the will of the Ukrainian State will find its consummation. In view of the 
foregoing, which is in accord with the declaration made during the sitting of 
Jan. 10, the Russian delegation sees no hindrance of any sort to the independent 
participation of the delegation of the General Secretariat in the peace negotia- 
tions. 

The Ukraine Secretary of State, M. Bobubowytsch, then declared 
that he took cognizance of the declaration of the four Allied Powers 
and on that ground his delegation would participate in the peace con- 
ditions. 

General Hoffmann, the German military delegate, remarked that he 
had seen from the reply that the President of the Petrograd delega- 
tion to his (Hoffmann's) protest that Herr Trotsky had not under- 
stood why the wireless announcements sent out at his instructions 
had trangressed the spirit of the armistice. At the head of the 
armitice treaty, General Hoffmann said, stood the words : " To bring 
about lasting peace." 

Eussian propaganda transgressed against this intention because 
it did not strive after lasting peace, but wished to carry revolution 
and civil war into the countries of the Central Powers. 

In his reply, the President of the Russian delegation pointed out 
that the entire German Press was admitted to Russia, even papers 
which corresponded with the views of Eussian reactionary circles 
and which were opposed to the standpoint of the Government of the 
People's Commissioners. Complete equality, therefore, was obtained 
in this matter which had nothing to do with the armistice treaty. 



90 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFEKENCE. 

General Hoffmann, replying, said his protest was not directed 
against the Russia Press, but against the official Government state- 
ments and the official propaganda activity which bore the signature 
of the Commander in Chief, Ensign Krylenko. The German Com- 
mander in Chief, in the East, and the German Foreign Secretary, 
carried on no analogous propaganda. 

M. Trotsky replied that the terms of the armistice treaty contained 
and could contain no restrictions on the expression of opinion on the 
part of citizens of the Russian Republic observed, concerning the 
remarks of the President of the Russian delegation that noninter- 
ference in Russian conditions was a fixed principle of the German 
Government which, however, naturally demanded complete reci- 
procity. 

M. Trotsky replied that the parties belonging to the Russian Gov- 
ernment would recognize it as a step forward if the German Gov- 
ernment freely and frankly expressed its views relative to the inter- 
nal conditions of Russia in so far as they regarded this as necessary. 

The sitting was thereupon closed. 



43. Plenary Session of 12 January. 
russian account. 

[From the (British) DaiJii Rcricio of the Forcif/n Press, 18 January, 1918, p. 

621.] 

According, to a message from Petrograd (Jan. 15), in the course 
of the negotiations at Brest-Litovsk on Jan. 12, M. Trotsky, in reply 
to General Hoffmann's protest against the circulation of Russian 
propaganda in Germany, after pointing out that German newspapers 
had free access into Russia, whatever their views, added : 

Nevertheless, we do not find it possible to demand a curtailment of even tliat 
part of the German press which supports the views of General Hoffmann. 
There is no doubt that the support which our reactionary circles are receiving' 
by certain declarations by German official circles is doing much to continue 
civil war in our country, at the head of which are adherents of the old rggime. 
Nevertheless, we do not tind it possible to connect tliis question with the condi- 
tions of the armistice or with the peace negotiatifms. I may also remark that, 
as General Hoffmann represents here, not only the Government of Berlin but, 
as far as I know, also of Dresden and Munich, we also represent not only Petro- 
grad and Moscow but other towns. 

General Hoffmann answered: 

I would like to correct the last sentence of the previous speaker. I represent 
no Government ; I represent the German Army. As to the other points of the 
statement just made by the President of the Russian Delegation, I must again 
affirm that I have not been understood by him. I am not speaking of the Press, 
because, without doubt, neither we nor the Russian Delegati(ju can have an 
influence on what the I'ress says. My protest is directed against the official 
Gnvcrnineiit statements and the declarations bearing the signature of the Com- 
niandpr in Chief of the German front or of Secretary of State Baron von 
KiUilmann. 



SESSION OP 14 JANUARY. 91 

M. Trotsky replied : 

I must regret that I am unable, as General Hoffmann has said, to understand 
his point of view. This is to be explained, in my opinion, by the profound 
difference between our points of view — a difference, I am obliged to admit, 
which has been recognized during the war by the German judicial authorities, 
and a record of this fact may be found in the proceedings of the Courts at 
Leipzig and Stuttgart. In any case, I must clearly state that neither the stipu- 
lations of the armistice nor anything else can al¥ect liberty of opinion, propa- 
ganda, or citizens of the Russian Republic. 



4i. Session or 14 January. 



GERMAN ACCOUNT. 



[From the (British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, 19 January, 1918, 

p. 629.] 

According to German wireless (Jan. 16), on Jan. 14, at 5 o'clock in 
the afternoon, the German-Austro-Hungarian and Russian Commis- 
sion for the discussion of territorial questions held its fourth sitting 
in Brest-Litovsk. 

Secretary of State von Kiihlmann announced that the Allied Gov- 
ernments had come to the conclusion to reply verbally in formulated 
form to the formulated proposals of the Russian Delegation. 

He must once more point out, however, that he considered the 
method of procedure which the delegations have adopted on both sides, 
of drawing up formulated documents, was productive of extraordi- 
nary loss of time and that it leads to very little progress in the matter 
of the subjects treated. If one really wished to reach a peaceful set- 
tlement, it would be advisable in future to talk matters over and then 
intrust their draft on paper to the care of one man only from each 
side. These two men must be considered to constitute an editorial 
committee and they must endeavor to find out to what extent they 
could draw up a common conception and, should this not be possible, 
they should come to an understanding between themselves in the 
ascertaining and setting down in writing of the respective points on 
which they differed. On the material thus obtained the reply of the 
Central Powers could be read out. 

The text of the reply of the Central Powers is as follows : 

The proposals of the Russian Delegation, which have been communicated to 
the German and Austro-Hungarian Delegation with regard to the development 
of matters in the regions of Russia occupied l)y the Central I'owers, diverge 
to such a degree from the views of the Allied Powers that in their present form 
they must be characterized as inaccoptable. Without being desirous of going 
into further detail as to the outward form of these proposals, it can not remain 
unnoticed that they do not possess the character of an attitude of compromise 
for which -the Central Powers have striven, but rather represent a one-sided 



92 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BREST-LITOVSK CONFERENCE. 

Russian demand which excludes the just basis of the opposite party being taken 
into consideration. In spite of that, the Austro-Hungarian and German Dele- 
gations are prepared once again to give clearly formulated expression to their 
opinions upon pending questions, this time in a formulated manner, and also to 
try to find out if the compromise striven for by them offers any prospect of 
realization. One portion of the territories occupied by the Central Powers is 
dealt with in Article No. 1 of the German draft. This matter has been deliber- 
ated upon and therefore requires no further discussion. 

The question according to which [message defective] State life should be 
granted was a purely temporary organization and had four stages. 

1. The period of time between the conclusion of peace with Russia and the 
termination of Russian demobilization. 

2. The period of time between a Russian and a general peace. 

3. The period of time for the transition stage of the new peoples. 

4. And, finally, the definitive stage which the new States required for the 
complete installation of their State organization. 

It must be repeatedly pointed out that for the Central Powers — as distinct 
from the case of Russia — the conclusion of peace with Russia has by no means 
any connection with a general peace, and that the Central Powers are compelled 
to continue the war against other enemies. On the other hand, the Russian 
Government declares once again to the allied delegations that it is of the 
opinion that the existing Constitutional organizations of the newly created 
States may be considered for the present as fully competent to express the will 
of wide circles of the people. 

Of great importance for the question of [message defective] of the indi- 
viduality of a State is the decision come to by the Supreme Court of Law, 
and given in Washington in the year 1808, in which it was stated : " That the 
sovereign rights of the United States of North America must be recognized as 
having fully and completely existed from the day of the announcement of Its 
independence, that is to say, as from the Fourth of July, 1776, quite independent 
of its recognition on the part of England in the treaty of the year 1782 * * »■ 
(Droit international codifle, page 160)." The delegations take note of the dec- 
laration " that the Russian Government, from the fact that the occupied regions 
having belonged to the former Russian Imperial Empire, does not draw any 
conclusions which would impose any political obligation upon the peoples of 
these territories in relation to the Russian Republic, and that the old frontiers 
of the former Russian Empire — frontiers which were established by means of 
acts of force and crime against such peoples, especially against the Polish 
people — have disappeared together with Tsardom." And it also takes note 
that, " therefore, the principal task before the Russian Government in the 
negotiations now in progress does not consist in any way whatsoever in de- 
fending the forceful keeping of said territories within the borders of the Rus- 
sian Empire, but in guaranteeing real freedom In the right of self-determination 
in relation to their internal State rfigime and the international position of the 
said territories." 

In this connection it might be asked from what system of law does the 
present Russian Government deduce its right and duty of assuring the real 
freedom of self-determination of these territories to the uttermost — that is to 
say, even under certain circumstances, to the- continuation of the war. If the 
fact that the occupied territories belonged to the former Russian Imperial 
Empire by no means imposes any duty upon the population of these territories 
toward the Russian Republic, then it is not obvious without further explanation 
on what the Russian Republic intends to base its rights and duties as regards 
that population. If, however, one takes the stand, as the Russian Delegation 



SESSION OF 14 JANUARY. 93 

has done, that the Russian Republic has such a right, then, indeed, the extent 
of the territory, the political provisions for the exercise of the right of self- 
determination, the transitory regime, and the form of expression of the will of 
the people are the four points on which an endeavor to reach an adjustment 
must be made. 

1. The assertion that the right of self-determination is an attribute of nations 
and not of parts of nations is not our conception of the right of self-determina- 
tion. Parts of nations can justly conclude independence and separation. It 
Is by no means as a standard for the fixing of the boundaries of such portions. 
Courland, Lithuania, and Poland also constitute national units from an his- 
torical point of view. Germany and Austria-Hungary have no intention of 
incorporatirig the territories now occupied by them into their respective coun- 
tries. They do not intend to compel the territories In dispute to accept this 
or that form of State, but they reserve for themselves and for the peoples of the 
occupied territories a free hand for the conclusion of treaties of every kind. 

2. As to the declarations in this respect, they pass over the fundamental 
difference which the constituted Delegations are repeatedly pointing out. The 
withdrawal of the armies is impossible so long as the world war lasts ; how- 
ever, in the event of military conditions permitting, one may endeavor to bring 
about a reduction of the occupying troops to such a number as is absolutely 
necessary for the maintenance of order and the technical requirements of the 
country. The setting up of a national gendarmerie may be striven for. As 
regards the return to their homes of the refugees and those persons evacuated 
during the course of the war, a benevolent examination of the matter may take 
place from time to time. This question could — as it is not of outstanding politi- 
cal importance — ^be intrusted to a Special Commission. 

3. The Russian proposal is not sufficiently clear in its details, and necessi- 
tates further argument that with the progressive approach of a general peace, 
the chosen representatives of the people of the country will cooperate to an 
ever-increasing extent in administrative tasks. 

4. The allied Delegations are prepared to agree in principle that a people's 
vote on broad lines be sanctioned on the basis of citizenship. The setting up of 
a referendum appears to be impracticable. In the opinion of the allied Dele- 
gations, it would suffice if a vote, on a wide basis, were taken from an elected 
and supplemented representative body. It may also be pointed out that the 
setting up of States within the former Russian Imperial Empire recognized 
by the Government of the People's Commissionaries, such, for instance, as the 
Ukraine and Finland, were brought about not in the ^vay of a referendum, but 
by means of resolutions by a national assembly elected on a wide basis. 

Inspired by the desire to endeavor to come to an understanding with the 
Russian Government, the Governments of Germany and Austria-Hungary have 
made these far-reaching proposals, and at the same time add thereto that they 
represent the most extreme limits within which they still hope to come to a 
peaceful understanding. During the development of these fundamental prin- 
ciples they have been permitted, as in duty bound, by the intention of not 
allowing any weakening of their defensive capacity so lon.g as the wretched 
war (Continues, and also by the intention that certain peoples on territory 
adjacent to their own shall finally and independently be placed in a position 
to decide their own future, without thereby falling into a state of extreme need, 
misery, and desperation. 

An understanding between Russia and the Central Powers on these difficult 
questions, however, is only possible if Russia also shows an earnest desire to 
reach an' understanding, and if she will endeavor, instead of attempting to 
advance one-sided dictatorial aims, to see the question from the point of view 



94 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BBgST-LITOVSS CONFERENCE. 

of the opposite side, and to find out a wjiy such a.s can alone lead to a peaceful 
result. 

Only under the conditions that such intentions are shown can the Delegations 
of the allied Powers still hope for a peaceful adjustment of the conflict. 

M. Trotsky then spoke. 



GERMAN ACCOUNT, CONTINTJED. 

[From the (British) Daili/ Revlcio of thfi Foreign Press, 21 January, 191§, 

p. 637.] 

According to German wireless (Jan- 18)) in the speech of M- 
Trotsky made in Brest-Litovsk on Jan. 14,' during the sitting of the 
German, Austro-Hungarian, and Ru&sian Commission for the dis- 
cussion of territorial questions, he declared that he hoped that the 
reply read from the Central Powers had at any rate set aside doubts 
regarding the formal difficulties which had arisen in the minds of 
the Russian Delegation by reason of the speech made by General 
Hoffmann during tl^e former sitting. 

The Russian Delegation was of the opinion that, in the present 
instance, negotiations would be carried on with one party, which 
would be embodied through the German Government. 

The Secretary of State had pointed out that all points of these 
negotiations rested exclusively on the political will of the German 
Government. So long as this concei^tion was not officially refuted 
by anyone, the Russian Delegation would regard this as a formal 
declaration. When General Hoffmann pointed out that the Russian 
Government bases its position on power, and that it made use of force 
against all those whose opinions differed from its own, and that it 
stigmatises them as counter-revolutionaries and bourgeois, it must 
be noticed that the Russian Government was based upon power. 
Throughout the whole of history no other kind of Go^-ernment had 
been known. So long as society consists of struggling classes, the 
power of Government will be based upon strength, and these Gov- 
ernments will maintain their dominion by force. He must, however, 
protest most categorically against the assertion that his Government 
outlaws everyone who differs from it. That which the Governments 
of other countries objected to in the doings of the Russian Govern- 
ment was the way in which it made use of its power and in which 
it did not allow itself to 1)e deterred. When the Rumanian Govern- 
ment had endeavored to make use of forceful measures on Russian 
territory against revolutionary soldiers and workmen, he and his 
friends proposed from Brcst-Litovslv to the Petrograd Government 
that the Roumanian Ambassador and all his staff, as well as the 
Roumanian military mission, should be arrested, and the reply was 
received that such a course had already been taken. 



SESSIOlir OF 14 JANUARY. 95 

M. Trotsky added : 

As regards the two instances which General Hoffmann has adiluced, they 
by no means represent our policy on national questions. We have had sent 
to us the result of investigations regarding the White Russian Congress. This 
Congress was composed of representatives of White Russian agrarians, and 
it had made an attempt to take possession of all those points of support which 
must be the property of the White Russian people, and, if it met with resistance, 
such resistance originated with the soldiers, amongst whom were represented 
Great Russians, White Russians, and Little Russians. I have ah-eady referred 
to it in my formal declaration that those conflicts which arose between our- 
selves and the Ukraine, and which, to my regret, are not yet completely over- 
come, have in no way restricted the right of the Ukrainian people to self- 
determination, and they have not prevented us from recognizing the inde- 
pendence of the Ukrainian Republic. 

M. Trotsky then spoke of the destiny of the occupied territories, 
and said that from the declarations ah'cady made by the German 
representatives, he concluded that the decision as to the destiny of 
these territories ought to be reached irrespective of the question 
"whether their peoples were already controlling their own destiny. 

He would, however, like to express the opinion that the views 
uttered could only tend to strengthen the views of the Kussian Dele- 
gation concerning the very subordinate role played by legal philoso- 
phy in deciding the destiny of peoples. It applies equally to the 
legal philosophy of the American Supreme Court of Justice. Any- 
one who has carefully read the history of the decisions of that Su- 
preme Court of Justice knows that it has frequently modified the 
interpretation of its legal philosophy according to the necessity oi' 
otherwise for the extension of United States territory. He believed 
that in respect to this question, it would be of greater interest not 
to make a comparison with the decision of the American Supreme 
Court of Justice, but rather with the views and claims of those 
English jurists who had founded their right ( ?formed their laws), 
and deducted from them the right to keep the American colonies in 
their hands. As to the form of procedure the Russian delegation con- 
siders it necessary to give and maintain prominence to precisely those 
points which form the subject of diiferences of opinions as only by so 
doing can their adjustment be arrived at. 

The leader of the German Delegation asked from what source the 
Eussian Delegation had been led to take an interest in the destiny 
of the occupied territories, as the Delegation had declared that the 
fact that these territories had formerly belonged to Russia entailed 
no political obligation on their part as regards Russia, but his right 
to take an interest in the destiny of those territories had not been 
deduced by the Secretary of State, from the naked fact of their occu- 
pation but from the principles of the right of self-determination of 
peoples which he had indeed interpreted in a rather limited manner. 



96 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONEEKENCE. 

This principle was no less valid for the Russian Delegation, and suffi- 
cient ground for its interest in the destiny of those peoples was shown 
by the fact that it had not hindered their departure from the terri- 
tory of the former Imperial Russian Empire. 

M. Trotsky closed with the observation that the Russian Delega- 
tion reserved to itself the right to make a more precise statement re- 
garding the nature of the declarations which had already been read 
out to-day. 

Secretary of State von Kiihlmann then spoke as f oUoavs : 

As rt'Lcards the speech of General Hoffmann, may I, on behalf of myself and 
of General Hoffmann, reserve the right to return to this question? The political 
competence of the German Empire has been correctly characterized by the 
previous speaker with the precise knowledge of international conditions which 
he possesses. The Imperial Chancellor, the sole responsible Imperial Minister, 
has imparted instruction with regard to the whole field of foreign policy; 
moreover, it goes without saying by the close relations with which I am bound 
to General Hoffmann, that between our respective conceptions, no divergence 
docs exist. The fundamental difference between our conceptions and that of 
the Russian delegation's that, contrary to it, vre wish to see arise in those re- 
gions, without break or violent transition, an orderly State, and that we de- 
cline, out of (reiner Liebedienerei) the theory of creating a vacuum and allow- 
ing the establishment of a State ^\•ithin this vacuum in a no more clearly de- 
fined manner than has so far been demonstrated. 

M. Trotsky's depreciatory estimate as to the decision of the American Su- 
preme Court of Justice surprises me. To nie the history of the founding of that 
great Republic, and the decision of its Supreme Court of Justice regarding the 
point of such history, is, however, not without importance for the forming of 
an opinion in the controversies pending between us. Moreover, I am pleased 
to note from the closing remarks made by the previous speaker that he and his 
Delegation now intend to enter upon the real discussion and the clearing up of 
conceptions which separated us. To this end my efforts have been directed 
from the very first hc>ur of our labors, and I was of opinion that the statement 
of the various points of view as set down in writing on both sides before the 
Christmas interval offered a basis for discussion and sufficient formulation. I 
now propose that in future we observe the method of working as proposed by 
the Russian Delegations, so that we niay really enter upon a detailed discussion 
of the four points given in our reply. I hope thnt in a few days we shall have 
progress(Ml so far Avith full clearness and in complete responsibility of feeling 
as to be able to say whethei' the difllculties can be overcome or whether the 
attempt made here must be abandoned. 

M. Trotsky then declared that in his opinion they could now pass 
on to the discussion of the two answers which had been put forward. 

He must, however, once more emphasize the fact that he could by 
no means agree with the view of the German President on the ques- 
tion of the withdrawal of the troops ; that in the event of the army 
of occupation withdrawing it would leave a vacuum. The peoples 
who inhabit Pohxnd, Lithuania, and Courland would by no means find 
themselves in a difficult political situation if the army of occupation 
left them to theii' own de\'iccs. In so far as technical "difficulties were 
concerned, such as not having their own railways, post, etc., an agree- 
ment on such questions could always be arrived at even without 'the 



SESSXOXS OF 13 JAlvUAEY. 97 

control of any army of occupation. But Secrct:ir\- of State \on 
Ivuhhnann had pointed out that besides technical grounds questions 
of security, ^vhich had been brought forward, plaved a very impor- 
tant role m the regions referred to. 

Herr von Kiihlmann then moved that discussion in a business- 
like manner of the four points proposed by the Russian Delegalion. 

After Herr Trotsky had agreed to this propo,-al the sitting -was 
brought to a close, and the next sitting vas fixed for 11 a. ni, on the 
following day. 

According to the version given by the Rhein/sche Wrstf/i/isr/w 
Zeitmif/ of the last paragraphs. Baron von Kiihlmann pointed out 
that besides technical reasons, reasons connected with the safety of 
the regions concerned also played a very important role, and he then 
proposed that the delegates should begin the discussion of the four 
points proposed by the Eussian Delegation themselves. 

M. Trotsky having concurred in this proposal, the next sitting was 
fixed for the foUowino- mornins:. 



45. Session of CoirMiTTEE ox Territorial Questions, 1.5 January. 

GERMAN ACCOUNT. 

[From the (Britisli) Driilii Rcricir of the Forci<jn Prefix. 21 .Janufiry. 1918, 

p. O:!?.*] 

A telegram from Brest -Litovsk, dated Jan. 16, says that two farther 
sittings of the Austro-German and Russian Commission for the regu- 
lation of territorial and political questions were held on Jan. 1."). at 
M-hich the four Russian proi^osals were discussed. 

^I. Trotsky at first suggested allowing rei)resentatives of the 
occupied regions to participate in the negotiations. Baron von Kiihl- 
mann again expressed his readiness to allow such participation, but 
only on condition that the Eussian Delegation should regard their 
appearance as indicating at least a presumptive recognition by the 
Russian Government of the jDosition as States of the regions in 
question. 

^I. Trotsky said he could not recognize these representatives as 
being fitted to express the will of the entire population of those 
regions. The most essential condition of his proposal thereby natu- 
rally fell to the ground. 

Baron von Kiihlmann the,n pointed out — 

It had not been possible to reconcile the divergent \-iews I'egarding 
the importance which should be attached to the decisions of the repre- 
sentative bodies existing in the occupied regions, but that this need 
not necessarily lead to a breakdown of the negotiations, because the 
Central Powers' delegations from the first had taken up the stand- 
point of holding out a prospect of a confirmatory demonstration of 

" Thp UcHtncher Hriclixnu-.iinir of 17 .lanuai-y, 1918. has on account substantially iden- 
tical with this. 

01 1244—18 T 



98 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BREST-LITOVSK CONFERENCE. 

the popiilai' will on a broad basis. Should an agreement be reached 
on the conditions of this popular demonstration on a broad basis, 
the diversity of opinion as to whether it should be regarded as of a 
constitutory or merely confirmatoiy nature would not, in his opinion, 
justify a breakdown of the negotiations with its far-reaching 
consequence. 

A'^Tiilst admitting that a continuation of the debate in the domain 
hitherto dealt with, at any rate in its present stage, was useless, M. 
Trotsky said the main point Avaw that of guaranteeing the inde- 
pendence and freedom of expressions of will of the peoples con- 
cerned and to safeguard the significance of such expressions of will it 
was necessary that they should have not only a confirmatory but a 
constitutory character. 

In the discussion of Baron von Kiihlmann's proposal to fix a period 
after the conclusion of peace with Russia (at the latest a year after 
a general peace was concluded) for taking a decisi\e vote in the 
occupied territories he said there were not sufficient reasons for 
binding the fate of the regions. M. Trotsky immediately o'pened 
the question of evacuating the occupied territories. Fie said there 
were not sufficient reasons for binding the fate of the regions in 
que.stion with the course of the war. 



CKK.MAX ACC'UliX'J', ( Ols 'JTNUED. 

IFriiin the ( I'.iiti.sh) Driilii Itcricir of tlic l^'orciiiii I'rrsx, TJ. .Tanimry, ]). 651.*] 

Cierman \vireless (Jan. -JO) gives an account of the proceedings 
of the Committee on Jan. 1.), agreeing with that printed in iHe 
Daily Review (Jan. i^l), but continuing Trotsky's speech and the 
Mibse(|uent debates from the point at which that accouht ended. 

He (Trot.sky) was, howc\'er. of opinion, without wishing to name 
provisionally a fixed tei^m, that the question of regulating the fate of 
the now occupied districts must be determined in connection Avith 
the conclusion of peace on the Eastern front. 

State Secretary von Kiihlmann, in opposition to this, referred to 
the fact that a great readiness had been shoA^n to meet the Russian 
view in so fa)- as the Allies had declared themsehes ready to evacuate 
districts in accordance with Article 1 without reference to the 
progress of the general war. 

A further approach on the part of the Allies on this last point he 
did not consider impossible in case agreement was come to on other 
jjoints. Since, however, there was a possibility or a probability of 
the renewal of the conflict on the East front owing to the continua- 
tion of the war on other fronts, and in any case the risk was much 
greater than would exist after the conclusion of a general peace, he 
must pronounce it impossible to entertain the idea of the evacuatidh 
of the districts mentioned in Article -2 of the (Jerman — Austro- 
Hungarian proposed draft at any period fixed without reference to 



* The Ih'iitKrhrr JfricliKii iiiiiinr o( 17 .lumiury, 11118, has an uccouni xubstantinlly iden- 
tical wltli this. 



SESSIONS OF 15 JAXUAEY. 99 

the conclusion of ii gerieral peace. Such securities as were provided 
tor in Article 1 could not be given up on the part of the Allies so 
long as the general war lasted. 

Herr Trotsky replied that in determining the future existence of 
the people in question, he would see the best securitv against the 
renewal of the war on the East front. 

State Secretary von Kiihlmann said that the Parties were at one 
in the wish to put an end as soon as possible to the adverse conditions 
created by the war. He repeated, however, that on the grounds 
already stated it would be impracticable to weaken military securi- 
ties prematurely. 

After a rejoinder on the part of the Russian Delegation, the sitting 
was adjourned until the afternoon at T) p. m. 



40. Session or Committee ox Tekhitorl^l Questioss, 15 Jaxctart. 

RUSSIAN ACCOUNT. 

[From the (Britisli) Dailn Rcr'tcir of the Farviaii Press, 2Ci .Taiiuary, 1918, 

p. 696.] 

The following is the official Russian Account of the session of the 
German, Austro-Hungarian, and Russian Delegations in the Terri- 
torial Commission at Brest-Litovsk on Jan. 15. The German version 
is given in the Daily Review (Jan. 21 and Jan. ■22). 

The President, Baron von Kiihlmann. opened the sitting at 11. -i."). 
He said : 

We shall continue the ponrparlers, jiarticularly, ns was iuTan;;eil yesterday, 
cm the four points which were forinuhited yrslerday. I shcjuld like to propose 
a change in the order of the discussion on tliesp points and to postpone the 
question of territories to the last, for the followin}; reasons: I think that the 
question of territories will lie the least disputed of all. Moreover, there has 
been a certain excliause of opinions between the delegations which, perhaps, 
will not l)e without influence on the solution of llie question of territories. 
Thus I propose to pass to the dise\ission of the second point regarding the 
preliminary political conditions which will serve as a basis for deciding the 
destiny of these peojiles and these territories. I request the President of the 
Russian Delegation to express in detail his point f>f view on the questions indi- 
cated liy the second point. 

M. Ti'otsky thereupon rose and said: 

Before expressing my opinion on tlie question of the new order of the dis- 
cussion which has been proposed I must return to a proposal made by the 
other side. The German and Austro-Hungarian delegations at a recent session 
proposed to include the collaboration in the peace pourparlers of certain repre- 
sentatives of the.se occupied territories, which, according to these delegates. 
are already in the ranks of State organizations, having sufBciently demon.strated 
their wish for an independent State existence. We could not give our reply 
iuuuediately because we wished first to ascertain wluit criterion was regarded 
by the other side as decisive for defining the legality or illegality of th.o cjodie.s 
which claim to express the will of the people. As I said yesterday, the replies 
to our questions appear to be e.ssentially contradictory and indicate the hand- 



100 pkoceedijstgs of the beest-litovsk conference. 

ing over to the occ-upyin^ Power of the full and unlimltecl right based exclu- 
sively on physical force, to decide arbitrarily the destiny of the occupied terri- 
tories and to dispose of such and such bodies without taking Into account the 
moment of their aiipeju-ance, their social basis, and what is their real political 
wei,^ht. If, liowever, the Governments of the other side continue, at least in 
the peace pourparlers, to i.-haracterize these bodies as tlie free representatives 
of tlie will of peoples \A'hich have alread>- freely decided their own destiny, we 
consider it desirable in the highest degree to invite these bodies to collaborate 
witli us. The representation of these bodies might base its rights and claims, 
disputed Ijy us, on the claims made by corresponding territories in face of all 
the world. In this \\n.\' might be eliminated, if not the contradiction, at least its 
most striking expression, which consists in the defence of the right of certain 
bodies protected l)y tlie Austro-Huni^arian and (Termaii Governments to ex- 
press the will of the people at the very time wlien tliese quasi-siivercigu bodies 
remain powerless under the regime of occupation. 

We are ready to accept the pniposal tvvice lejieated liy the other side to 
invite here representatives of such bodies, to the declarations of wliicli the 
German and Austro-Hungarian Iielegations refer. Baron von Kiihlmann lias 
remarked thai I have made our consent to tlie particiiiation in the pourparlers 
of representatives nf these nations conditional on the fact that their ijresence 
here would imply the recugnition on the part nf tlie Russia Delegation of the 
State existence of these penples. I call attention to the fact that the President 
of the Russian Delegation indicated at jirevious jiourparlers that the Russian 
Iielegatlon would consent to regard an expression of opinion by a Landtag 
as an expression of the will of cei'tain influential groups among the popula- 
tion. The admission of these representatives in itself excludes anything which 
does not require prolonged explanation. These representatives will come here 
as public criei's of these peoples. We nuist then come to an understanding on 
the ]i(iint Mliether these peoples are firm units or \A'hether their representatives 
will come here as private individuals. In the latter case they have nothing 
to do at tlie pourparlers. 

If these preliminary conditions are accepted by the President of the Russian 
Iielegation, then I consent immediately to begin pourparlers with our repre- 
sentatives on the question whether the Russian Delegation desires to admit 
representatives of these territories, and, if ,so, in what form. We can not 
decide or regard as decided a (|uestion which is tor the moment the principal 
subject of our diversities of opinion. If we have declared that the opinion 
of the Landtag appears as the opinion, namely, tlia.t although these groups 
are very influential, thanks to their economic position, they embrace, accord- 
ing to the (ierman Press, only from 3 to 7 per cent of the population. 
Tile will ot the people mnst everywhere be expressed by the people and not by 
economically privileged groups. That would be a complete abnegation of the 
principles which are the essence of our program if, directly or indirectly, 
we should have a pretext to tell the masses in Poland and Lithuania and the 
Letts that we were ready to admit the rei>resentation of the upper and privi- 
leged classes of their country and their peoples. If the President of the 
German Delegation does not find it riossible to create a provisional regulation 
for the admission of tliese representatives, the proposal made by me falls 
to the ground of itself. A\'e have seen that it has no connection witli the 
admissicm we have already made of the power of these bodies. I do not 
di.spute the declaration. I say that we do not regard it as connected with this 
question. 

The, message is incomplete. 



SESSIONS OF 15 JANUARY. 101 

IST'ssTAN ACCOUNT, re ):<'IINUED. 

IFi'oiii llio (IJiifsli) Daily /.'cricir of the Foiriijn J'resx, 2S .Tannavy, 191S. 

p. TOG.] 

The following is a continuation of the Russian official account of 
the session of the Ciei'niun. Austro-Hungai'ian, and Eussian delegates 
at Brest-Lito\sk on Jan. ir>. following on that printed in the Dailv 
Review (Jan. 21). 

Baron von Kiihlmann said : 

I can not imuiediately indicate this iias.sa}j;e in llic iirotocol, l>ut I reniemljei- 
quite well tliat this standiioiiit was c^xpresscil wvy ch-arly and exactly. I will 
read afterwards the i)assaL;e indieatpil. It seems to nie that we are beginning 
to turn in a vicious circle in the course of these iiourparlers. The last speaker 
complained of the alisence of the ivpresentatives of these peoples. If he meant 
l)y th.at that these units have lieen created and that they are capable of ex- 
pressing their right of self-determination, for my part I willingly consent to 
that absolute condition and I accept this ))roposal of the Rtissian delegation. 
As I have just said, I am under the impression that we are turning in a vicious 
circle. My ixdnt of view has been explained many times by myself, and I have 
indicated that the representative bod'es speak in the name of insufflciently 
large classes of the population, but that there does not yet exist a similar 
representative body which, according to their opinion, could fulfill these func- 
fons. This dispute is to a certain extent a historic one. In any case, I think 
that during the forthcoming discussions we shall not approach our solution. 
For my iiart. the fortlicoming discussions have no other problem than that of 
clearly explaining the point of view of the two parties and endeavoring to unite 
them. If, after all, the subject Is discussed, it will be clear on what points an 
understanding is possililc and what points div'de the parties. If the discus- 
sion reaches such a position, the parties will have fulfilled their duty and it 
will remain for the deciding authorities in the State to draw such conclusions 
as seem necessary. 

The admission of new delegations for the groups cited in the declaration is 
joined with conditions which are not acceptable to the Russian delegation. 
From the remarks of the ijreceding speaker. I have received the impression 
that in various cases he was not sufficiently informed regarding the composi- 
tioji of the bodies concerned. If he is of opinion that similar information as 
to the coinposition of these representative organs woidd help him in certain 
conditions to accept our position toward the said representative bodies, I, for 
my part, would agree to supply the Russian delegation with information as to 
their composition and explain tlie mandates which they hold. If the Itussian 
d( legation is inclined not to accept under any circumstances their presumptive 
character, then the supply of informafon would be pure loss of time and it 
Avould be better to give up the idea. In any case it would be necessary, as 
already said, to confine myself to merely noting the fact in future discussions 
that such contradictions can not lead to a conciliatory point of view. If an 
agreement should be arrived at as to whether the expression of the popular 
will should be regarded as a constitutional question or be regarded as of a 
binding character, there would be no justification for a rupture of the negotia- 
tions, with all its far-reaching consequences. I would accordingly propose to 
pass to the discussion of the question as to the formulation of what is to be 



102 PROCEEDINGS OP THE BREST-LITOVSK CONFEEENCE. 

regarded as iiidispensablp for the exinessidn of the ^^ill of fi people on a brond 
liiisis. 

The first Russiiin proposiil eminciiited at the discussion liehl liefore the 
Cliiistinas adjournment claimed that, in accord with the principles of the 
Russian Government, which proclaimed the rinht of all jienples inhabiting Rus- 
sia, without exception, to dispose freel.v of theniselves, including the separation 
of such territories, the latter will have the opportunity, within a fixed and not 
distant jieriod. of freely deciding the question of their incorporation in such 
or such State or else of founding an independent State, Our taslv now consists 
in deliberating as to the interval which ought to be fixed. In my opinion the 
opportunity f(»' their decision should last until, indeed, goes without saying. 
•ind the interval should last until the time when one may feel assured that 
before the end of the tei'm it will be possible to eliminate the results and fac- 
tors incident to the war. and which, in Russian opinion, are Ciipable of stiflin.r 
the perfectly free expression of opinion by these peoples. What has to be done 
is to find a term after the conclusion ot a general peace which will be sufficiently 
sh(]rt to avoid delay and, at tlie same time, sufficient to bring about the circmn- 
.stances indicated by me as indispensalile. That is what we should have dis- 
cussed, and we should have decided, for example, that the interval fixed by 
the Russian demand should conmience at the moment of the conclusion of peace 
with Russia and finish with the expiry of a year after the conclusion of a 
general peace. Perhaps the President of the Russian delegation would give his 
views regarding these ideas and also regarding my concrete proposal. 

(A telegraph section is missing here, and it is assumed that w'hat 
follows is a reply of M. Trotsky.) 

Taking It for granted that the peoples interested have the rij^ht to the free 
expression of their will, then, for the pra.ctical solution of the question, it would 
be a matter of indifl'erence what organ of such or such Government was pre- 
sumably recognized at a certain previous date. Now, at bottom, the matter is 
simply how to assure this freedom of expression of the popular will. One of 
the most important factors connected with this exiiression of free will is the 
question of evacuating troops from the teri-itoi'ies concerned. 

The President of the (leiman delegation, in order to supply a con- 
crete subject for debate, proposed the evacuation of the territories 
from the moment of the conclusion of peace with Russia until a year 
aftei' the conclusion of a general peace. 

Baron vo.\ Ki;Hi..\i ank. I said it would he necessary to discuss in advance 
the period during \\liich the exiu-ession of the popular will should quickly de- 
clai-e itself. At the following discussions we should debate the conditions 
necessary for securing this expressicm of the jxipular will. Excuse me for 
interruiiting you; I only wished to make the point clear. 

Trotsky. I am much obliged for the explanation; indeed, I am at a loss to 
understand how such a misunderstanding arose in my mind. Possibly it was 
caused by our ilec]i conviction tliat a general vote would be impossible without 
;i preliminary evacuation of the territories concerned. 

In any case I suppose that in order to settle the destiny of, the territories 
the question as to which originated with the events on the Western front, 
neither ijarty has sufficient grounds for confounding them formally and in- 
separably with the course of llie whole war. Russia, by relinquisliing the war 
will, in the evcnl of |ieace being I'oncluded, have estalilished, both for herself 
and I'oi- the whole (jI' Germany, pacific relations on this front. Naturally that 



SESSIONS OF 15 JANUARY. 103 

'l"t's not, unfortunately, ex.-lude the continuution of tlie \vur on the otiier 
11 outs, but seeiuA- thut Germiiny's position in iv.^ai-a to her otlier (neniies will 
not. m any .-use. he a.uKvavated hy the .-onclusion ,.f lu.ace ^Yith Russia, the 
populations of the occupied territories find it difiicult to understand wliv its 
relations must pass under so harsh a form— a form dependent on the occupa- 
tion, the form of a trausitory regime— with all the conse(iuei.ces eotailed l)y i 
continuation of the universal ^var. Hy such a presentment of the ,|uesiion iheir 
^ei7 exi.sten.e would he called in .picslion for an unlimited period for at lire 
present moment, however sympathetic a view we may take, we have'n,. ^r.innds 
for calculating' with any ],reclsiou the m„ment of the .-(mdnsion of universal 
peace, and, in view of the a).s,.n,.e of my previous indicatiira of a time limit 
we concluded that the question of the settlement .if the .lestim of the o<rupie.l 
territories was to he settled in coordination with the conclusion of peace on 
the Western fi-cmt and the sul)se(iuent liquidation of all the resulls of ilu- war 
wliich liave welshed ,.n the occupied territories. Sh,,uld it lie accepted as a 
principle that those territories, indepemlently of tlie form of theii- future e- 
istence, are not to he involved in the future progress of the univers,al war. 
except so far as that is indispensable for the liquidation of tin- results „f the 
war cm the Western front, then a time limit might lie fixed l,y c.nnlnnations 
of all the circumstances havin.^ a technical connection with the question. 
Baron \on Kiihlmann, speaking in f German, said: 
I can not agree with the la.st speaker in ids exposition. We liave ali-ca.iy 
indicated in the course of the (li.>cn.ssi.ais on the proposals formulated in Art. 
I our view that, in accordance with the opinions of our military .specialists, 
our consent to the evacuation of territories, independent of tlie future progres.s 
of the universal war, must lie considered as a sreat concession. That was tlie 
sole point of variance in the .liscussion of Art. I, and that variance was due* 
Kr- the Kussian DeleKali.in liavinu exjiressed the desire that the proposed 
evacuation of the propo.sed territ(n-ies .should he carried out act'cjnlins to a 
precise plan simultaneously with the Kussian demobilization. I do not deny 
the possibility of a rapprochemenl in our res))ective points of view on this 
((uestion if we reacli an uiiderstandinR- on other points. The preceding- speaker 
contended that after the conclusion (if jieace with Russia the continuation of 
the war on the other fronts can in no way influence the course of events on 
the Western (? i, e,, Russian) front, 

(The messao-e ends here.) 



47. Session of 15 January, Afternoon. 

(iioRjrAx .\<;couNT, 

[r<'rom the (British) Daili/ h'crieir of the Forc.Ujn Press, 22 .January, 1918, 

p. 6.51,*] 

In the afternoon the sitting was opened at 5 o'clock by State Secre- 
tary von Kiihhnann with the followinp: statement: 

Gentlemen, we have this morning finished the discussion as to the period of 
evacuation, and we mu.st acknowh'd.ge Avith regi-et that <iii the Russian side, in 
spite of the fact that the grounds advanced by us were of a completely Ingical 

' The Deutscher Beichsini-eigcr of 17 January, lOlS. has an account substantially iden- 
tical with this. 



104 PI!OCF,EL)IX(;S OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFEBEXCE. 

ijiitui'p. 11(1 inclination lias lieeu sli.iv n to siocedi^ in any \vi\y to our representa- 
':ions. Wp wish now to pass over to the second ]iiiint anaitini; discnssioii, which 
vefers to the general iiolitical arrangements under which the exercise of the 
"iglit of self-determination is to take place. The chief point in considering this 
■■(implex question is how far freedom of voting to the assembly with which the 
final decision will rest will be influenced liy the presence of troops in the dis- 
tricts concerned. The ,\lliecl Delegations are influenced liy an entirely sincere 
'ntention to secure for the voting absolutely complete freedom, such as is ('om- 
tiatible with the circumstances. This is, however, in the nature of things, also 
•1 military nuestion. The range within which Ihe discussion can take place is 
"egulated li.\' military necessities beyond which we are not able to pass. The 
'\\n points of view from which the matter can be discussed are the following: 
A. certain number of armed and disciplined forces is necessai'y for maintaining 
public order. Part of the present militarily organized forces are necessary to 
keep in operation the economic life and industry of the country. The promise 
will be given on our own part in binding form that these organized forces will 
not interest themselves politically in any way in the districts in question, and 
that they ^'^■i]l exercise no political pressure. Holding these views, we assert 
unresei'vedly that flie iiresence of these foi'ces can not b(> in any way injurious 
to freedom of voting. 

The Chairman of the Russian Delegation then spol^;e again on the 
question of tlie evacuation of occuiDied districts. In response to a 
request made to him by State Secretary von Kiihhiiann that he should 
address himself to the point — that is, to the question of the conditions 
under which lotino- could take place, so that by both sides it might 
be looked upon as a valid expression of popular will uninfluenced by 
military pressure — Ilerr Trotsky said that he must first have coip- 
plete clearness concernino- the evacuation question, which until now 
he had not obtained. 

State Secretary von Kuhlmann answered that he had ))eeu under 
the impression that in the morning the discussion of the question as 
to the joeriod of the evacuation had been sufficiently cleared up. 

If that was not the case, he would no! object if the Chainium of 
the Iiussian Delegation wished to discuss the point further. He 
could o-ive no giiaiTintce that within the period in Avliich it would 
be desii-ed that the \(ite should be taken, iiiiblary considerations 
woidd make it |)0ssib]e fully to e\ acuate the districts. It was clear 
to everyone that e-\-eit in tlie formulation nf a national gendarmerie, 
t<i wliich the Allies were thoroughly williiio- to assent for the public 
safety in these wide and insecure districts, could not be carried 
through within the time iii which the vote would be taken, and that 
they could not give up eutii'ely military security for the main- 
tenance of order. The juinimuju ])i'(igramme (if the Allit-s had been 
drawn up with the most careftil coivideration of the unlitary neces- 
sities, and subject to the recognition nl' this the Allies were ready 
to enter u])on the discvission of details. The question was. that, 
Avhetlici- accoi'ding to the \'iew of the Chairman of the Russian Dele- 
gation a Mite or choice of representati\'es was Impossible within the 
limits set forth by the Allies: that was. whether by the presence 
of the few oi-ganized forces already referred to (he voting ecuild 
be regai-ded as subject to mililary pi'essitre or not. 

lieii- Trotsky replied that he could not now answer this question 
in a way thai would be of practical, political assistance in the 
neirol iations. 



SESSIONS OF 15 JANUARY. 105 

He could only insist that this ques^tion of the exucuation of the 
territory was closely connected with the freedom of voting. He 
must at present limit himself to stating that the presence of 
organized forces in the districts in question would, according to the 
Russian ^-iew. seAcrely injure the significance of the voting. He 
added that in close connection with the question which thev had been 
discussing was that of the return of refuget^s and of those who had 
been removed from the occupied districts. According to his view, 
the voting could only take place when these refugees and persons 
who had been removed had returned home, or the majority of them. 
The forinula presented in the documents handed in iiy the Austro- 
Hungarian and (fernian Delegates appeared to him to be too 
limited. 

ytate Secretary von Kiihlmann admitted without question that 
the refugees would be justified in returning to their homes. 

It would, however, be the task of the Administration to establish 
whether exceptions were to be made to this general rule, and if so, 
what they should be. He requested the forme- speaker with a view 
to facilitating the considertaion of the matter to give him access 
to the material in the possession of the Eussian Government. 

This Herr Trotsky declared himself willing to do. The sitting 
thereupon closed. 



48. Session or 13 January, Ai-teknoox. 

1U7SSIAX ACCOUNT. 
[Fi-oui tlie IllrUisli) Daihi llcricir of llir Fi>rri(/n J'ri'sK. 29 .T;imiary, p. 72.:!.] 

The following is the official Russian account of the session of the 
German, Austro-Hungarian, and Russian delegates at Brest-Litovslv. 
commencing at a quarter past five on the afternoon of Jan. IT). The 
session was opened by Baron von Kiihlmann, who spoke as follows : 

• leiitlenien : AVe now rinitinue the jiourp^irlers iuteiTuptcd before Uincli to- 
day. We to-(!a.v clisi iissed tlie (nu>sti<jn of a time !iuiU, and, to oiir regret, we 
have been obliged to note tliat. in spite of tlie pcrsnasivc foi-fe of our explana- 
tions, bad not lieen oljtained. We will now pass-to tlie disciissiou of point two; 
ttat is, a discussion of the qnesrions reuardin.g Ihe roiiunon preliminary politi- 
cal conditions which (aight to serve as a basis for a resolution. The ile(-isive 
(loint in considering; a solution of the said questions will cert.-iinly be in what 
measure the presence of troops occupyins' these tei-ritories might influence the 
tree vote or ballot of the deciding body. This question will be the kernel for 
the discussion of all the questions which are submitted for (Jiii- cousidei-ation. 
Tlie similar features of the standpoint shared by all the Allied Delegations are 
ki-to\\r. to yiai. The Allied Delegations are actuated by the ver\- sincere desire 
to build up for the vote (a- ballot conditions of perfect ])oliti(al liberty within 
as wide, limits as circum.stances will permit. 

The whole question i.s in iis essential parts also a military affair. The limits 
within which "e can discuss this question are created by circumstances ami com- 
binations of a military character which we can not exceed. The following points 
of view may be taken as setting the bounds for its discussion : The exact number 



106 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK C01>IJ!'E±{KJNL;J!i. 

(if firmed and clisi-iplinpil lr(ii)]is necessary for the mninteiiimce iif public order; 
ttie ors'iinised forces whicli are for the moment militarily indispensable for 
niaintainins the existence of the economic enterprises of tlie country. On our 
side, a promise will l)e ,L;iven. ^'ouched in oblisatory terms, that the jiresenee of 
these orsanisations in the said territories will involve no Interference in the 
political life of tlie ctnmtry and the troops will liave no right to exert pres- 
sure on its politirs. ( )n the otiier hand, we resolutely maintain the standpoint 
that their pre.sen<e can in no way impair the liberty of the ballot. If the Rus- 
sian dele.cates consent to debate the question with ray proposals as a basis, I 
lie.y them to enunciate tlieir standpoint and their proposals, in order to deter- 
mine if thei'e is any means of attaining approximation of eonver.genee in our 
resjiectivp .suggest ions. 

'^r. Trotsky then replied :ts follows: 

r.cfore to-day's ad.iournment we exjilained the root of the differences whicli 
separate us. In this, at the first .glance, practical question, the President of 
tlie German Delegation set up as a fundamental criterion for a solution of 
this question the criterion of military .guarantees, q^liis principle has, naturally. 
its claims, Imt it does not caia-y the debate any furthev on to other grcrand. 
Above all. it is necessary to make tilings clear from the be.ginning, liecaus(> in 
recognizing tlie principle of the free self-determination of peoples, one may 
well say: ''Althougli I .should have certain military advantages in exjiloring 
the territories of these jieoples. nevertheless, in view of the fact that I have 
acknowledged their right to an independent existence I renounce all such 
advantages." That is one iiosition. One other is possilile — that formulated 
lo-day liy the President of the German Delegation. 

The military advanta.ges of a given position are to be the supreme criterion, 
and discussion is oniy held to be possible within these limits. In that way the 
question is given an appearance which is purely deceptive. Certain explana- 
tions are indis]>ensabie in ordei- to put the position of the German Delegation 
in its proper liglit. Thus, before the ad.iournment, the President of the Ger- 
man Delegation suggested as an example or a debatable proposal that the terri- 
tories in question might attain a full and iletinite exiiression of indeiiemleuee 
not later than a year after the termination of tlje war. I understood that this 
would more or less coincide with, or wtmld be preceded by, the evacuation of 
these territories by foreign troops. On this .ground a certain misunderstand- 
ing ai-ose, which has not yet been finally exphiined. Does the President of the 
German r>elegation mean that at the moment of the final constitution of the 
new peoples the evacuation of their territories by foreign troops will have 
been definitely completed? If that is his identical stancTpoint. then it seems to 
me the question before us will find a very simple solution. If we accept, of 
course, conditionally, the time limit proposed iiy the president — that is. exactly 
a year after the termination of the world war — we imagine that only a few 
montlis would elapse before the operation of the evacuation of the territories 
was accomplished. And the vote which is to determine (he final form of sov- 
ereignty of the new peoples would be taken under those cimditions. I beg the 
President of the German Delegation to give an explanation on these points, 
In order to simplify the ensuing debates. 

[The official communication here states that at this point thei'c is 
a niiiiiiier of sentences much mutilated.] 

Baron von KfJHi.MANN. You have misunderstood what I have just said. If 
this morning I proposed as a time limit a year after the conclusion of a universal 
peace, it was to be understood that the occupying Powers would be oliliged to 



SESSIONS OF 15 JANUAEY. . 107 

eaiT.v out the Vdte in tliese territories subject to the observance of the condi- 
tions which I licfore imlicated. A time after tlie conclusion of a universal 
rieace was chosen in consideration of the fact that after a universal peace the 
circumstances will he favoural)le foi- the conditions of voting which have been 
accepted by us. These conditions which, from my poini of view, should be laid 
down for the vote. I ha^•e already explained. 

Tlie conditions which, in my view, should lie established for the vote have 
been set forth clearly and with sufficient fullness, and I do not think it neces- 
sary to ,i;o into details. They represent the maximum to which we can consent. 
Sub.iect to the given circumstances and within the limits indicated, I could find 
it possible to discuss the question, but discussions which exceeded those limits 
may attain political results which are not practicable. 

:\1. Tkotsky. Whether ,i pi-actical result is attained or not, we must, above 
all. endeavour to make the ])osition clear. Even after the recent frledly ex- 
planation of the Tresident of the German r>ele,uation, it is not clear what the 
final term for the evac\mtlon of the forei,Kn troops from the new territories 
would be. 

Baron von Kl-Hi.ii.\xx. The whole time we are not debating the question of 
the definite evacuation of the noops. but pourpai-lers for the creatiim of such 
conditions for the takin.u of the vote as would enable it to be announced, by our 
mutual consent, as an effective vote. I wish, most emphatically, to limit the 
field of the discussion in this direction. We are discussing the question of con- 
ditions under which a vote could be taken, which, in the opinion of both sides. 
would be an obligatory character, and would not be considered as having been 
taken under the pressure of armed force. I think that that is absolutely cleai'. 
AA'e have Indicated the number of organised armed forces which would be com- 
patible with such a free vote without any pressure. It is on this that I wcaild 
r.sk y(ra to deliberate, if such is your good pleasure. 

Above all, I should like to put for^^•ard for discussion the question of iiublic 
order. We consent, in conformity with the projjosals made yesterday by the 
Austrian I")ele.gation, to begin the or.ganisatioii of a gendarmerie from among 
the national forces. But for .-inyone with experience of such a (jnestion it is 
cleiir that during the time limit which we desire, and during which, if to-day 
you accept our eimditions, we should be obliged to take the vote, it would be 
impossible to entrust to such a gendarmerie fcn-med from national forces the 
maintenance of ordei' on such a large scale and in territories so vast and so 
devoid of securit.v. I should like to put the questicm as to what number of 
organisf^d armed forces would be necessary, in the opinion of the President of 
the Russian Delegation, to maintain ordei- in these territories at the time of 
the ballot, and at the same time would be compatible with the libert.v of the 
vote. 

Jlr. TuoTSKV. I would remind the President that he is not only the President 
of the present assembly, but that he is al.so the representative of the o])posing 
party, and that to arrive at an agreement it is absolutely indis]iensable to 
agree as to the order of the discussions and their form. I should find it difficult 
to give a dii-ect i-eply to the last question put by the German President, if in 
(jrdei- to explain all ])arts of questions which interest us Ave had not the right 
to put in the forefront all indispensable considerations and to receive necessary 
information. In the space of a few minutes the President of the German Dele- 
gation has proposed, firstly, to discuss only tlie conditions of the freedom of the 
ballot, and at the same time, without waiting for my reply, jiroiiosed to pass on 
to the conditions for the maintenance of order and the policing of the country. 
I am convinced that if the part of the discussions that has already taken place 
were brought to the knowledge of the peoples interested and submitted to the 



1 OS PROCEEDINGS OP THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFEEENCB. 

public opinion of the woikl, without further expUin;itions, it might ctuise tlie 
most serious misunderstanding-, and it is for tliat reason, in strict oonuectiou 
with tlie question of State politics and tlie order of the da.v, and with tlie ques- 
tion of the proposals of a free \(ite. tliat I have touched on the question 
of the conditions and time limit for the definite evacuation of tlie troops, 
for not oni.v rational decisions are pos.sihle. Foi- examine, if I put forwurd a 
practical .-dternative — that the witlulrawal of tlie troops sliould take place 
within two .vears after the conclusion of ti universal peace, and the deciding 
vote within one ,vear — that would he a possihilit.w 

Aiiotlier possil)ilit,y is that evaeualion may he carried out in two years and 
the decisive vote within a .\ear and three months. l<"aced with such an alter- 
native. I would vote for tlie second. Naturally, the (iernian I'resident is 
entitled to decline to reply to this (piestion. 

Baron von ICf hi.si.v.xn. I can find no .ground lor the piesuiuption tliat I desire 
unreasoiialily to limit the suh.ject of discussion. I am as interested as the 
I'lesident of the Russian T >cle,i;ation in liaving full light thrown on tlie questions 
under disiussioii from all sides and to the very bottom. I was under the 
impression that the question of a time limit had already been sufficiently 
eluciihited at this morning's sitting as far as was possible in tlie course of a 
(!;"bate. In any case. I can not tal«' the responsibility of guaranteeing that, in 
the cour.se of any time limit of practical importance for the solution of the ques- 
tion of the \dtc. military combinations will make the total evacuation of the 
troojis from those territories possible. Such a deduction might have been made 
])y the I'resident of the Russian Delegation from my proposal regarding a cer- 
tain limit. " a lapse of a year after the conclusion of general peace is indicated," 
and from our strictly minimum program for the activity of the organized forces 
in those territories. That minimum program has been elaborated with care- 
ful coordination of the military circumstances, and we agree to follow that 
pro.^ram and to discuss it in detail. It seems to me that from the fact of a 
c<iiintr.\- putting foi'ward a minimum program it logically follows that It is not 
in a position to deal with propi.jsals from the other side which go too far. I 
nin--t ]-etuin to tlie previous proposal to proceed to the discussion of the amount 
of organized forces indispensable for the maintenance of order without in any 
v^ay imposin.g this priii)Osal on the Russian President, 

M. Tr.oTSKY. Yes; I think that it will conduce to clearness if we again spend 
some time on the (luestion recently put forward in the proposal formulated by 
the Austrian and German Delegations: "The evacuation of the troops is im- 
liossibk' during the general war, but it will be possible to aspire to a reduction 
of their numbei' iudispens;ible lor the maintenance of order and of the pro- 
ductive equipment indispensable to the count r,\," 

It is indisiiensalile to introduce in the terms of the peace treaties guarantees 
tgainst the fellering of the li^es of these peoples with a period o funcertainty as 
reuards tlie continuation of the common war. In this we foresee the greatest 
daiiwr from tlie mainteiiance of a slate of war which can not guarantee to the 
territories recently convoked for self-determined pacihc relations of .1 noriuall 
character any moi-e than to the neigliboring countries, I venture to say, how- 
e\(r, that the inhabitants of these territories, as Well as the inhabitants of the 
colonies already mentioned, ha^■e the right to live in their country without 
lieiiiL.; Ini'ced to suffer from universal war more than is necessitated by Inevi- 
table and indisputable causes. 

r.aron \o.\ KtJHL.MAiNN. 1 think, gentlemen, that we must interrupt the 
silling and continue our speech at 5 this afternoon. 

The sitting elided tit li o'clock. 



SESSION OF 16 JANUARY. 109 

49. Private Meeting ^witii Ukeainians, 1G Jaxx aey. 

german account. 

[From the (British) Dailii Kcrkio of the Foreign Press, 21 January, 1918, 

p. 639.*] 

German wireless states (Jan. 18) : 

During the forenoon of Jan. 16 there assembled in Brest-Litovsk 
for private discussions amongst themselves the delegations ot the 
four allied Powers. Secretary of State von Kiihhnann, during the 
course of a prolonged siDeech. reviewed the state of the negotiations 
which had taken place with the Eussian representatives during the 
past few davb for the adjustment of political and territorial ques- 
tions. The leaders of the allied delegations unanimously expressed 
their thanks and their complete approval to the Secretary of State. 

As a consequence of the indisposition of the Foreign ^Minister, 
Count Czernin, a private meeting with the Ukrainian Delegates took 
place at his residence on Jan. 16 during the afternoon. During a 
discussion lasting one and a lialf hours and in which the German 
delegates participated, this led to the settlement in principles of ques- 
tions concerning the future political relations between the Central 
Powers and the Ukrane, thereby a decisive step forward having 
been made. 

The resumption of these discussions was arranged to take place on 
Jan. 17, when economic questions will be discussed. After the antic- 
ipated early conclusion of a private preparatory exchange of ideas, 
discussions of greater detail will be initiated. 



TiO. Session oe 16 January. 

RUSSIAN ACCOUNT. 

[From tlie (Britisli) Dnilij Rccirir of the Foreign Press, 21 January, 1018, 

p. G4.3.] 

The following purports to be a wireless message from the Russian 
Government : 

To All— 

I'enee Xei/otintions, Brest-Litorsl-. ./an. US. litis. 

A discussion f(«ik iilace tn-ilay of the clauses of the two proposals formulated 
by the Russians and the Austro-Germans. The chief object of this discussion 
was to determine what conilitions must he recognized with regard to the self- 
determination of the peoples of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. 

Kilhlman expressed himself in the sense that the German Government is 
ready to take upon itself the obligation to organize upon an extensive scale 
a consultation of the people not later than a year after the conclusion of a 
general jieace. 

During the debate which followed as a result of this re])ly, Trotsky en- 
deavored to elicit a clear statement as to whether the consultation, even a 



* The Deutscher Reichsan^ciger of 17 January, 1918, lias an account substantially iden- 
tical with this. 



110 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFEKENCE. 

yenr aftei' the (■(Jiicluion uf ,i unieral ileiice. would lip preceded by tlie evaciia- 
Uoii III' the anuy in Dccupatioii. 

Kiililuiau, after several attcnilitM lo evade a direct answer, was forced to 
declare, now and openly, tliattlie (lerman (Jovernment could not undertake 
any olilisatioii with regard to llie rccallini;' of the army in occupation. 

This is re,i;arded as the niosl iniiJortaLit declaration at to-day's ineetin<;. 

The steud^i-ani will be sent to-morrow. 

Kakahan. 



")1. Session of 17 January. 



GERMAN AC'COrN'i 



|i''riii!i till' (British) Driihi H.vivir of the l-'oiiiaii I'icxs, S- .Tauuai'y, 1918, 

11.0.12.1 

German wireless states (Jan. ■20) : 

In Brest-Lito\ sk. on Jan. IT, the discussions which had been sus- 
pended between the (rernjan and Aiistro-Hnngarian Delegations, on 
the one hand, and the Ukrainian Delegation on the other, and which 
have led to inital results on ])olitical questions, -^^-ere resumed as 
confidential discussions. 

Count Czernin calls special attention to the general principle, valid 
for the Brest negotiations which was recognized by the ITkrainian 
Delegation namely, that the intervention of one party in the internal 
affairs of the other party was quite out of the question. On the other 
hand, accord existed between both parties as to the realization of 
lasting friendly conditions assui-ino- peace to both parties on the 
basis of the mutual discussion of (lie various ])olitical and cultural 
(|iiostions interesting them both. In this regard. Count Czernin, by 
way of "example, referred to the assuring of the destiny of that Polish 
Minority which may belong to tlie future ITkrainian State. His 
statements were greeted with the expressed approval of the Ukrainian 
Delegation which made known that it was prepared to enter upon 
further negotiations on this basis. During the SHbse(|uent discussion 
concerning the adjustment of mutual economic intercourse, no differ- 
ences existed on the fundamental conceptions of the parties such as 
might present the realization of agreement. The vli'^cussions v.cnt so 
far as to extend to concrete questions as to an exchange of commodities. 
The course of the negotiations and the results thus far achieved 
justify the hope of a satisfactory conclusion being reached. Further 
discussion of these questions has been intrusted to .a special commis- 
sion which is to complete its labors with the greatest possible speed. 



r)2. Meeting or TuRKtsii and Ukrainian Delegates, IT Jani arv. 

GERMAN .VCfOUN'l'. 
I 'I'ranslalion fi-om the Dciitftrln-r R('icli!i(iii~ci(i<T. 2!) .lanuary, 191S. j 

The Turkish delegates at Brest -Lito\sk held a pri\ate conference 
with the Uki-ainians on 17 January. After the ancient, traditional 



SESSIONS OF 17 JANUARY. HI 

relations were recalled, which form a bond between the two coun- 
tries, and after it was determined that the two pai-ties were assembled 
not as enemies but as old friends, a discussion of the questions to be 
taken up in the treaty of peace with the Ukrainians was begun. As 
the Milli telegraphic agency reports, it was agreed that when the 
political relations between Eussia and the Ukraine have been re- 
stored it will be possible to conclude a treaty with the Ukraine as 
soon as the treaty of peace shall have been put into final form and 
the Allies of Turkey express their approval. It was furthermore 
agreed that it is of Altai importance for Turkey to know the political 
boundaries of the I'ki'aine, since 'a discussion of the questions relative 
to the Black Sea is only possible after the settlement of this point. 
The Ottoman delegation declared that an immediate answer to these 
questions is not necessary, and that the I'krainians should study 
them thoroughly and deliberate upon them, in order to determine 
whether further questions on the same subject might occur to them. 

The first delegate of the Ukraine answered in the name of his 
delegation that while the Ukraine was still an integral part of the 
Eussian Empire, it had faced Turkey many times on the battle field, 
but that these struggles called forth no enmity against Turkey; 
rather did they arouse in the Ukrainians admiration for the valor 
and virtues of the Turks. The Ukraine, he added, considers tht, 
present moment of especial importance, since it represents the laying 
of the corner stone for the relations between the two countries and 
is opportune for creating .concord between them and guaranteeing 
bonds of sincere friendship. The legal position of the Ukraine in its 
relations to Eussia has not been fully determined. The boundaries 
between the Ukraine, on the one hand, and Germany and Austria- 
Hungary, on the other hand, can be decided upon at Brest-Litovsk. 
The boundaries between Eussia and the T^kraine, however, have been 
settled to some extent, but not definitely. As for the na^-al forces in 
the Black Sea. although at present they are the sole property of the 
ITcraine. it is impossible to predict into whose hands they will pass. 
The Turlcish delegates thanked the speaker for the friendly senti- 
ments vrhich he had expressed toward the Tiu'ks and emphasized 
the necessity of formulating certain points and reservations. On 
the western boundary of the Ukraine Turkey has no immediate in- 
terests, although it would be necessary for the latter to have exact 
information as to the eastern and southern boundaries of the former, 
so that Turkey might know who its neighbor on the Black Sea is. 
Furthermore, they "requested information on this point and expressed 
satisfaction with the explanation that the Black Sea fleet was now 
iinder the control of the Ukraine. The delegates then decided that 
the Persian question did not belong to the Ukrainian sphere of in- 
fluence. With regard to the Dardanelle question the Ukrainian 
delegation emphasized the fact that this was a matter which interests 
Turkev exclusivelv. and that they could, therefore, make no definite 
statement with reference to it. The question would have to be 
studied by the Government of the Ukraine. 

At this point the Black Sea question and the question of free 
passage through the Black Sea were discussed. It was emphasized 
that new questions would probably arise. With regard ito the 
Ukrainians these questions would have to form a criterion for the 



112 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BKEST-LITOVSK CONFEEENCB. 

friendship and sympathies existing between the two countries. The 
Turkish delegates declared that the right of free passage for mer- 
chant ships Avould be respected in times of peace, but that in case of 
war Turlcey would be compelled to use such means of defense which 
would be considered adequate for the protection of the Turkish 
oaioital. They added that, whereas it had been agreed to consider 
the evacuatioii of Turkish territory occupied by Russia during the 
war as a condition sine qua non of peace, it would be of great impor- 
tance for the Turkish delegates to be informed of the relations exist- 
ing between the Ukraine and the Caucasus. The Ukrainian repre- 
isentatives answered that these relations were of a friendly and sin- 
cere nature, but that the Ukrainians had no interest in the future 
organization of this territory and did not know in what inanner 
and with whose assistance tlie Caucasus Avould regulate its future 
relations and how it would condition its internal life. 



.>j. ^Meeting of Turkish and Ukrainian Delegates, 17 jAxr:vRY. 

TURKISH ACCOUNT. 

IFi-oiu llie (I'.ritisii) Dailii l^criiir of the l-'urriiiii I'lcss. 29 .Tainiary, 191S, 

p. 724.1 

A Constantinople telegram (Jan. 2G) states: 

The Turkish delegates at Brest-LitoA'sk had a private meeting on 
Jan. 17 with the Ukrainian Delegation, questions of special interest 
to the Turks and Ukrainians to be laid down in the peace treaty 
in-ing discussed. It was pointed out that Turkey attaches great im- 
portance to the demarcation of the Ukrainian political frontiers, as 
only then could the questions relating to the Black Sea be discussed. 
The first Ukrainian delegate i-eplying pointed out that the jiiridical 
position of Ukraine toward Russia had not yet been settled. He said 
that the fiontiers between Ukraine and Germany and Austria- 
Hungary could be fixed at Brest-Litovsk ; the frontiers between Rus- 
sia and Uki'aine, although fixed to a certain degree, had not been 
definitely laid down. Regarding the naval forces in the Black Sea, 
the Ukrainian delegate declared that it was impossible definitely 
to say to whom they would belong in the future, though at present 
the Ukraine was their sole owner. The Ukrainians further stated 
that the Persian question did not belong to the Ukrainian sphere of 
influence, and added emphatically that the question of the Darda- 
nelles was one which solely interested Turkey. The final settlement 
regarding the Dardanelles and the Black Sea should, they said, be 
left to later discussion between the respective Governments. The 
Turkish delegates admitted the right to a free passage through the 
Dardanelles for merchant shipping in peace time, and stated that 
they considered the evacuation of Turkish territory occupied by the 
Russians a condition sine qua non of i^eace. In I'eply, the Ukrainians 
declared that their isolations to the Caucasus would be friendly and 
sincei'e, but that they were not interested in the future, organization 
of that territory. 



SESSIONS OF 18 JAXUAEY. 11 

5-1. Session of 18 jAXCAitv. 

GERMAX ACC(JUXT. 

[From the (British) Dailij Ririeir of the Foniijii P/c-v.s-. 23 January, lljlS, 

p. GG4.*J 

The deliberations of the commission for the reguhition of political 
and territorial questions, which were interrupted for two days owing 
to Count Czei'nin's indisposition, were continued at Brest-Litovsk on 
Jan. Is. Baron von Kiihlmann reiterated that, in principle, the Cen- 
tral Empires agreed with the idea of the repatriation of people who 
had emigrated during the war and that the practical execution of this 
repatriation could best be left to the commission, which would be 
charged with the exchange of civilian prisoners. On Baron von 
Kiihlmann's question, whether the Russian Government was able to 
furnish the emigrants in question with proofs that before emigration 
they had lived in the districts in question, Trotskj' replied that these 
fugitives and evacuated persons, who were at present in Berlin, had 
been formed into unions (Landsmannschaften), so that their central 
organs would doubtless be able to furnish such proofs. 

This point being satisfactorily settled, the commission then dis- 
cussed the future state formation of the occupied territories which 
were granted the right of self-determination by Russia. The German 
delegation held that a referendum would not correspond to the state 
of develoi^ment of the population of these territories, and that it 
would be more suitable to supplement the representative bodies of 
the territories in question by elections on broad lines and to extend 
them in such a manner that they could really be regarded as represent- 
ing the entire population. In reply to this suggestion Trotsky re- 
marked that the Russian delegation adhered to its proposal that only 
a referendum should decide the future state formation of these 
countries. 

In reply the German Secretary of State again pointed to the en- 
deavor of the Central Empires to grant broad classes of the popula- 
tion in these regions an ever-increasing influence on policy. 

What must unconditionally be secured was the maintenance of 
order during the transitional period. What must be prevented was 
extension of the Revolution to these regions, which had already suffi- 
cient! v been afflicted by the war. 

Further discussion on this question was thereu]3on postponed and 
the commission proceeded to discuss the extent of the territories fall- 
ing under Article -J of the German Austro-Hungarian draft. At 
the President's invitation General Hoffman produced a map of the 
territory between the Baltic and Brest-Litovsk. On his remarking 
that no" regard would be paid in this jnap to territories lymg south 
of Brest-Litovsk. as the negotiations \Yith the I'krainian delegation 
with regard to them n'ere pending. ]SI. Trotsky made the following- 
counter Declaration : 

As I have already twice remaiked, namely, on the occasion of tlie 
recognition of the Ukranian delegation, the progress of the right of 
self-determination of the I'krainian peo]Dle has not yet got so far 
that the question of the delimitation of the frontier between us an<l 

* The neiii-<(;her Ifeicli'^'inzeiijer of i;i .January, 1!>17, has an account substantinlly iden- 
tical with this. 

9(1244—18 8 



114 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BREST-LITOVSK CONFERENCE. 

till' new licpublic could already ]»• r(><;;u'ded as caiTied out. I re- 
marked on that occasion that this will produce no difficulties in the 
negotiations, as, according to our principles, the frontiers are de- 
fined by the will of the broad masses of populations interested there- 
in. It Avould "I'equire an agreement between us and the Ukrainian 
delegation in each sepai'atc case, and this naturally refers also in 
full extent to the regions south of Brest-Litovsk. 

In coniiection with this Count Czernin referred to the territories 
occu]ned by Austro-Hungarian troops and asked for information 
whether the negotiations coiu'crning these territories were to be con- 
dieted with the Petrograd GoA'ei'nment or with the Ukrainian dele- 
gation as the latter desired. 

M. Trotsky replied that a one-sided and independent treatment of 
this c|uestion could not be granted to the T Ukrainian Delegation, where- 
ujjon Count Czernin reserved further discussion of this question till 
an agreement on this point had been reached between the Russian 
and the T'krainian delegations, \Yhich agreement is expected shortly. 

In the course of the morning's deliberations Baron von Kiihlmann 
asked for a statement regarding the relations between the Caucasus 
and the Petrograd Government. 

M. Trotsky replied: 

The C!aucasus Arni.\' is under the command of superior ofilcers wlio are 
absolntely devoted to the < 'oiuicil ol' People's Commissioners. This -was eou- 
firnu'd two wei^^s as'o at the ,i;eneral I'oiisvcss of delegates on the Cancasian 
front. 

In a furtlier question Baron von Kiihlmann referred to the Aaland 
Islands, sayi)ig that the Aaland question was of the greatest import- 
ance to (xermany. which was one of the signatories to the old agree- 
ment. 

Above all, the (|uestion would ha^e to be solved whether the 
Aaland problem would be dealt with now, as before, by the Petro- 
grad Government, or whether the Finnish Republic (now recognized 
l»y sexeral Powers) would have to be internationally regarded as 
entitled to lepresent the .\ aland Islands in questions concerning they 

After a statement by M. Trotsky that the proclamation of the in- 
dependence of Finland had hitherto brought no change regarding 
the question of the Aaland Islands, Baron von Kiihlmanii pointed 
out that individual German claims arose out of the Aaland agree- 
ment, the signing of which w'as the result of a purely historical event, 
namely, the Crimean war, and that Germany would demand recogni- 
tion of such claims in the Peace Treaty. 

By this recognition Russia would abandon nothing of what she pos- 
sessed before the war unless the assertion were made that the fortifi- 
cation of the islands during the war — which was contrary to the 
treaty — and the attempt of the Tsar's Government, as disclosed by 
the ])iesent Government, to give these, fortifications a lasting right, 
had created a ne^\' right in this respect. In the interests living on the 
Baliic shores it was Germany's desire that at the reframing of the 
pro\ isions of such an agreement the nations living on the Baltic 
shores, cs]>e('ially Sweden — which, owing to her geographical posi- 
tion, was greatly intei'csted in this question — would be requested to 
gi\e their ad Nice and signature. It was true that Sweden was not 
represented at the present negotiations, but he had good reason to 
suppose that the wishes of the Swedish people lay in this direction. 



SESSIONS OF 18 JAXUAEY. 115 

M. Trotsky reserved his reply to tlie^e suggestions till later. 

At the conclusion of the Lifternoon sitting M. Trotsky stated that he 
ATas obliged to go to Petrograd for about a week for internal political 
reasons. As, moreover, the Commission had dealt in detail with the 
points on the agenda, he proposed to adjourn the deliberations of the 
-f olitical Commission to Jan. 29. 

On his departure the leadership of the Russian Delegation would 
devolve on M. Joffe. The representatives of the Central Powers took 
cognizance of this declaration and expressed the hope that the return 
of M. Trotsky would lead to a complete agreement. 

The Economic Commission, which to-day held a confidential meet- 
ing, has fixed its first oificial sitting for 11 o'clock on Saturdav. 



•5.5. Ai'TEi;>;oox Session of IS Januaiiy. 

ItUSSIAX ACCOUNT. 

[From the (British) Daili/ Rcricr of the Forrifm Press, 29 .lanuary, 1918, 

p. 724.] 

A dispatch from Brest-Litovsk (via Petrograd, Jan. 26) states that 
the afternoon session of the German, Austro-Hungarian, and Eussian 
Delegations for the discussion of political questions was opened at 
hnlf-past five in the afternoon of Jan. 18. 

The session was opened by Baron von Kiihlmann, who said : " Gen- 
tlemen, we will now continue the session of the special commission, 
which was interrupted this morning." 

il. Trotsky said: 

The territorial claims iiresented liy tlie (^Jerman anrl Austro-Hungariaa Dele- 
j,'utiniis this morning complete in a certain sense the fundamental political pour- 
parlers. The position of the other side on the question of territorial policy 
shows itself to us iu concrete form as follows ; Germany and Austria-Hungary 
are detaching from the possessions of the old Russian Empire territory exceed- 
ing 1.50.000 square kilometers, with frontiers comprising the ancient kingdom of 
Poland and Lithuania and considerable tra<;ts inliabited by Ukrainians and 
Bielo-Russians. They are also cutting off territory inhabited by the Letts, divid- 
ing them into 36 parts, and the islands inhabited by the Esthonians from the 
continental part of Esthonia. The regime of military occupation will be main- 
tained by Oermany and Austria-Hunuury not only after the conclusion of peace 
with Russia but after the conclusion of a general peace, and the Powers named 
refuse to give explanations of any sort not only on the subject of the date for 
the evacuation of the occupied countries, but they also refuse in general to give 
any pledges regarding the question of the evacuation of the cnuntries men- 
tioned liy their troops. The internal life of these countries will flow compatible 
with their interest.?. In thest> conditions vague guarantees regarding the rights 
of the Poles. Lithuanians, or Letts will only be absolutely illusory. In fact, the 
affair is reduced to the fact that the German and Austro-Hungarian Govern- 
ments will take into their hands the disposal of the fate of the peoples men- 
tioned. AVe consider it a political duty to establish this fact openly in the 
phase which these pourparlers have now reached. After all the work that has 
been done I do not consider it urgent to submit a matter which is criticized in 



116 PROCEEDIKGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK COIs^FEEENCE. 

principle. The conditiciiis mentioned prove tliat the point of view of Germany 
and Aiistria-Hiinii-nry is quite different from the principles recognized on Dec. 
•2'< and that a real and stable peace of nations is only possible by the realization 
of the right of nations to decide freely their own destiny. In view of the work 
accomplished in the sense mentioned by the political commission, I propose the 
interruptiiin of the work of our political commission in order to give the institu- 
tions directing the Russian Republic an opportunity to deliver their judgment on 
the peace conditions proposed to our Republic. 

In my opinion this interruption should last for eight or nine days. Speaking 
for myself, I should endeavor to fix the next meeting of this (Commission for 
Jan. 29, at 11 a. m. 

In view of the fact that a section of public opinion in Germany reproaches 
the Russian Delegation \\'ith iirdlongiiii;- the pourparlers, I consider it urgent 
to declare here that clearness would undoubtedly have been reached .quicker 
if the conditions of the ojiposite side had not, from the outset, been determined 
by ii .standpoint ab.solutely foreign to the principle of free determination of 
peoples, and by the conditions depending on the right of possessicjii l)y war, 
and intended according to the words of the I'resident of the German Delega- 
tion to protect the territories referred to from the revolutionary invasion. I 
liave the honor to inform the I'resident and the members of the two delegations 
that I am compelled, owing to my political duties, to leave for Petrograd, and 
during my absence the presidency of the Russian Delegation and all the cor- 
responding powers will pass to Comrade .loffe. 

Baron von Kiihlmann said : 

There is no need for me to emphasize that I can not associate myself with 
the explanations given now of (uir intentions at the end of the labors of our 
.special commission by the president of the Russian Delegation and the criti- 
cism concerning the actions of the commission. What appears to be the 
greatest result is the fact that a con.siderable section of Ukrainians, in .spite 
of intrigues, have entered the negotiations, as was stated this morning. At this 
moment an exchange of views with the Ukrainians is proceeding on the subject 
of nationality. 



5(i. Session of li) J.\xr.\RT. 

GER3I.\N .ACCOUNT. 

[Translation from the Dnitachii- RiivIiHun^i iiirr. 21 .lanuary, 191S.] 

The German-Aii.stro-Hnngarian Economic Commissions held con- 
ferences today with the Russian and TTkrainian Economic Commis- 
sion, which ])roceeded satisfactorily. The confidential political dis- 
cussions with the TTkrainian delegation were continued. 



57. Progress of Neooti.vtions avith Ukr.\]ne. 
german .\cc0unt. 

|Fi-om the (Rrltish) Diiilii Rcricir r)f Ihr Farrinii Prrxs. 23 .Tanuary, 1918, 

p. (!(;:!.'■ I 

A German telegram from Brcst-Litovsk to Amsterdam (Jan. 21) 
stales that the negotiations which have been in progress between the 

■" Thp firiilscfier ItricliaamcUicr ol 17 .Timuar.v, I'.IJS, lias an account substantially iden- 
ilcal with this. 



SESSIOX OF 19 JANUARY. ]_]^7 

Deleo^tions of the Central Powers and those of the Ukrainian Peo- 
ple s Eepubhc ha\e resulted in an aoreement on the principles of a 
treaty of peace. 

The state of war is to be declared terminated. The resolution of 
both parties to live henceforth in peace is to be ratified. The troops 
ot both parties are to be withdrawn at the conclusion of peace. Both 
parties agree that arrangements sliall be made in the treaty of peace 
for the immediate le.sumpticm of lawful economic intercourse. Dip- 
lomatic and Consular relations are to be resumed as speedilv as 
possible. 

The telegram proceeds to say that the Determination of the main 
lines of the negotiations has reached a point at which the delegations 
are obljocd to get into touch with the " responsible quarters at home." 

A portion of tlie authorized representatives therefore have now to 
make a verbal report on the subject to these quarters in order to get 
their assent to the results achieved. All the delegations agree that 
the necessary adjournment of the negotiations shall be as brief as 
possible. They have promised to return to Brest-Litovsk immedi- 
ately, and are resolved then to conclude and sign the treaty of peace 
within the limits of the authorization given them. 

The telegram concludes : 

For the first time in this world-shaking war the realization of the 
principles for the reestablishment of peace have been successfully 
acconliplished. 

f>8. Session or li) Jaxcaijy. 

ra'SSIAN ACCOUNT. 
[Fi-diu tlif (Britisli) Dailii Hcricir of the i'on'iijii 7'/rs.v ■».) Januiiry, 1918, p. 72.i.] 

Russian wireless sends out the following : 

The following is officially is^sued: 
To All : 

Brest-Lito\-sk-, Jan. ,.'7. 
[SlKJi-tluind Report of the Sessidii of tlie Economic < 'oraraission, Saturday, .Jan. 
I 10. 191S.] 

The Session opens at 11.15. 

JoFFE. Before <»ir hist adjournment we received from the German-Austro- 
Hungarian Delegation a project relating to the establishment of future peareful 
relations. That project is set forth in sixteen artirles. The first of these 
articles deals with the occupied terrilm-ies and ought to be laid before the 
Political Commission. As regards the other articles, these relate to legal and 
juridical, economical, and commercial matters. As there exist at present two 
Commissions for these subjects, one for deliberation on legal and juridical 
questions and the other to consider economical and commercial questions, it will 
be necessary to make a separation so that those parts of the project which 



118 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFEEENCE. 

belong to the one Commission or the other may be referred to them respectively. 
Articles 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 relate t<i ec'onomical and commercial questions. 

With regard to this project in its entirety, it v.-as declared on our part that 
we reserve to ourselves the right to correct, alter, or make counter proposals. 
A similar right has been reserved to themselves Ijy the German-Austro-Hun- 
garian Delegation. 

We propose now to pass to the deliberations on the economical and commer- 
cial questions. 

Keenee. I would like first of all to correct a mistake. Those projects which 
were submitted here before the Christmas adjournment are not Austro-Hun- 
garian proposals ; they are German proposals. It is true that the representa- 
tives of the Austro-Hungarian Delegation agreed to these proposals, but they 
were subjected to a further esamination during the period of the adjournment, 
and we came to the conclusion that certain alterations ought to be made. Yes- 
terday at a pi'ivate considtation witli .several representatives of the Russian 
Delegation we proposed first to pass to the deliberation upon our old conuuer- 
cial treaty and try to settle what part of it could still renjain in force. There 
we could find a firm ground for further negotiations and for making arrange- 
ments to meet the time of transition. Ton all know that we would be most 
pleased to retain as much as possible the arrangements of our old Treaty. It 
is our deep conviction that a more close esamination of this Treaty, which was 
in force before the war, will show that a whole series of its provisions could be 
maintained provisionally, and it may be permanently. Therefore we think that 
it would be expedient to start first of all with the examinations of each article 
of the Treaty in its order. Here our purpose will be to create a solid ground 
for economic relations advantageous for both parties. .V final determination of 
the new commercial i-elations can hardly be effected during the present nego- 
tiations. Some things will necessarily have to be left over. But the way will 
become more clear as we proceed. I would, therefore, like to put this question 
to the Russian Delegation. Do they agree that we shall first of all start with 
the examination of our old Treaty in order to find out what we can retain of 
its provisions? Here I would like to point out how the mistake to which I 
have referred arose. The Chairman of the Russian Delegation called the 
project, which was submitted before the Christmas adjournment, an Austro- 
German project. But since the adjournment a change has taken place in the 
composition of our Delegation, and of the old body only the composition of 
our ( ( ?) hammer i is present now. I consider it my duty to remind you how this 
project has arisen. 

[Tlie message here is defertiM',, and another speaker appears to join in.] 

We, therefore, again make tlie prcpjiosal th.-it.the scheme already submitted be 
taken into consideration, and that the clauses which relate to commercial and 
economic relalions l)Ptween the ne.notiatin.n' parties be deliberated tipon. 

Keh.M'X. I should like to be alliiweil to i-cturn to my proposal. It may be that 
t Avas not previously understood, seeing tliat I diil not in any sense intend In 
express tlie view tliat it is ne(.ess;ir\- to include in the peace treaty a commercial 
treaty as well. On the conirary, I have clearly pointed out that ftu'ther la'.uotia- 
tions will lie necessary later on for the completion of the final treaty, but I am 
of opinion that for the period of transition it would be more solid foinidation 
than is provided liy the malerial presented by the clauses lying before. I think 
that this would be the quickest wa.\ <if giving our negotiations a practical effect 
which will lead to speeilier results with regard to our labors. 

.ToiFE. I can in no sense agi-ei' with thi.s. On the contrary, if we do not con- 
sider it iie<-essarv to concludi' immediately a commercial treaty, it seems to me 



SESSIOX OF 19 JANUARY. 119 

quite futile to imss t(j the cniisiilerution of the clauses of a detailed and concrete 
ti'>'iit.\-. Iii niy opinion it is. first of all, ncressai-y to fix the basic principles — 
wliicU involves a very consideralilc and unnecessary loss of time. I do not thinly 
that Me ou.aht to fetter onr freedom oC aitlon with clauses whicli are in the 
project which is laid before us, but I am of opinion that we nuist establisli acn- 
eral principles, aiid the liest way to arcomplish this is to brin.a in definite and 
concrete pi-o|josals, suih as we have already for onr part submitted. 

Kkkxki!. I can not Avholly agree with the point of view I'Xjiressed by the lasl 
speaker that it is more practical to start ^^■orkin^■ on general principles than to 
pass to details, lly exjierience in a number of similar delilierations has tau.ght 
nie quite the contrary; but. in order not to delay the coui-se of oni- laln.rs anil 
in order to meet the contrary views held by the other side, we aaree to pas.s 
now to the consideration of the .aenci'al principles contained in the pro.iect, with 
the view to seeing later to «hat exlent we can maintain in force this or that 
clause of the old eonunercial treaty. As soon as an a.arecnient is arrived at 
in fids way with reaai-d to our method of working I would sua.aest tliat wc pass 
to the consideration of clause 4 of our projiosal, and I ask the sentlenien form- 
in.a' the Russian Delegation t(. express tlieir views on this su,a,g-estion. 

.ToFFE. Clause 4 of the proposal referred to is in substance a .ludicial as well 
as a commercial clatise. In its wordins. as it was laid before us. it is provided 
that citizens and ships of the contracting jiaities are to be treated not worse 
than those of any States with which no ti'eaty has been concluded. In our 
opinion these arc words which convey very little, and as our chief ])oint of vit'w 
is that all men within the borders of a free State imrst lie equal, we would pro- 
pose that this clause shonld be formulated in the followin.s manner: Citizens 
of either one of the contracting countries who live permanently or temporarily 
v\uthin the borders of the territory of the other parly shall en.i'oy equal riulits 
with the native inhabitants with regard to participating' in the political and 
social life, and particularly riglits for the iirotedion of their economic interests 
and for pai'ticipatiou in all labor movements. They mnst also be placed in a 
position of equality with the native inhabitants with re.gard to ri,shts affecting 
industry and commerce, professional occupations, the protection of laboi'. and 
social insurance, and must not be taxed otherwise or more heavily than the 
native inhabitants; that is to say. contrary to the proposal whicli was made 
before the ad.iournment, according to which citizens of each of the contracting 
parties within the borders of other States are regarded as persons with whom 
no treaty whatever exists, we propose by our pro.iect to give them all equal 
rights with the native inhabitants. 

JvEiiXKK. It is ^ery difficult forthwith to nialce an estimate of ])ro.iect which 
is inerely i-ead through and to appreciate at once all the consequences which 
it would involve. I should, therefore, like to ad.icmrn the detailed and formal 
examination of this proitosal to one of the next sittings. I de.sire to only men- 
tion the imi>ression which I i-eceived by I'eading this jiroject, and to say that 
it relates to entirel.^- different (juestions than those which were dealt with in 
Clause 4. It relales in a sense lo the clauses of the old treaty hut takes into 
considerations, not the difficulties coimecled with certain inconveniences arising 
out of the point that less advantageous relatitm are pei-niitted to other coun- 
tries; it rather relates, on llic conti-ary, to the rights of the ]-e]iresenatives of 
the other side in their own country. So far as these proposals are covered by 
the proposals of the former jiroject we shall, after a moi-e detailed examination 
of it in all pi-obabilify agree with it. I shonld like, however, to call your 
attention to the fact that. If I have rightly undei-stood what was si'id, this 
pro]ios.il ijasses beyond the limits of Clauses 1 and ."i. 



120 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFERENCE. 

r>9. Sksmoxs ok '20 and :^1 Jaxt'akt. 

GERJfAN ACCOXINT. 

[From tile (British) Dailii A'cr/c/f of tin- l-'Drciim Picxx. 24 .Tiuuiary, 191S. 

p. 673.1 

A teleijium from Bro^t-Litovsk. dated 21 Jixnuary. says: 

The (lerman Commission for Economic Affairs yesterday con- 
tinued the discussion with tlie Russian representatives. To-day the 
l^reliminary worlv for the further deliberations of the Economic 
Commission was referred to a subcommission. which began its work 
this afternoon. The first official deliberations of the German-Russian 
Law Commission also took place yesterday and to-day, the following 
proposals being treated in detail and formulated: The ending of the 
state of war. the restoration of diplomatic and consular relations, 
the settlement of the indenmification question, and the restoration of 
State treaties. The restoration of private law is now being dealt 
with. 



GO. Sivssroxs or -JO and -21 jAxrAKY. 

RrSSIAN ACCOtTNT. 

[Fi'iun the (Kritisli) Daili/ I'cricir of flic Forrifiii 7'/r-s-.s-, 2."i .Tamiary. 1!)1x. 

].. nS4.| 

Russian wii-eless (23 January) sends out the following wireless 
jiiessage from Brest-Litovsk, apparently referring to the sitting 
of the Economic Commission on 20 January, referred to in the Da/'h/ 
Brrietr ('24: January). 

To-day a session of the Economic Commission took place. 

The Austro-Germans proposed to us that instead of a discussion 
upon the principles of the next commercial treaty, the treaty of 1904 
should be discussed paragraph by paragraph, and that by means of 
this form of procedure it should be agreed which of the paragraphs 
of the old treaty could be introduced into the new treaty. 

We ri'fused the proposal. 

The Commission then began the discussion of the principles of the 
new commercial treaty. 

Our and the Austro-German proposals' are being sent to you by 
iiiessoDger. 

(Signed) Karaiian. 



Gl. A CnAi;<;K or FAr.siFiCATiox. 

lFri>iii tlie (T.iitish) Diiilii llcririr of llic J^'orcit/ii /'cr.v.s, LTi .riinuiii-y. 1918. 

p. (iSl.l 

L'lissiaii wireless (22 January) sends the following: 

BREs'r-LrrowsK. 3.3 -/(mudi-i/. WIS. 
To nil. 

To-day we ]ia\c sent the following message: 

To: The Secretary (if State. Mm Kiihlmanii. T'resideut of the Ger- 
man Peace Deleijation. at the Home Office in Berlin; and 



EUSSIAX AB.EAIGNMENT OF CENTRAL POWEES. 121 

To : Minister Count Czernin. President of the Austro-Hungarian 
Peace Delegation, at the Foreign Office in Vienna. 

In the official statements regarding the last plenary sitting of 
the Peace Conference as published by the newspapers of the Central 
Powers the declarations have been omitted made by the People's 
Commissary, Trotsky, concerning the fact that after the fortnight's 
negotiations the Central Powers insist in all decisi\ e questions upon 
demands which are in violent contradiction to the principles which 
ha\e been recognized by the declaration on l'5 December. The 
Eussian Delegation has already once protested against the inten- 
tional abbreviations of the minutes in the Press of the Central 
Powers. The comments published by the German newspapers clearly 
demonstrate that the keeping back of important declarations is en- 
tirely misleading public opinion. We consider it our duty once more 
to protest energetically against such proceedings and to publish our 
protest in the Russian as well as in the foreign Press. 

(Signed) A. Joffe. 

Prrxifhnt of the Kitti.^iiin Dehr/ntion.':. 

Januarv 23. 



02. Adjoi'unjiext of Xk(;otl\tioxs. 

[I-'idiii tlie (Kritisli) Diiilij Hiricir of flic Forrii/ii I'lcss. 2'^ .Taiiuary, 191S, 

p. 684.] 

A telegram from Sofia to the Dutch Press (23 January) states 
that following on the adjournment of the peace pourparlers at Brest- 
Litovsk, the Bulgarian delegates, M. Popoff, Minister of Justice, and 
M. Stovanovitch, arrived this afternoon in Sofia to make their repoit 
to the Government and to receive further instructions. M. Kosseff, 
Minister Plenipotentiarj' and Secretary to the Minister of Foreign 
Affairs, another member of the Bulgarian Delegation, arrived in 
Sofia vesterdav.* 



(13. liL'SSlAX AliRAKiXilENT OF CeNTIIAL PoWEKS. 

[Fniiii the (liritish) Daili/ L'eviar iij Ihc Fiirriiiii I'rinx. 2': .Tanuary, 1918, 

1). 687. 1 

The wireless service of the Eussian Government (23, January) 
sends out the following : 

I. 

To all ; to foreign countries : 

The statesmen of Austria are appeasing their restless workmen by 
the affirmation that the Central Empires are not trying to annex, 
but are striving to reach a democratic peace. Such communications 
can onlv create in Eussia very great astonishment. 

The conditions of peace as" proposed at Brest-Litovsk are nothing 
less than a demand for a most monstrous annexation. They are a 
demand for the annexation of Poland, Lithuania, Courland. Riga, 

• Thr negotiations Wfic rcMinicii on :»> .lanuaiy. 



r22 PKOGEEDINGS OF THE BKEST-LITOVSK CONFEEENCE. 

part.s of Li\'oniii, Moon Sound and the islands — the Gibi'altar of the 
Baltic Sea — with the purpose of the complete economic and political 
suffocation of Russia. 

To have such a programme and to talli at the same time of demo- 
cratic peace surpasses even the limits permitted to diplomacy. 

At the Brest-Litovslv negotiations the part of the Austrian repre- 
sentative was limited to the humble approval of all [ ? the statement 
of] General Hoffmann and the Secretary of State, Kiihlmann. But 
this does not prevent the Austrian Socialist patriots from telling 
fables to the Austrian workmen regarding the services rendered by 
Count Czernin in the endeavour to obtain peace. Happily the Aus- 
trian workmen, like the workmen of other countries, are losing their 
faith in the fables of the Socialist patriots. 

II. 

To all : 

The peoples of Germany and Austria-Hungary are being deceived. 
It is difficult to realise ^^hat a game the Governments of the Central 
Empires are playing with their own peoples. The annexationists 
have been sufficiently powerful to impose their will upon the evasive 
diplomatists of the Hertling-Kiihlmann school. But the Govern- 
ment in carrying out the will of the annexationists no longer dares 
to show the people their own programme. 

Kiihlmann declared that the Central Empires can not remove their 
armies from the occupied regions until the conclusion of a general 
jDeace. From this statement the whole woi'ld, and foremost of all the 
German peojDle, naturally inferred that Germany and Austria- 
Hungary have agreed to eAacuate Poland, Lithuania, Courland, 
Riga, and the Islands after the conclusion of a general peace. 

But this is not the case. The Austro-German Delegation refused 
to offer any guarantees concerning the withdrawal of armies from 
the occupied territory. Their object is a monstrous annexation. 

This was clearly ascertained at Brest-Litovsk, and the whole world, 
with the exception of the peoples of Germany and Austria-Hungary, 
is now aware of it. From these peoples the most important part 
of the negotiations is being kept secret. The German Government 
does not dare to communicate to its peoples the demands which it 
submitted to Russia at Brest-Litovsk. The people of Germany and 
Austria-Hungary are being deceived by their own Governments 
before the whole world. 



64. SkS'''ion of 30 Januart. 

(jerjian account. 

[Froiii tli(> (Rritisli) Dnilj/ Ji'< ricir of the FDrcifin Pi-r.it, 2 February, 191S, 

p. 7G.-|.*1 

A telegram from Brest-Litovsk to the Dutch Press, dated Jan. 30, 
says: 

A plenary sitting of the delegates was opened this morning under 
the Presidency of the Turkish Grand Vizier, Talaat Pasha, who 



•The DmlKclier Rfl<-h!<(in::riiirr of 31 .leinuary, 1918. has an account substantially 
Identical with this. 



SESSION OF 30 JANTJAEY. 123 

stated that since the hist meeting certain changes in the compnsition 
ot some of the delegations had occurred, and he requested the Chair- 
men of the Delegations in (|uestion to inform the plenary session of 
these changes. . " 

Ba,ron von Kiihlmann announced that the Bavarian Government, 
by A'lrtuo of its treaty rights and after agreement with the German 
iimperor and the Imperial Chancellor, had appointed part in the 
negotiations. M. Trotsky then stated that the Eussian Delegation 
had undergone two changes, one being purely personal, namelv. that 
M. Karelin, the People's Commissary for State Properties, 'would 
henceforth take part in the deliberations, while the other change was 
of a legal and political character, namely, the incorporation of two 
members of the Ukrainian People's Republic in the Russian Dele- 
gation, which fact had already been notified in writing. 

Three Ukrainian members had been appointed, one of whom. ]M. 
Satomsky, People's Comndssary and Secretary of State for Edu- 
cation, had remained in Petrograd and entered the Govermnent 
there. The two others, namely, the President of the Executive Com- 
mittee, M. Medwjedew. and "the Secretary of State for ^Military 
Affairs, M. Schachray, were at Brest-Litovsk and formed a part of 
the Eussian Delegation. This fact, which was of the greatest im- 
portance for the further course of the negotiations, reflected the 
development of the situation in the Ukraine as a result of recent 
events. As the opposition has an interest in being accurately in- 
formed about the situation in the Ukraine, M. Trotsky considered it 
necessary to give a further short explanation. The Ula'ainian Coun- 
cil of Soldiers, Peasants, and Workmen's deputies engaged thnnigh- 
out the Ukraine in a determined battle against the Kieif Rada, in whioh 
the Ukrainian Council's party had been victorious at many points. 
That party is in complete agreement Avith the Petrograd Council of 
People's Commissaries. The whole Donetz coal field, the entire min- 
ing region of Ekaterinoslav, and the Governments of Chai'koff and 
Poltava were in the hands of the Ukrainian Soviet. In other parts 
of the Ukraine the power of the Soviet was increasing, while the 
influence of the Kieff Rada was steadily declining. On the day of 
'Sir. Trotsky's departure from Petrograd a telegram was received 
from Kieff to the effect that the Kieff Secretariat-General had re- 
signed. How the crisis had been solved by the Kieff GoAernment 
and what influence it Avould exercise on the delegation of Herr Halu- 
bowiez was not yet known, but it was clear from the foregoing that 
a peace concluded with the delegation of the Kieff Secretariat under 
the present circumstances could in no way be regarded as a peace 
concluded with the Ukraine Republic. 

In his speech to the .Main Committee of the Reichstag, Baron von 
Kiihlmann had made out that the Russian Delegation had recog- 
nized the Ukrainian Delegation so long as it could assume that the 
latter would play the I'ole of auxiliary, but that no^^'. when the Rus- 
sian Delegation had realised its mistake, it had refused recognition. 
This was too subjective a representation of what occurred. At the 
very first sitting at Avhich the question of a Ukrainian Delegation was 
broached. M. Trotsky had declared that the process of development 
of the right of self-determination of the Ukraine itas still .proceed- 
ing. Xow. when the All-Russian Congress of the Councils of Work- 
men. Soldiers', and Peasants' Delegates was meeting in Petroiirad. 



124 PB.OCEEDIXGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFERENCE. 

where the I'krainian Soviets were also represented, and when a 
federal basis for the Russian Republic had been unanhnously created, 
the inclusion of representatives of the Ukrainian People's Secre- 
tariat in the Russian Delegation at Brest-Litovsk entirely corre- 
spontled to the conditions obtaining in the Russian Republic. If 
the delegation of Herr Holubowijez had, as before, the mandate 
of the Kietf Secretariat, then no objection was raised to its further 
participation in the peace negotiations. In any case, however, only 
such an agreement made with the Ukraine could be recognised as 
secured tlie formal endorseuient by the Government of the Federal 
Republic of Russia. The representative of the Ukrainian People's 
Republic, M. Lewytsjkyj, who had remained behind in Brest-Litovsk, 
then made the following statement: 

Bermc the departure of oiu- I'eijreseiitatives it was uni-ei'il iiuuiiis tbe 
iiieiiibeis of tlie delegation tliat until tlie return of the entire delegation the 
one or two members who remained behind here would not act in political 
questions. The attitutle of our delegation towards the statement made here 
by the represf ntative of the < 'ouncil of the People's Oommissionei-s, as well as 
towards the question of the inrlusiou of representatives of thei town of 
Khiirkott' in the Itussiun I)elegution, is therefore i-eserved until the return of 
our delegation. 

Baron von Kiihhnann declared that he undertook in the name of 
the Allies to postpone tlie discussion of M. Trotsky's statements 
until the arrival of the delegation of the Kiefl Rada. He desired 
to state that the President of the Russian Delegation on his part 
had not hinted by even a word that, besides the Delegation headed 
l>y Herr Ilolubowijez, other bodies existed which claimed to speak 
on behalf of the Ukraine. The position, in brief, appeared to hina 
to be that the existence of a free Ukrainian People's Republic was 
not questioned by any side, but that two ri\al bodies asserted the 
right internationally to represent the free Ukrainian People's Re- 
public. The Allied Delegations would thoroughly examine this 
important question. 

M. Trotsky replied that he had, in fact, not mentioned that besides 
(he Rada there existed on T'ki'ainian territory a second body which 
claimed to I'epresent the Ukrainian people. There was no reason for 
the Russian Delegation to hx its attitude on this question so long as 
the Councils of the I'krainian AA'orkiiien, Soldiers", and Peasants" 
Deputies had not decided whether they desired to send their own 
representatives to the ])eace negotiations. The question as to which 
of the two delegations had a right to speak finally on the wishes of 
the Ukrainian Reiniblic would have lo be decided according to the 
result of the struggle between the two organizations. 

Count Czeruin declaied that he associated himself with the view 
cxpres^e(l by Baion von Kiihlmann, that the discussion of the atti- 
tude \\hich the Ukrainian Delegation had to take at the peace negotia- 
tions should be poslponed until the arrival of the Kiev Delegation. 
.*is. however. In' would regard it as regrettable to waste time, he 
would like to ]jropose that meanwhile the Commission for territorial 
(|uestions should resiiiue its work. 

M. Trotsky associated himself with this desire, but said that it was 
iict'cssary to revert to one uiatter which played a role at the beginning 
of the last ni'gotiation period. The telegram alleged to have been 
Issued by the Petrograd Telegraph Agency on the declaration made 



SESSION OF 30 JANUAKY. 125 

hy il. Joffc in the first-session period was that on that occabion 
brought up for discussion, it being indicated that this dispatch repre- 
sented the facts in an untruthful manner. Pie (M. Trotsky had 
thereupon declared that German and Austro-Hungarian official re- 
port on ]\I. Joffe's interrogatory statement was correct, whilnt the 
alleged report of the Petrograd Telegraph Agency did not corre- 
spond to the acts. He had now had an inquiry made into this matter in 
Petrograd which showed that Petrograd Telegraph Agency had not 
dispatched such a telegram. How this misunderstanding or falsi- 
fication had arisen he was unable to say, and he left it to inteiested 
quarters to establish this. At this point Talaat Pasha closed the 
sitting with a pi'oposa] to resiune the deliberations in committee. 



s 



(i.j. Session of 30 Janl'aky. 

RUSSIAN ACCOUNT. 

|Fi-iiin tile (British) Diiilij Ii'cricir (if the l-'arciijii ]'ri_':;t. 2 I'lJliniary. ISHS, 

p. 766.] 

A Petrograd message (Jan. 31) states: 

The plenary meeting for discussing the pourpaiders of peace was 
resumed yesterday. In the Russian Delegation were ]M. Trotsky, 
Commissioner for Foreign Affairs; MM. Joife, Bitzenko, and Karelin 
as representatives of the Central Executive Committee of the Council 
of Workmen's, Soldiers', and Peasants' Delegates. The delegate 
Madwedieff represented the Ukrainian Central Executive Com- 
mittee, and General Szachraj, Ukrainian ^lilitary Affairs; General 
Samoljo, Captains Lipski and Grinberget. Admiral Altvater — all 
for military councillors — Radek, expert in general and Polish Af- 
fairs, Bobinski, also Polish expert Teriain, expert for Armepia, and 
Stuczza and Mickiewicz, experts for Lettish and Lithuanian Af- 
fairs, respectively, arrived shortly. Taking part in the German 
Delegation is the Ba^ arian Minister, Podewils, whose presence is 
due to the attitude of opioosition taken by the Bavarian Press 
toward the policy of Berlin. 

M. Trotsky having announced the arrival of the Delegation of 
the Council of the Ukrainian people of Kharkoff, the German Dele- 
gation decided to reserve their attitude toward it until after the 
arrival of the representatives of the Kieff Secretariat. M. Trotsky 
then stated that the alleged telegram of the Petrograd Agency of 
Jan. 16, which attributed statements to the Eussian Delegations which 
they had never made at Brest-Litovsk, had never been sent by the 
Agency. The charge of falsification, therefore, brought by the Ger- 
man P*ress against those who had sent the telegram to Stockholm or 
Berlin. The German Delegation made no comment on tliis state- 
ment. 

Baron von Kiihlmann next proposed resumption of the work of 
the Political Commission ^vhich had to deal Avith territorial ques- 
tions. M. Tschernine and Baron von Kiihlmann offered no oppo- 
sition. 



126 PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE BKEST-LITOVSK CONFEEES'CE. 

GO. Session of 31 jAxuAEr. 

(_a;i!MAX ACCOUNT, 

[From the (Brilish) Dailii Hcricir nl the Foreign I'nss, i Februaiy, 191S, 

p. 776.*] 

A U'legTrtm from Brest -Litovsk (Jan. 30)1 says: 

Under the Presidency of Count Czernin a meeting was held to-day 
of the German, Aiistro-Hungarian, and Kussian Commissions for 
the settlement of political and territorial questions. 

Before passing to the discussion of the Agenda ^1. Trotsky made 
a dechiration in which he pointed out that the German papers he had 
ju^t recci\cd contained an alleged telegram of the Petrograd Tek- 
grapli Agency which, if it were believed, would have the worst effect 
on the t<)ur.~c of the negotiations. It quoted a concluding passage of 
the bpeerli he delivered before the Third Congress of 'Workers', 
Soldiers", and Peasants" deputies in Petrograd. 

He did, in fact, make a report on the course of the peace negotia- 
tions at Brest-Litovsk, and expressed his personal standpoint and 
the standpoint of the Delegation and his Govermnent. According to 
the telegram, he was alleged to liaAe said that the Russian Delegation 
wotdd not conclude a separate peace. This was an invention, and 
irave an exactly opposite idea of what he had said. The Presidents 
of the Austro-liungaiian and (ierman Delegations said they would 
make an inquiry as to the origin of the report in question. 

The discussion of the Agenda was then entered upon. Comit 
Czernin pointed out that the conmiission had thus far discussed the 
(pie^tion of the regions Avhich were occupied by the Imperial German 
troops. He now proposed to attain definite certainty regarding the 
region occupied by the Austro-Hungarian troops*. Before entering 
upon details, he i'elt it necessary to ol)sei'\(' that the gentlemen of 
the Ukrainian Delegation took the standpoint that they alone and 
independently had to discuss and deride this question. He therefore 
re(iuested the President of the Eu^sian Delegation to ex])lain his 
stand] )oint on the (luestion of competence {Zustiliyliglieifsf rage) . 

M. Trotsky replied that he most emphatically protested in the 
name of the Delegation and the Russian Government against the 
Delegation of the Kiev Rada taking the standpoint that it could in- 
flependently solve territorial qtiestions. His point of view had re- 
ceived further support to-day hy the ])articipation as members of 
the Riissian Delegation (///), Yerhaiule RvHshcheii Delegate) of two 
i-eprc;-,en(a;i\'cs of the Executi\'e Committee of the Ulcrainian Re- 
jjublic. As regards the' material aspect, he considered on the ground 
of various reports, es|)ecia]]y a lelegram which lie had just roreived, 
that the question of particij^ation by the Delegation of the Kiev 
Rada was to be n-ga.rded more as a question of the jiast than of the 
]jr('-ent and future. 



* Thi- Driiln<-lirr l^eiclixrni'.i-iricr of 1 Fi-brii:iry, I'.Ms. has an account substantially 
identical with this. 

t .laQ. :'.!. accordiuu to the i:rii-li«(inreini:r. 



SESSION OF 31 JAKUAEY. 127 

Count Czernin then said : 

I believi' Huit a deflnite contr^Hlictiiui in tiicsr views exists between tile ,:;('ii- 
tleuieii of the I'lvarainiiui uml retve,i;i-Mil Delegations. The gentlemen of the 
Uusshtn Delegation will certainly consider that I am riglit in saying it is neces- 
sary to clear up this question. 

I would tlieret'ore inoiiose that we hold a plenary sitting as s(.ion as p(issible. 
when an agreement is reached on this question whicli is primarily to be decided 
between the Governnients of I'etrograd and Kie\. I would only lilve fiir my 
information to i-e((uest one statement. A\'hen, as I lecall, the question of 
frontier delimitation and competenc.\' l)etween Petrograd and Kiev was dis- 
cus-^ed in tlie first sittings. I understood that it was a (juestion of a frontier 
tliat would separate tlie I'kraine and tliat part of Russia administered fi-om 
I'etrogi-ad. I had, however, not undcrstoed tluit the Ul^raine's frontiers i-egard- 
iug I'oland must be the sub.iect of special deliberations with Petrograd. The 
qiu'stion which T venture to put, tlierefore, is whether the standpoint of the 
President of the Russian Delegation may be summed up tlui.s : That the Ulvraine 
can not alone decide on tlie affairs of an independent T'lvrainian State, and 
especially on its frontiers. 

AI. Trotsky replied that it was self-evident that if the Ukraine ex- 
isted and would continue to exist in the form of an independent 
Republic entirely free from Russia, it would be able, after the de- 
limitation had taken place, independently to solve all questions of its 
state existence and thus also territorial questions, but that the Ukrain- 
ian Government, whose representatives were included in the Rus- 
sian Delegation, took the standpoint that the Ukraine formed part 
of the Federal Republic of Russia. This decision should therefore 
be taken on the basis of the resolve to build up a Russian Republic 
on a Federal basis. 

At Baron von Kiihlmann's request, M. Trofslfv communicated the 
contents of a telegram he had received, according to which the 
greater part of the Kiev garrison had gone over to the Ukrainian 
Soviet Government, and the further existence of the Rada could only 
be of quite short duration. On the President's suggestion, it was 
then resolved further to discuss the competency of the Ukrainian 
Delegation for territorial questions in a plenary sitting to be held 
to-morrow in the presence of the Ukrainian representative. 

Finally, M. Trotsky said that he had learned from the Press that 
Baron von Kiihlmann has sent a letter to the Polish Premier in 
which he said that he would suggest the inclusion of a representa- 
tive of the Polish Ministry in the peace negotiations. M. Trotsky 
desired to know whether this question would be broached at one of 
the next sittings. 

Baron von Kiihlmann referred to his repeated statements on this 
question, which, he declared, was connected with the question of the 
recognition of the State individuality of the occupied regions by the 
Russian Delegation, and he expressed the hope that it would shortly 
be possible to place the question on the Agenda. 

Count Czernin added that he, too, would most warmly welcome 
the despatch of Polish representatives under the certain conditions. 

The sitting then closed. 



128 PROCEEDIN"GS OP THE BREST-LITOVSK CONFERENCE. 

67. Sessiiin of 31 January. 

russian account. 

[From tlielBi'itisli );_;(( (7 (/ Riricir of ihc I'mrinn /'/y.s-.s, .12 February, ]918, p. 842.] 

The Eussian wireless (9 February) sends out the following: 

To All : 

The following is a transcript of the shorthand notes of the session 
of the Russian. German, and Austro-Hnngarian Delegations on -31 
Januaiy, 1918: 

CzKHxiN. I Dpeii tlie sessiou. ( V At the sitting on) 14 .January tlie President 
of the Russian Delectation rei)lied to (ieueral Hoffmann, He said: I must point 
out that General Hoffmann was entirely right when lie said that our Govern- 
ment is linsed upon might. In tlie whole of liistoi-y there can not be found any 
other liasis of guvernmeut. because the States are composed of classes strug- 
gling against each other. If the Secretary of State is desirous of saying that 
he does not agree with our ideas as they have been materialized in the institu- 
tions of the Russian Republic, then I have nothing to which I need reply. 

Vox KuHLMAXK. I will uot (llscuss to-day the principles upon which the 
liussiiin Government is founded, so far .is it is represented by the ('ouncil of 
the People's Coimuissaries. and I will also not reply to the questions raised as to 
the Right v. Misht philosophy of Hegel, but I think it is necessary to read to 
you the minutes, because I have found in those minutes various affirmations and 
restrictions which were indicated by the I'l'esident of the Russian Delegation 
as to the manner in which the Russian Government is basing itself upon force, 
and also upon something else. 

Trotsky. I may i)oi.nt out that the citation as made public here is not in 
strict accord with that which was made by the Secretary of State before tne 
Reichstag Conmiittee. With the ob.iect of supporting his affirmation he found 
it necessary to add to the word '■might" the words "exclusively upon might." 

I have explained that our authority is based upon force, but not exclusively 
upon force. I do not think that the Secretary of State will deny that the 
German <T0\ernment rests upon force, but I do not think that he would assert 
that it rests exclu.sively upon force. I have nothing more to say. 

Vox Ki'iii.MANX. — Similarly, as 1 do not believe that commentaries upon our 
minutes can acc{4ci'ate our iiegotialicais, 1 also lia^e nothing more to say, 

TiiO'isKY. — In file newspaiiers of to-day, or rather in the newspapers re- 
ceived by us to-day, there is a re]iort which it is believed might have a bad 
effect ux)on our further negotiations. In this report the Petrograd A.gency 
says that at the end of my speech at the third .-Vll-Russian Congress of the 
Gouncils of \\'orkmen's. Soldiers' and Peasants' Deputies I reported ujion the 
])eace negotiafions here. It is quite true that I did this, hut in this report it 
is said that I declared that the Russian Delegation would not conclude a se]ia- 
rate jieace. Such a statement is an inveuti<Mi and the direct oiiimsite of what 
I i-eally did say. I'.y a small opiiosition grouji in this Congress I was requested 
to promise that our Delegation would not sign a separate p(>ace. I replied 
(I have not the shorthand minutes with me, but I am sure of Ihe exact mean- 
ing of the \N-ords which I lived) ; " We have done on our side all in our power 
to induce all the belligerent counti'ies to take part in the peace negotiations. 
If now the negotiations proceed lo a separate ]ieac<>, the responsibility will be 
entirely with those (ioveriiineiits whii'h decline to participate in the peace 



SESSION or 31 JANUARY. 129 

negotiations." If I had given such a promise as is reported not to sign a 
separate peace, it would have meant that I had promised that the Russian 
people would continue the war whilst the British, American, and other Im- 
perialists desired it. That would have meant that we were continuing to follow 
the false policy of the laj-.t Governments. I have categorically refused to give 
such a promise. We have come to Brest-Litovsk with the object of struggling 
for an honest democrntic peace, and we shall sign such a peace when our con- 
science tells u;. il:;it it is open to us in a form that is consistent with our 
point of view and in harmony with the interests of our peoples and of other 
peoples. 

CzEBxiN'. — If false and incomplete information is published in the Austrian 
and German Press it is in no case with the approval of the Austria and Ger- 
man Governments. If this information has appeared in the Austrian Press, 
I am ready to make the necessary inquiries so as to ascertain by whom the 
falsification has been made if there has been falsification. 

Von Kuhlmann. I thinlc that after the interesting explanation of the Presi- 
dent of the Russian Delegation the Delegations of the Allied Powers would be 
pleased if they could have before them the authentic text of this speech which 
the Commissary for Foreign Affairs delivered at Petrograd. It is not possible 
to say now how the erroneous report may have come about, but I also on my 
side shall make inquiries. 

Tkotsky. I have said nothing about falsification, because in this matter a 
misunderstanding is possible. As in the case of the first message, which also 
created a hiisunderstanding, I did not raise the question until inquiries made it 
necessary for me to do so. It seems to me quite natural and in our mutual 
interests that the negotiations should not be more difficult by the spreading of 
false information, wl;iich causes confusion and hinders our work. If the Presi- 
dent of the German Delegation is now proposing that speeches of plenipotenti- 
aries engaged in these negotiations which they have made before responsible 
Institutions in their own countries should be added to the records of this Con- 
gress, I should certainly agree that there should be no exception afe regards my 
speeches. 

CzERNiN. I am also of the opinion of the Russian Delegation that it is unnec- 
essary to complicate our negotiations by taking account of all the Inventions of 
journalists. I, on my part, shall try to discover the source of the information 
which has been spoken of. Now, I thijik we can return to our Order of to-day. 
Until the present the Commission which is called the Territorial Commission has 
studied the question of those regions under German occupation. 

I have made the proposal with the full approval of my neighbor on my right 
that to-day there should be a clear understanding concerning the regions which 
are in Austro-Hungarian occupation. The regions occupied by the Austro- 
Hungarian troops are marked on this map with a yellow line. But before we 
begin the detailed discussion of this subject I should like to clear up the ques- 
tion as to who has the requisite competence to negotiate in regard to it. The 
President of the Russian Delegation is a«are that the representatives of the 
Ukraine assert that they alone are competent to discuss and settle this matter. 
I beg the President of the Russian Delegation to express to us his view and give 
us a chance of considering it. 

Tbotsky. I protest emphatically in the name of our Delegation and our Gov- 
ernment against the theory that the Delegation of the Kiev Rada has the right 
to solve territorial questions alone. I may remind you that at the session at 
which I, in the name of our Delegation, declared in the presence of the repre- 
sentatives of the Kiev Rada that on all territorial questions an agreement is 
90244—18 9 



130 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFEBENOE. 

necessary between our Delegation and the Delegation of the Kiev Rada, the 
representatives of the Kiev Rada did not make any objection. I do not know 
when or at what session the representatives of the Kiev Rada claimed the right 
to solve the territorial questions Independently. At the present time the posi- 
tion which we have taken up is much strengthened by the participation in our 
Delegation of two representatives of the All-Ukrainian Central Executive Com- 
mittee. Such is the formal side of the question. Concerning its real side, I 
am of opinion, in view of our latest information, and particularly after the last 
message of all received by me, that the question of the participation of the Kiev 
Rada in the character of an independent Delegation must be regarded as a ques- 
tion of the past, and that their right can not now or in future be recognized. 

CzERNiN. I am of opinion that the views on these questions are widely dif- 
ferent as between the representatives of the Petrograd Government and those 
of the Ukraine. I think that the representatives of the Petrograd Government 
will agree when I say that this question needs to be cleared up. I propose to 
call as soon as possible a plenary session, at which we could discuss this ques- 
tion, which is regarded differently at Petrograd and at Kiev. So as to be the 
better able to understand it, I beg an explanation. ' So far as I remember, at 
the first sessions when the territorial questions were discussed between Petro- 
grad and Kiev, I understood that conflicts could arise only on the settlement 
of the question as to which region should be under the Petrograd and which 
under the Kiev administration. But I never believed that the frontier between 
Poland and Ukraine could create friction between Petrograd and Kiev. I 
never believed that the Russian territory, in respect to which the Petrograd 
Government had claims, could reach so far. What I ask is : If the point of 
view of the President of the Russian Delegation is one of principle, can it then 
be said that the Ukraine has no right at all to speak for the regions of the inde- 
pendent Ukraine, or that for the discussion of all territorial questions it needs 
a preliminary agreement with Petrograd? 

Tkotsky. I recall that the President of the Austro-Hungarian Delegation 
asked me af an earlier session if I could indicate where the disputable and 
where the indisputable frontiers of Ukraine could be found. I replied that 
until the frontiers between the Ukrainian Republic and the Russian Republic 
are established by agreement of both sides, all the territorial questions as be- 
tween the Russian Republic and the Ukrainian Republic on the one side and 
the Central Pinvers on the other can be- solved only by a common agreement. 
Certainly if Ukraine had existed in the past and should exist in the future as 
an independent Republic, in no way bound with the Russian Republic, then, 
after the establishment of the frontiers, it, like every other State, would solve 
independently all questions affecting it, including the territorial questions. 
But the Ukrainian Government, which is represented on our Delegation, and 
which will state its views at the next plenary session, when this question will 
be strictly discussed, has the view that Ukraine is a part of the Federal Rus- 
sian Republic, in acc(ir(lance with the decisions of the last AU-Russian Con- 
gress of the Councils of Workmen's, Soldiers', and Peasants' deputies. A com- 
mon solution of territorial questions is necessary, not only because that is an 
arrangement which would accord with the real situation but also because it 
would "be in harmony with the rights of the newly created Russian Republic. 
If in the past an agreement was necessary between our Delegation and the 
Ukrainian Delegation, then at the present such agreement is much more obliga- 
tory, since it is imposed by the Federal Constitution of the Russian Republic. 

f 'zRiiNiK. I thank the President of the Russian Delegation for his explanation, 
iind I believe that this question is now in such a position that it becomes im- 



PLENARY SESSION OF 1 PEBEUAEY. 131 

possible to solve it without the participation of the Ukrainian Delegates. I 
reserve to myself the right to repeat this proposal. 

VoN KtJHLMANN. The President of the Russian Delegation has spoken about a 
telegram to which he attaches great importance. Certainly it would be of great 
interest to our Delegation if he could communicate to us the exact text of this 
telegram. 

Tkotsky. The statement of this telegram is that the greater part of the Kiev 
garrison has passed over to the side of the Ukrainian Council and that the 
existence of the Rada is now likely to be of very short duration. 

CzEENiN. I propose to have a plenary session to-morrow at half past five o'clock, 
when we can discuss the territorial questions which are in dispute between the 
representatives of Petrograd and of Kiev. Does anyone wish to make any re- 
mark on this subject? I consider my proposal accepted, and I close this session. 

Teotsky. I have learned from newspapers that the Secretary of State has 
promised in a letter to the President of the Polish Kukarzhevsky Ministry that 
he intends to raise the question of the participation of the representatives of 
this Ministry in the peace negotiations. Is it to be understood that this question 
will be raised at one of the next sessions? 

Von Kuhlmann. We shall put this question forward for discussion when 
we consider it opportune. My attitude in regard to the principle has been 
already explained at past sessions. 

Tbotskt. I have no desire to embarrass the Secretary of State in his choice 
of the opportune moment. I only wish to obviate the possibility of any misun- 
derstanding or the supposition that we are making difBculties by desiring to 
put this question upon the Order of the Day as soon as possible. We are very 
much interested that this question should be considered as soon as possible, 
because our real views are entirely different from those attributed to us in the 
message that I have named. 

Von Kuhlmann. Divergencies of principle are clearly shown in the records 
of our discussions, as the Commissary for Foreign Aifairs has himself admitted. 
If there were a clear understanding of the views of the Russian Delegation con- 
cerning the political position of these regions it would be a big step forward 
to the solution, so much desired, of this question. I hope it will be possible to 
bring this matter up for discussion at the earliest possible time. 

Teotskt. Up to the present I have said nothing as to a change in our point 
of view. I have said merely that our point of view has undergone a change 
only in the manner in which it is explained by the Secretary of State. 

CzBRNiN. I on my part say that I should see with much pleasure the invitation 
extended to the above-named Polish representatives, so that they might take 
oart in the negotiations under the present conditions. I close the session. 

The next plenary session will be to-morrow at half past five o'clock. 

(Signed) A. Kaeahan. 



68. Plenary Session of 1 February. 

german accottnt. 

[Prom the (British) Daily Revieio of the Foreign Press, 5 February, 1918, 

p. 788.*] 

According to a Vienna telegram of Feb. 1 to the Dutch Press, M. 
Eadoslavoff, the Bulgarian Premier, has arrived at Brest-Litovsk. 

• The Deutscher Reichsanseiger of 4 February, 1918, has an account practically identical 
with this. 



132 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BBEST-LlTOVSK CONFERENCE. 

A Brest-Litovsk telegram of Feb. 2 says : 

A plenary sitting took place yesterday afternoon at which all 
Delegations participated, including the Delegation from the Ukrain- 
ian Rada. The purpose of the sitting was definitely to clear up the 
position of the Governments represented at Brest-Litovsk toward the 
Ukrainian Central Rada. The Bulgarian Colonel Gantchev, who 
presided, announced that the Minister of Justice, M. Popov, would 
be superseded by the Premier, M. Radoslavov, as leader of the Bul- 
garian Delegation. 

M. Sewrjul then announced that he had assumed the leadership 
of the Ukrainian Delegation in place of M. Bolubowitcz. Dealing 
with the agenda, M. Sewrjul first referred to the manifesto of the 
Ukrainian Central Rada of Nov. 7 (Old Style), which was read at 
the plenary sitting at Brest-Litovsk on Jan. 10, 1918, proclaiming the 
Ukrainian people's republic and defining its international position, 
which, he said, was at that time recognized by the Council of People's 
Commissioners as well as by the representatives of the four Allied 
Powers. The recognition of the Ukraine as an independent State" by 
the Government of the People's Commissioners was shown, he de- 
clared, by M. Trotsky's statements in the sittings of Jan. 10 and 
Jan. 14. 

M. Sewrjul continued : In reply to a question from Baron von Kiihl- 
mann, who asked whether the President of the Russian Delegation 
regarded the Ukrainian Delegation as part of the Russian Delega- 
tion or whether the Ukrainian Delegation was to be regarded as 
representing an independent State, M. Trotsky on the occasion said : 

As the Ukrainian Delegation has acted as a completely Independent delega- 
tion, and as we have proposed to recognize their participation in the negotia- 
tions without expressing restrictions of any kind, and as, furthermore, no one 
has proposed to make the Ukrainian Delegation part of the Russian Delegation 
it appears to me that this question settles itself. 

In the spirit of this declaration all the parties to the Conference 
regarded the Ukrainian Delegation as the Delegation of an inde- 
pendent State throughout the entire course of the negotiations up to 
the last adjournment. Since the adjournment M. Trotsky, referring 
to some telegram that reached him, according to A^hich, as was alleged, 
the majority of the Kiev garrison had risen against the Ukrainian 
Central Rada, now attempts to deny the Ukrainian Delegation its 
position and rights, apjDcaling in this respect to the existence of an 
execrtive committee at Kharkov which has hitherto not been men- 
tioned. The Ukrainian Delegation considers it necessary to state 
that M. Trotsky's speech in the course of this sitting is in complete 
contradiction to all his previous declarations, and for this reason 
feels itself obliged to make the following statement : 

We fully agree with M. Trotsky that changes have occurred in the State 
life of the Uliraine. Tliese, however, are of quite a <liffereiit nature from those 
to which M. Trotsky referred. The nature of such changes is connected with 
the Fourth Universal (message of the) Central Rada of .Ian. 24, which says: 
" Henceforward the Ukrainian People's Republic forms an independent and 
free sovereign State of the Ukrainian people, dependent on no one." On this 
point, M. Sewrjul proceeded, he must remark that the Government of the 
Ukrainian People's Republic had endeavored to create a league of all the Re- 



P]L£NABy SPSSIPK OF 1 FEBEUA»Y. 133 

publics which had arisen on the territory of the Russian Empire and to form a 
common Federal Government in Russia. As, however, up to the issue of the 
Fourth Universal, despite all the attempts of the Ukrainian Government, such 
a common Federal organ had not materialized and it was clear from the pres- 
ent situation that such an organ could not bp materialized, the Ukrainian 
Central Rada must let the formation of a Federal Government drop. It hac} 
by its Fourth Universal proclaimed the Ukraine to be an entirely independent 
State, dependent (jji no one. The Ukrainian Rada had in the same Universal 
declared that it desired to live in peace and friendship with all the bordering 
States, but that none of these must interfere in the life of the independent 
pkraiiiian Republic. Consequently, the Fourth Universal had clearly defined 
the international legal position of the Ukrainian People's Republic and its 
policy toward its neighbors. 

As regards the arguments brought forward by M. Trotsky, these lacked all 
significance. His representation that the executive committee at Kharkov 
better represented the interests of the working classes than the Ukrainian 
People's Republic might easily be disproved. It related, however, to the 
domain of internal relations which did not fall under international control. 
M. Trotsky's argument that the Ukrainian Delegation had no title because it 
was not recognized by the Executive Committee at Kharkov was still less con- 
vincing. According to this argument the Russion Delegation, in the first place, 
must lay down its own powers, as neither Jloldavia. the Crimean Tartars, the 
Don Cossacks, the Caucasian tribes, nor Siberia were represented in it, and. 
moreover, those sections had not recognized the government of the Council of 
the People's Commissioners. 

In so exalted an assembly as the Peace Conference, the means adopted by 
M. Trotsky to combat the State rights of the Ukrainian Central Rada, on the 
ground of some telegram from Petrograd, appeared clearly unpermissible. The 
Ukrainian Delegation might with quite as much justice appeal to a wireless 
message which, in the second half of January (new style) announced that 
some regiments in Petrograd had risen against the Government of the People's 
Commissioners in defense of the Constituent Assembly and that fighting had 
occurred in the streets there, resulting in an issue unfavorable to the existing 
Government. Following M. Trotsky's example, the Ukrainian Delegation might 
on the basis of this telegram have demanded that the Delegation representing 
the Council of People's Commissioners should no longer be recognized. This, 
however, he did not do, regarding such an incident as a Russian question. In 
order now to avoid fresh wrong interpretations from any side whatever and 
to avoid for the future declarations of the Russian Delegation which were in 
contradiction with one another, the Ukrainian Delegation proposed a formal 
recognition of the Ukrainian Republic, as an entirely independent State, de- 
pendent on no one, in order finally to establish both its international position 
as well as the Delegation's title. 

Thereupon, at M. Trotsky's request, M. Miedwiedleff, representing 
the Ukraine Executive Committee and member of the Eussian Dele- 
gation, said that the Kiev Rada had only spoken at Brest-Litovsk 
hitherto in the name of the Ukrainian People's Republic. 

The Ukrainian Soviets had not been represented. From the very 
beginning the Ukrainian Executive Committee had not regarded the 
Kiev Rada as entitled to speak in the name of the Ukrainian people. 
The Kiev Rada negotiated behind the back of the Ukrainian people 
secretly, behind closed doors, and apart from the Russian Delegation. 
The nevirs of that had shaken the foundation of the power of the 



134 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFERENCE. 

Kiev Rada. It -was true that the Ukrainian people desired a speedy 
peace, but in conjunction with the entire Russian Federal Republic. 
As regarded the present peace negotiations, the Executive Committee 
of the Ukrainian Republic stood entirely for the principles of demo- 
cratic peace put forward by the Russian Revolution and approved 
by the Ukrainian Soviets, namely, peace without annexation or in- 
demnities and the right of peoples to self-determination of their des- 
tinies. As regarded occupied territories, the Executive Committee 
fully shared the Russian Delegation's standpoint represented there, 
and declared that the Ukrainian people refused to recognize any 
agreements or treaties with the Kiev Rada, and that their realization 
was out of question unless they were recognized and approved by the 
Delegation of the Russian Federal Republic. 

Referring to this, Mr. Trotsky stated that it was in no wise disputed 
that he had at that time declared that the conflicts existing between 
the Kiev Rada and the Petrograd Government could have no influence 
on his recognizing the Ukraine as an independent State. 

Recognition of independence or dependence {Selbstdndigheit oder 
Ahhcingigkeit) of a State, however, must not be confused with recog- 
nition of one or other Government. At the moment when the ques- 
tion of the recognition of the Delegation of the Kiev Rada was dis- 
cussed the process of self-determination in the Ukraine was far from 
having assumed definite forms, and this was best expressed by the 
facts that representatives of the Quadruple Alliance had refused im- 
mediate recognition of Ukrainian independence and had reserved 
their attitude toward this question as far as the peace treaty was 
concerned. To what degree the international legal position of the 
Ukraine was still in being was proved by the fact that they had to-day 
learned from the President of the Ukrainian Delegation an extraor- 
dinarily important change in the conception and principles of the 
Kiev Rada regarding the international legal position of the Ukraine. 
The Kiev Rada declined to join the Federal Russian Republic, and 
this afternoon the Russian State had been recognized as a Federal 
Republic at the Third Soviet Congress, at which the Ukrainian people 
had been represented. 

Among the quotations from his (Trotsky's) utterances to which 
the President of the Kiev Rada had referred, one quotation was miss- 
ing which was of decisive importance for the solution of this ques- 
tion. He (Trotsky), Avithout encountering any protest on the part 
of the Delegration of the Kiev Rada, had pointed out at that time that 
it was precisely owing to the fact that the situation in the Ukraine 
was still obscure, especially regarding its frontiers, that a preliminary 
agreement between both the Delegations represented there (Brest) 
about all contested questions was necessary. That declaration had 
also its negative aspect, namely, that any agreement arrived at be- 
tween the Kiev Rada and the Central Powers which, owing to the 
still unsettled demarcation between the two States, raised opposition 
on the part of the Russian Delegation would thereby lose its validity 
and become null and void. The legal decision, of course, did not 
refer to internal events in the Ukraine. But it was precisely owing 
to the lack of a legal settlement (Abgeschlossenheit) of all questions 
of interest there that all these contrarities must be regarded from 
their material aspect. It was only in this respect that he pointed 
to the news of the fighting between the two organizations which were 



PLENAEY SESSION OF 1 FEBBTJARY. 135 

struggling for power in the Ukraine. The Central Powers were 
interested in defining their relations to the Ukraine from the material 
standpoint in order to avoid taking fictitious for positive quantities. 

For this reason he considered it necessary to point out that many 
quarters overvalued the tendencies striving for secession in to-day's 
levolutionary Eussia. In the l.order regions of the former Russian 
Empire the separatist idea was advocated by those very groups and 
classes which under the old regime were obstinate supporters of cen- 
tralism. In this separation no prolonged historical tendency was 
perc>-ptible ; it formed merely a transient weapon of defense in the 
hands of those groups who feared the results for themselves of 
revolutionary power in Eussia. The firmer the power of the Soviets 
was established throughout the entire country, the more did the 
propertied classes transfer their separatist tendencies to the border 
regions. If these classes were to get the upper hand in present Eus- 
sia they would again immediatel.y become advocates of centralization. 
The representatives of the Central Powers could not, of course, here 
assume the role of arbiter in regard to the present situation in Eussia 
and the Ukraine. He stood by the standpoint of his Government 
Avhich he had formulated at the beginning. So long as the Delega- 
tion of the Kiev Eacla retained its plenipotentiary powers he did 
not protest against its independent participation in the negotia- 
tions. But now that representatives of the Ukrainian Executive 
Committee had joined the Eussian Delegation he must repeat with 
redoubled emphasis that no agreements with the Kiev Eada could 
be recognized unless they were also recognized by the Eussian Dele- 
gation. 

Hereupon a member of the Ukrainian Delegation, ^I. Lubynsjsky, 
said: 

In \-iey.- of the declarations of the chairman of the Kharkov Executive 
Committee, M. Miedwiediev, and the declarations of M. Trotsky. I consider it 
necessary to make the following statement: The members of the Ukrainian 
Peace Delegation have always upheld the principle that the representatives at 
Brest of those States which are striving to conclude peace are not to pronounce 
upon the internal affairs of their adversaries, and that internal conflicts and 
events within the States are in n<3wise to be brought to the cognizance of the 
opposing party during the official negotiations. We should repeatedly have 
the opportunity resolutely to oppose utterances of M. Trotsky's which over 
and over again wrongly represented the relations of the various peoples of 
what was formerly Russia and the new States which have arisen in her terri- 
tory, but owing to the above-mentioned standpoint we refrained from publicly 
discussing this question because we did not desire by our declarations to 
minimize the authority of the Russian Delegation. But since the Fourth 
Universal of the Central Rada has proclaimed the independence of our Re- 
public and since our Republic has also been recognized by friendly and other 
Powers, these questions have ceased to be internal questions for us and our 
mission for which we are responsible to our people, now obliges us resolutely 
to protest against the false assertion made by 51. Trotsky during our absence. 
While we still maintain our previously mentioned fundamental standpoint, 
we can not forego the right to express our views regarding the internal condi- 
tions of Russia, not only to justify ourselves vis a vis those present here, but 
also vis & vis the public opinion of the peoples represented here whose views we 
value no less than M. Trotsky's. 



136 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BREST- LITOVSK CONFERENCE. 

Russia, a country Inhabited by so many difterent peoples, wlio have their indi- 
vidual political tasks and who have grown under the njost varying historical 
conditions, in 1917 experienced a Revolution which is still in progress ajid i§ 
moving on lines of national and social achievements. In the course of that 
year various Governments stood at the Head of the Rada. The year beg^n 
under the reign or an Emperor and ended, after passing through epochs of 
Cadet and Social-Cadet Government, with precisely similar shooting in the 
streets of Petrograd and with strenuous preparations of the Bolsheviks' Gov- 
ernment to abolish the Constituent Assembly, which was convoked on the 
only acceptable principles. Only in one respect has there been a thorouglj 
solidarity between all these various Governments — in their capitalistic en- 
deavors and in their greed by desire to strangle renascent peoples and get 
everything into their powerful liands. 

The Bolshevik Government, conformable with the ideas of its parties, has 
no sympathy with the federative ideals which animate the leaders of the 
nonruling States, but, remembering its predecessors on the thrones which were 
overturned not only by the joint efforts of the Socialists but also by the 
national revolution, the Bolshevik Government only proclaimed the principle 
of the right of the self-determination of peoples in order the more resolutely 
to combat this principle in its practical application. The Bolsheviks' loud 
declarations about the complete liberty of tlie peoples of Russia are only 
coar.=e demagogii- expedients (Mittel). The Bolshevik Government whicli 
broke up the Constituent Assembly and which is suijported on the bayonets 
of the Mercenaries of the Red Guard will never resolve to apply in Russia 
itself the most just principles of the right of self-determination. 

It knows very well that, not only numerous republics — the Ukraine, the Don 
region, the Caucasus, and others — will not recognize it as their Government, but 
also that the Russian people itself will deny it this right. It is only from 
fear of the development of a national revolution that the Bolsheviks, with 
their born demagogism, set up, both in Russia itself and here at the Peace Con- 
ference the principle of the right of self-determination. To combat its prac- 
tical realization they fall back not only on Red Guard Troops and of mer- 
cenaries, but they proceed to still worse and more inadmissible means — they 
suppress newspapers, break up political meetings, arrest and shoot politicians, 
and finally go so far by depicting things in an entirely false and biased man- 
ner as to undermine the authority of the Government of one or other young 
republic. Well-known Socialists and old revolutionists were accused by them 
as if they were bourgeois counter-revolutionists. The Bolshevik Government 
declares a holy war of the republic by demanding the expulsion of the bour- 
geois Governments with which the professedly Socialist Government of Bol- 
sheviks, even after the ending of this fratricidal war, will undertake no nego- 
tiations. Thus, instead of the principle of the right of self-determination, the 
Bolshevik Government carried out the principles of anarchy and destruction 
to create everything anew and adheres to the old French proverb : Calomniex 
toujours, il en restera quelque chose. 

The struggle of the Petrograd Government against the Government and the 
Ukrainian Republic, and its manifest insincerity on the occasion of the recog- 
nition of the title of our Delegation even earlier evoked a not unfounded sus- 
picion on our part. We were convinced that M. Trotsky would very soon try 
to abjui-e the entirely clear and unequivocal words with which he recognized 
our Delegation as plenipotentiary and representative of our Republic. Our 
expectation was realized, on the day we left for Kiev to get our final Instructions 
a fresh Delegation arrived here via Petrograd apd Dvinsk at the incitement 



PLBNASY SESSION OF 1 FEBBUABY. 137 

and with the benevolent cooperation of the Bolsehiviks, Its object being to 
undermine our authority in the eyes of tlie Labor masses of Europe. 

In order more exactly to establish and define the rights and character of 
this Delegation we must go more closely into this point. The Ukrainian people, 
united by common ideals and common national aspirations, which incline to 
quiet and orderly forms of State life, zealously devoted itself from the first 
moment to the long-expected possibility of State construction. Ukrainian 
workmen and peasants, with the support of Ukraine intelligence emanating 
from their ranks, not only were able to organize themselves but have also 
drawn with them all the non-Ukrainian peoples living on Ukrainian soil. As 
a result of this labor, which had been prepared for by the long years of en- 
deavor of Ukrainian politicians and as the product of Ukrainian revolutionary 
creative power, the Ukrainian Rada has come into being, composed of repre- 
sentatives of Ukrainian soldiers, peasants, and workmen. The Ukrainian 
Rada, by its " universals," has shown the Ukrainian people its way. The 
Ukrainian Rada, which chose as first Ukrainian Government the General Secre- 
tariat, in June last, thereby formed the first Government in Russia which was 
solely composed of Socialists. 

The Ukrainian people thus, step by step, by its own labor created its own 
State, and the Petrograd Government has no cause, no ground, whatsoever 
for interference in its internal afl'airs. In reality the facts are that already 
under the Tsar's regime soldiers of non-Ukrainian origin were sent by prefer- 
ence to the Ukraine and adjoining fronts, and it has not been possible during 
the revolution to free the Ukraine from these foreign elements. While Ukrain- 
ian soldiers sent their front Congress delegates to Kiev from all war theaters 
and all fronts, and all rallied round the Ukrainian military Rada which forms 
part of the Kiev Central Rada, non-Ukrainian soldiers in some towns of the 
Ukraine established their soldiers' councils, which have no influence on the 
life of the surrounding districts, although frequently, it is true, representa- 
tives of the workers In the towns concerned also participate in these Soviets. 
Desiring on one or' another pretext to interfere in the internal life of the 
Ukrainians, the Petrograd Bolsheviks began to demand from the Ukrainian 
Government that the entire authority of Government in the Ukraine should be 
transferred to these soldiers' councils without any regard to the demands of 
the Bolsheviks at the Peace Conference that foreign troops should be re- 
moved from occupied regions. The Ukrainian Government of course could not 
comply with this demand. A second ground for interference with the internal 
life of the Republic was furnished by the demand of the Petrograd Bolsheviks 
and that a new election of the Central Rada should be held. Apart from the 
fact that such a demand constitutes an open violation of the right of self- 
determination liecause the rules regarding representation in the Rada give 
electors the right at all times to recall their representatives in the Rada and 
replace them by others. 

The elections for the Constituent Assembly for all Russia which occurred at 
the end of last November led all over the Ukraine to the brilliant victory 
of the Ukrainian Central Rada and of the parties organized therein. Over 75 
per cent of the Ukrainian candidates were elected, while about 15 per cent of 
other parties represented in the Central Rada were elected and of the Bolshe- 
viks less than 10 per cent. 

For instance, in the Government of Kiev, on the ground of our electoral lists, 
twenty nf our twenty-two candidates were elected ; the Government of Podolia, 
eighteen out of nineteen ; in Volhynia nine out of ten ; in Poltava fourteen out 
of seventeen, etc. I assume that -suffices. Those are the masses which the 
Ukrainian Central Rada represent, and in whose name we come here to speak 



138 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BKEST-LITOVSK CONFEBENOB. 

The Petrograd Government has now resolved to resort to its last expedient. 
With the silent consent of the Central Rada, it convoked the Ukrainian Con- 
gress of peasants and soldiers for Dec. 3 in Kiev. Over 2,000 delegates at- 
tended the Congress, and against the hopes of the conveners began their sit- 
tings with a big ovation for the Kiev Central Rada and its President, Professor 
Gruszewsldm, and by an overwhelming majority expressed full confidence in 
the Central Rada. After this event a small group of Bolsheviks, about eighty 
men, fled from the Congress and went to Kharkov, and has declared itself a 
new Government of the Ukrainian People's Republic. The People's commis- 
sioners have sent thither unorganized bands of Red Guards to plunder the 
population of the Government of Kharkov and to protect the Kharkov Govern- 
ment from the residents of the Government of Kharkov. It 'was in this way 
that the Kharvok Government arose, and tliose are the powers upon which it 
rests. No doubt is possible not only that it is not called to represent the 
Ukrainian Republic, but that it can hardly be regarded as representing the 
town of Kharkov. I should not regard it as necessary to reply to other re- 
marks of M. Trotsky, which were uttered verbally or may be read between the 
lines. Our future, our history, our descendants, and broad masses of working 
people on both sides of the front will themselves decide which of us is right 
and which is guilty, which is Socialist and which counter-revolutionist, which 
creates and which destroys what has been created. 

Hereupon Count Czernin made the follo-wing declaration on behalf 
of the Delegations : 

In the name of the Delegations of the four Allied Po\\ers, I have the honor 
to make the following statement with reference to the declaration of the 
Ukrainian Delegations. As is known, the President of the Ukrainian Delega- 
tion, States Secretary Holubowicz, stated in the plenary sitting of Jan. 10, 
1918, that the Ukrainian People's Republic, basing itself on the Ukrainian Cen- 
tral Eada's third " universal " of Nov. 20, 1917, " resumes its international ex- 
istence " and assumes " in their full extent the rights in respect of international 
rations which appertain to it in this domain." Having regard to this fact, the 
Government of the Ukrainian People's Republic considers it right to assume an 
independent position at the present peace negotiations. In the plenary sitting 
of Jan. 12, 1918, I, on lielialf of the four Allied Powers, made the following 
declaration : We recognize the Ukrainian Delegation as an independent Delega- 
tion and as the plenipotentiary representative of the independent Ukrainian 
People's Republic." In view of the altered attitude which the President of the 
Russian Delegation took up, the plenary sitting of Jan. 30, according to which 
only such an agreement with Ukraine could be recognized and put. in force 
which was formally indorsed by the Government of the Federal Republic of 
Russia, the Delegations of the four Allied Powers make the following declara- 
tion respecting the standpoint of the Delegation of the KiefC People's Ministerial 
Council just set forth. We have no reason to withdraw or restrict the recogni- 
tion of the Ukrainian Delegation as an independent' Delegation and as a pleni- 
potentiary representative of the Ukrainian People's Republic, which was ex- 
pressed in the plenary sitting of Jan. 12, 1918. We find ourselves rather 
induced even now to recognize the Ukrainian People's Republic as an inde- 
pendent, free, and sovereign State, which is in a position to make independent 
international agreements. 

M. Trotsky briefly remarked he had not altered his conception of the character 
of the Ukrainian State which he had hitherto held. He must point out that it 



PLENARY SESSION OF 1 FEBRUARY. 139 

would be difficult for the Allied Powers to state the geographical frontiers of the 
Republic .iust recognized by tliem. At the peace negotiations, however, the 
frontiers of a State were not a matter of unconcern. 

The sittine then closed. 



69. Plenary Session of 1 February. 

russian account. 

[From the (British) Daily Review of the Foreifjn Press, 14 February, 1918, 

p. 869.] 

Eussian wireless (Feb. 12) sends out the following fragment of a 
report on the proceedings at Brest-Litovsk on Fob. 1, preceding the 
part printed in yesterday's Review: 

Sewfjtjl. * * that several regiments at Petrograd have revolted agaiii.st 
tlio authority of the Council of the People's Commissioners in favor of the Con- 
stituent Assembly, that the battle ended unfavorably to the actual Government. 
On the basis of such a telegram, we could, like Jl. Trotsky, demand the non- 
recognition of the Delegation of the Council of the people's Commissioners, 
but we are doing no such thing, because that is a question for Russia, and not 
for the Ukraine, and, true to the principle of nonintervention, we have no 
concern with such questions. Regarding the telegram itself, like other tele- 
grams which M. Trotsky might present to us, we do not consider it unneces- 
sary to take such questions into consideration- With the object of avoiding 
1 variety of comments and declaration!^ by the Russian Delegation, I declare, 
in the name of the Governments of the four allied Powers, that we recognize 
the Ukrainian People's Republic as an independent State. We recognize, for- 
mally, the Ukrainian Republic as an independent State, and we thus define 
also its international position and recognize the powers of the Delegation as a 
mandate of a legal Government. 

MKy>\'EDREV. Honored Assemblv. the great Russian Revolution has cast sway, 
by the domination of a rational Revolution, the oppression of the landlords 
and capitalists ; it has given land to the peasants, and has placed the working 
men at the head of affairs. The Third Congress of the Councils has established 
the Great Russian Federal Republic of Workmen and Peasants, a free union 
of free people, a republic of the Councils of Workmen's, Peasants', and Sol- 
diers' Deputies. Here, at Brest-Litovsk, the Delegation of the Kiev Rada has 
spoken in the name of the Ukrainian People's Republic. Tlie Ukrainian Coun- 
cils — the only authority recognized by the working classes of our country — 
have had no representation here. The Ukrainian Executive Committee, the 
sovereign body of the Ukrainian people, has never recognized the right of the 
Kiev Bada to speak in the name of the Ukrainian people. Recognizing its weak- 
ness and also its isolation from the working classes of our country, the Kiev 
Delegation began its negotiations secretly, without the knowledge of the 
Ukrainian people, and separately from the Russian Delegation. When the 
news of such procedure reached the Ukrainian people, a violent protest was 
raised by the working classes, and it definitely dissipated the authority of the 



140 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BBBST-LITOVSK OONrERENCE. 

Kiev Rada. The Ukrainian people is striving toward a speedy peace, but it 
will conclude this peace together with the AU-Russian Federal Republic, In a 
fraternal union of all the workipg cl?isses. Those who believe that the Uliralne 
was tied to Russia only by the ties of Tsarism are profoundly wrong ; these 
ties have been cast aside, but economic and cultural common interests remain, 
and have been strengthened by free agreement. 

We consider it our duty to warn the peoples of Germany and Austria-Hungary 
that the attempts to found a peace upon the opposition of the Ulsraine to Russia 
will be in vain, the Kiev Rada is on the wrong traclj, and its policy must be 
regarded by every statesman as an unreal policy * * * these who desire 
not merely temporary successes, but a solid peace, must try to conclude a 
general peace with all the peoples of the Federal Republic. We who are the 
plenipotentiaries of the Ulirainian Executive Committee — the People's Secre- 
tariat — and who have been sent here to meet the Russian peace delegation, we 
declare that the People's Secretariat is striving to create such conditions that 
the whole of the Ulirainian people, living in the Ukraine, Galicia, Bukovina, 
and Hungary, may exist independently of political frontiers, as an entity. The 
political future of the whole of the Ukrainian people must also be settled by the 
free voting of the whole nation. We know the position taken up on this ques- 
tion by the Government of Austria-Hungary, which does not permit the discus- 
sion of the All-Ukrainian question at the peace negotiations. But we express 
our profound conviction that further democratic development will give to the 
Ukrainian people unity and freedom in fraternal harmony with all peoples. 
Concerning the present peace negotiations, the people's Secretariat of the 
Ukrainian Republic, in defending the principles of democratic peace as pro- 
claimed by the Russian Revolution and accepted by the Ukrainian Councils, 
demands a peace without annexations and indemnities and the right of self- 
determination of nations. Concerning the occupied regions, we agree entirely 
with the Russian Delegation that the peoples concerned must have the right to 
decide their own future by means of a referendum. With this object, all foreign 
troops must be withdrawn. In conclusion, we once more categorically declare 
that no agreement with the Kiev Rada will be recognized by the Ukrainian 
people, and will not be carried into effect unless it has the approval of the AU- 
Russian Federal Delegations, of which we form a part. 

Teotsky. It is beyond doubt, as the Russian Delegation has repeatedly de- 
clared, that the conflicts between It and the Kiev Rada in no case limit the 
recognition of the independence of the Ukrainian Republic. It is necessary to 
avoid confusing the independence of a State with the recognition or nonrecog- 
nition of its Government. Nobody here will doubt the independence of the Rus- 
sian Republic, but all are aware that many States have not recognized the Coun- 
cil of the People's Commissioners as its Government. Finland is recognized by 
many States as an independent Republic, but the latest information is that the 
Government which obtained the recognition of Finland's independence has been 
deposed by a Government of the workmen and peasants of Finland. Finland's 
Government, immediately after its recognition, expressed Its willingness to take 
part in the peace negotiations. We do not see any objection to such partici- 
pation, but, if we are properly informed, the attitude of the four Allied Powers 
is different, because Finland's Government at the present has not the same 
recognized international rights as has the Republic of Finland. 

[Message ends.] 



PLENABf SfiSSIGN OF 1 FEBETJAEY. 141 

RUSSIAN ACCOITXT, CONTINTJED. 

[From the (British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, 13 February, 1918, 

, p. 858.] 

Russian wireless sends out the following report of the debate at 
Brest on Feb. 1 (see Daily Review, Feb. 5) : 

Trotsky. At the moment when the question of the recognition of the Delega- 
tion of the Kiev Secretariat came before us in a practical form the procedure 
with regard to the self-determination of the Ukrainian Republic had not so far 
taken-final * * * of the Rada pointed out that, owing to the indefiniteness 
of the position of the Ukrainian Republic, especially in regard to its frontiers, 
an agreement between both parties was necessary on all questions of dispute. 
This declaration, of course, involved also the reverse possibility — a negative 
consequence — namely, that any agreement between the Delegation of the Kiev 
Rada and the Central Powers which, owing to the frontiers of these two States 
being undefined, calls for objections on the part of the Russian Delegation 
becomes invalid and inoperative. 

All references to internal happenings in Ukrainia can not, of course, have 
any judicial significance. This we are ready to recognize, but, owing to the 
absence of a definite and regularized juridical position in regard to all ques- 
tions in which we are interested, we must regard every question in dispute 
from the material point of view. For this reason alone have I taken the liberty 
to refer to the problems which have actually arisen in Ukrainia as a result of 
the struggle between two organizations, each of which claims to represent the 
power of the State. The question which is now laying before us Is an historical 
one. The Central Empires, as States, are Interested in defining their relations 
with Ukrainia in a substantive manner, and they are also concerned in not 
accepting alleged quantities as actual facts 

It is for this reason that I must point out that in some circles there may 
perhaps be a tendency to overestimate the forces and importance of the sep- 
aratist tendencies in present-day revolutionary Russia. In various regions of 
Russia the periphractic separatist tendencies at the present moment appear 
amongst those classes, croups, or spheres which before the Revolution were 
the most persistent and even the most relentless partisans of centralization. 
No lasting historic tendency can be found in this separatism; separatism is 
only a temporary tool for self-defense among certain classes which regard 
their existence as menaced by the power of the Revolution. In the same 
measure as the authority of the Soviets becomes established throughout the 
whole of the country, so the landed proprietors carry their separatist tendencies 
farther and farther to the borders. A fact of great importance for the elucida- 
tion of this question is that the most ardent separatism is at present being 
manifested by the landowners and the leaders of the Cossacks, that is, by 
those groups which in the past were supporters of rigid centralization, and if we 
were for one moment to admit the victory of these groups in present-day Rus- 
sia, it is clear to every real thinking politician that they would again become 
the apostles of centralization. I say, therefore, that those governments which 
desire to reckon with real and not with fictitious quantities must of necessity, 
in order to define their relations with the Russian Republic, come to one con- 
clusion or another, not on the basis of juridical formulas which they endeavor 
artificially to deduce from the declarations made here during the negotiations, 
but from actual facts as they are happening In present-day Russia. I, of 
course, do not consider that the representatives of the Quadruple Alliance are 



142 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BREST-LITOVSK OONTEEENOE. 

entitled to assume the role of an arbitrary judge in regard to the internal 
relations of Itussia and Ukrainia. I have had in mind merely the giving of a 
scrupulous report to them as to how matters stand at present, and I remain as 
before, of the same opinion as I expressed in the name of our government 
when this question first arose, and as long as the Kiev Rada retains its man- 
date we do not object to its independent participation in the negotiations, 
but now, when the Ukrainian Executive Committee has become a composite 
part of our Delegation, we lepeat with redoubled emphasis that only such agree- 
ments with the Ukrainian Rada will be valid as have been recognized by us. 

The CHArEitAN. The representative of the Ukrainian Republic, M. Lubinskl, 
will now address you. 

M. LuBiNSKi. After the declaration made by the representative of the Khar- 
kov Executive Committee, M. Medvediev, and the declaration made by the 
Chairman of the Russian Delegation, M. Trotsky, it is necessary that I should 
make the following remarks: Gentlemen, the members of the Ukrainian Peace 
Delegation have always held the view that the representatives assembled at 
Brest-Litovsk, who are striving for peace amongst nations, can not during 
their deliberations touch upon questions relating to the internal affairs of their 
adversaries, and that facts regarding the internal struggles and dissentions 
of one party must in no case, during the official sittings, be brought to the 
notice of its adversary. We have often had occasion to make energetic pro- 
tests against the declarations of M. Trotsky, who has wrongfully disclosed 
the fact of mutual relations between the peoples residing within the borders 
of the former Russian Empire, and between the States which have arisen 
within this territory, but true to the principle, which I have mentioned above, 
we have honorably abstained from official utterances, as we did not care, by 
our remarks, to lessen the authority of the Russian Delegation. Now, how- 
ever, after the declaration contained in the Fourth Universal of the Ukrainian 
Central Rada of the full independence of our Republic by friendly, and even 
enemy. States, the question ceases to be one of internal life, and our respon- 
sibility to our nation compels us to pronounce an energetic, protest against the 
calumnies made in our absence by M. Trotsky. 

We therefore, while maintaining the same position of principle as here- 
tofore, can not abstain from disclosing also our point of view of the internal 
situation in Russia and in Ukrainia, in order to justify ourselves, not only 
before those present here, but also before the nations which are represented 
here, whose opinions for us are not less precious than the opinion of M. 
Trotsky. In 1917, Russia was a State inhabited by many peoples having the 
most varied political ideas, by peoples speaking different languages, who have 
lived under various historical conditions, and have even now survived the 
present Revolution which is fighting for social as well as national problems, 
and have created (in the course of the year?) several Governments. 

This :i'ear of 1917 bcRnri under the scepter of an Emperor, and having 
passed through the stages of Government by the Cadets, and Socialists and 
Cadets, ended by shooting in the streets of Petrograd and the hurried prepara- 
tions of the Bolshevik Government to break up the Constituent Assembly, 
which was convoked on a basis alone acceptable to the democracy. These 
various Governments hare remained completely solid in one respect, and that 
is in regard to their plans for centralization, and in their greedy desire to 
torment to death regenerated nations and to cover them all with their mighty 
Iiaiid. Tlie Government of the Bolsheviks, in full accordance with the program 
of tli.'it i)arty, wholly dissents from the ideals of a federation which are in- 
spiring the leaders of nonsovereign peoples. The Government of the Bolsheviks, 



PLENAEY SESSION OP 1 FEBRTJABT. 143 

disregarding tlie fate of predecessors in power, wliicti were thrown down by 
the common efforts, not only of a social but also of a national Revolution, 
have proclaimed the principle of self-determination of peoples only for the 
purpose of the more energetically fighting against this principle being applied 
practically. The noisy declarations of the Bolsheviks regarding the complete 
freedom of the peoples of Russia are simply a mean demagogic trick. The 
Government of the Bolsheviks, having broken up the Constituent Assembly, 
a Government whose power rests on the bayonets of hired Red Guards, will 
never elect to apply in Russia the vei'y just principle of self-determination, 
because they know only too well that not only the Republics of Ukrainia, the 
Don, the Caucasus, Siberia, and others do not regard them as their Govern- 
ment, but that also the Russian people themselves will gradually refuse them 
this right ; and only because they are afraid of the development of a National 
Revolution, they declare here at the Peace Conference and within Russia, 
with a spirit of demagogv peculiar to themselves, the right of self-determination 
of the peoples, but they are struggling against the realization of this principle 
and are recoursing, not only to hired bands of Red Guards, but also to 
meaner and less admissible means. 

They disperse assemblies, they arrest and shoot politically active personali- 
ties, and finally they resort to quite foundless and false calumnies, endeavoring 
to break confidence In the authority of the new Governments of the young 
Republics. They accuse known Socialists and old revolutionaries with having 
bourgeoisie and counter-revolutionary Ideas. Besides this, the Bolshevik Gov- 
ernment declares a holy war against the Republic and demands the dispersion 
of the Bourgeoisie Governments, with which It pretends to be unable to conduct 
negotiations, not even on the question of the cessation of the fratricidal war. 
In this way the Government of the Bolsheviks introduced to Russian life, 
instead of the principle of self-determination, the principle of anarchy and 
devastation, as they know that it is easier to destroy than to construct, and 
have in mind the French saying, " Calumniate, calumniate, but something will 
remain." 

The struggle of the Petrograd Government with the Government of the 
Ukrainian People's Republic and the visible insincerity of the recognition of the 
full rights of our Delegation had already awakened our not foundless sus- 
picions. We were quite sure that M. Trotsky would very soon endeavor to 
renounce his quite clear and not ambiguous recognition of our Delegation as 
plenipotentiary representatives of our Republic. 

Our suspicions were justified. On the very day of our departure for Kiev, 
for the purpose of receiving final instructions, a new Delegation, convoked by 
the Bolsheviks and kindly assisted by them, arrived via Petrograd and Dvlnsk, 
with the intention of breaking our authority in the eyes of the laboring classes 
in Europe. In order to give a complete explanation of the character and the 
rights of this Delegation we would like to treat this matter fully. 

The Ukrainian People, united by common national problems and national 
ideals and inclined toward tranquil and well-ordered forms of political life, 
commenced the long-awaited reconstruction of their State at the very beginning 
of the Revolution. The Ukrainian peasants, soldiers, and workers, with the 
assistance of the deeply democratic intellectuals from amongst them, were able 
not only to organize themselves unaided, but all the democratic organizations, 
composed of representatives of the Ukrainian peasants, soldiers, and workers, 
became accustomed to this work of reconstruction. 

The Central Riida, l)y issuing their Universnls, has shown the political way 
to the Ukrainian peoi)le. The Ukrainian Central Rada, being elected as long 



144 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFEEENOE. 

as June last, the first Ukrainian Government — tlie Ukrainian General Secre- 
tariat — was the first Government in Russia composed exclusively of Socialists. 
In this way the Ukrainian people, step by step, has created its Government with 
its own forces, and therefore the Petrograd Government had no right and no 
ground to interfere in our internal life. But as the matters stood in the time 
of the Tsar's Government, there were sent to the Ukrainian territory and to 
the fronts bordering on the Ukrain soldiers the majority of which were not 
of Ukrainian origin, and during the revolution it was not possible to get rid of 
this alien element in the Ukraine. At the time when the Ukrainian soldiers 
sent from all parts of Russia and frorti all fronts their delegates to the Central 
Ukrainian Assembly and organized themselves arotind the Central Ukrainian Mili- 
tary Rada in Kiev, which is a part of the Ukrainian Central Rada, the soldiers of 
non-Ukrainian origin formed in several towns of the Ukraine their local Soviets of 
Soldiers' Deputies, \\'hich had no influence whatever on the life of the country, 
although it is true that representatives of the workers of these towns are also 
members of these Soviets. The Petrograd Bolsheviks, anxious under any pre- 
text to interfere with the internal life of the Ukrainian People's Republic, put 
forward a demand to the Ukrainian Government to transfer the whole power 
in the Ukraine to these Soviets of the soldiers, without any regard to their de- 
mands which they made at the Conference that all foreign troops ought to be 
withdrawn from foreign territories, in order not to hinder the appliance of the 
principle of self-determination. As a matter of course, the Ukrainian Govern- 
ment could not give satisfaction to this demand. A second attempt to intervene 
in the internal life of our Republic was made by the Bolsheviks of Petrograd in 
the request that the Ukranian Central Rada should be reelected. We will 
pass by the fact that such a request is not only ojpen to disregard of the prin- 
ciple of self-determination, but it is not practicable because representation in 
the Central Rada is organized in such a manner that the electors can at any 
moment recall their representative and replace him by another. The elections 
to the Constituent Assembly at the end of November proved all over the Ukran- 
ian territories to be a splendid victory for the Ukrainian Central Rada and for 
the parties cooperating with it. The Ukrainian lists secured 75 per cent of the 
total number of deputies ; other parties which have their representatives in the 
Central Rada secured about 15 per cent, but the Bolsheviks received less than 
10 per cent of the deputies. 

Then the Petrograd Government decided to use the la.st and final means. 
Going back a little for the moment, I shall add some other examples. In the 
province of Kiev our hKts won 20 seats out of 22, in the province of Podolia 
18 of 19, in the province of Volhynia, 9 out of 10, in the province of Poltava 14 
out of 17, and so on. I think that proves the higlily representative character 
of the Ukrainian Central Rada. We are speaking here in the name of these 
peoples. 

I have stated already that the Bolsheviks liad decided to use their final 
means. They called to-day at Kiev, on Dee. 3, with the silent agreement of 
the Central Rada, a Congress of representatives of peasants, soldiers, and 
workmen of all parts of Ukraine. To this Congress more than 2,000 delegates 
arrived. Disappointing the expectations cif the initiators of the Congress, 
they began their work with a .stormy ovation in the honor of the President of 
the Ukrainian Central Rada, Grushevsky, and expressed with a crushing 
majority of votes their approbation of the activities of the Rada. After this 
event, a small group of Bolsheviks, about 80 persons strong, fled from this 
Congress to Kharkov, and there they declared themselves as being the new 



PLENAEY SESSION OF 1 FEBRUARY. 145 

OdVci-nnieiit ol' t\w I'kruiniiin I'eoi)le's Ueiml)lic. The I'l-oplc's C'nimnissaries 
sent to them iinoi-ynnizecl iiiolis of the Red (kiiirds with the ol).ject ol i'o1)1)!Uk 
Hie populalioji (if the province of Kharkov iiiul of guiinlins- Ibe Kliarkov (!ov- 
ermnent aKainwt tlie inhabitants of the province of Kliarkov. This is the 
manner in whicli flie Kharl^ov (Jovernment \v:is ci'eated. and these are tlie 
forces upon wliich it is liased. There can he no donlit tliat il does not repre- 
sent the Ukrainian I'eoph>'s Itepnldic, luit it can lie doubted if it rei)resc!its 
even Kharkov. 

To tlie other oli^ervations of JI. Tiotsky, winch wer(> made opeiil.v or mercl.v 
sUL;-,L.este(l. I leyard it nnneccssar.v lo reply. Our future, our bistoi-y. i ur 
children, and the hirgc masses of the working- classes, which are now on 1he 
one or the other side of the front, will decide themselves who of us is i-i,:;lit 
and who is wi-on.;;-, who is a Socialist, and who a counter revolutionary, who is 
creating, and who is destroyin.g- what has been created. 

Pki:sidkxt, Has the Piesident of the Knssian Delegation anythin.g- to declare? 

Tkotskv. I can only thank the President that he, in hannony with the 
disnity of this assembly, has not opposed in any way the free speaking of the 
precedini;- orator, nor lias he Intervened In the exact translation except to 
make some improvements in exjiression. 

The Prksiiikxt. T'litil now all the sjieakers here lune had full freedom of 
speech, and certainly the President could not make an exception for the pre- 
cedin,^ speaker. 

Trotsky. I fully a.tiree. 

CzEKMix. In the name of the Dele.yation of the four Allied Powers. 1 have the 
honor to rejily as follows to the declaration of the Ukrainian Delegation: 

As announced, the President of the Ukrainian Delei.'ation, vSecretary of State 
Golubovich, declai-ed in the plenary session on .lau. 'J."> that the Ukrainian 
People's Republic, in basing itself upon the decision of the Ukrainian Central 
Racia of Xov. 2l), 1917, is renewing its international existence, and enters fully 
into the international intercourse in tliese region.s, with all the rights beloiming 
to it. In connection with that decision, the (Tovernment of the I'krainian 
People's Republic decided to take up an independent jiosition at the iwesent 
peace negotiations. In reply to that I declared at the plenary session of .Ian. 2.5 
in the name of the four allied Powei's as follows : We recognize the Ukrainian 
Delegation as being an indei)endent Delegathm wliich possesses the powers to 
represent the iudeijendent Ukrainian Republic. But in view of the fact that the 
President of the Russian Delegation has changed his attitude to this (|uestion 
at the session of Jan. .'!(), 1918, in proclaiming that only such agreements with 
Ukraine ' *, on the contrary, we consider ourselves as bound to recognize 

immediately the Ukrainian peo]ile's Republic as an independent free sovereign 
State, which is able to enter into international agreements independently. 

Trotsky. I must remark once more that the su.ggestions of our changed atti- 
tude are not true. I have already twice read the passage In my declaration 
upon this subject. This passage does not admit any commentary. In any case, 
and independently from the position taken up until now by the four allied 
Powers toward Ukraine, it must be clear that the interested Powers themselves 
are not able to tell even the geographic frontiers of the new Republic which 
they have recognized at this moment. But in view of the fact that in tbe peace 
negotiations the question of frontiers is not a matter of indifference, the oh.lec- 
tlon which I have made retains all its force. 

Von Kuhlmaa-k. I should like to ask the President of the Russian Delegation 
if the declaration which was read by the Ukrainian member of the Russian 
Delegation is an olficial declaration of the Russian Delegation? 
90244—18 10 



146 PEOGEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONPEEENCE. 

Tkotsky. So far as this declaration concerns the peace negotiations, and so 
far as it expresses its full agreement with our declarations, we certainly accept 
full responsibility for it. I think the declai-ation can be discussed here only 
within these limitations. 

The session is closed. 

(Signed) L. Karahan. 



7U. Session of CoM^iiirrEE on Tekkitoeial Questions, 3 February. 

GERMAN ACCOUNT. 

[Frdiii the (liiitish) Diiilii R(riiii: of the l-'on-iiin J'rcus, 6 Fel)ruary, 1918, 

p. 799.*] 

According to a Brest-Litovsk telegram (Feb. 3), The German, 
Austio-Himgarian, and Russian Commissions held a further sitting 
on tlie morning of that day for the settlement of territorial and 
political questions. 

The discussions began with a declaration by Baron von Kiihlmann 
regarding the invitation or admission of the Western Border States 
to the negotiations. He said that on this subject the previous stand- 
point of the Central Powers remained quite unchanged. M. Trotsky 
replied : 

The question of the admission to the negotiations of a deputation of the 
Polish Government as the Government of an independent State arose when the 
Russian Delegation broached this subject for the purpose of directing attention 
to the fact that the German and Austro-Hungarian Delegations had, while 
recognizing the independence of the Polish State, not suggested the admission 
of Polish representatives to the negotiations. The opposite side, it is true, 
declared then that it would submit this question to benevolent examination. 
We for our part recognize the independence of the Polish State to its full 
extent, but we can not close our eyes to the fact that its independence is only 
iiuike-l>elie\ (' sn lout; as I'dlanil is under the regime of oceuiiution. .Tust 
because we recognize the independence of the Polish peoiJle and State we can 
not, without impugning the independence of the Polish State, regard as repre- 
sentatives of the Polish people representati\'es appointed by the will of the 
occupying authorities. 

M. Trotsky added that he could only recognize as authorized to 
participate in these negotiations a deputation of the Polish State 
based on the broad masses. He might point out that the Eussian 
Delegation, in not recognizing M. Kucharewski's Government as a 
ulenipotentiary Government of the Polish people, by no means meant 
that it did not recognize the independence of the State or the people. 

In reply. Baron von Kiihlmann, after referring to the declarations 
which the representatives of the Central Powers had made on this 
subject at the sittings of the Commission on Jan. 11 and Jan. 15, 
said he did not know why the chairman of the Eussian Delegation 
excepted Poland to-day from the Western Border Peoples. 

* Till' IinilHvhfr Jli-lrJisan-.rifirr of 4 Kobvunry, IMS, has nii account practically identical 
with tills. 



SESSION" OF TERRITORIAL COMMITTEE, 3 FEBRUARY. 147 

The affairs of Poland, Lithuania, and Cuurland had hitherto been discussed 
together. He believed, however, that he could perceive a certain advance in 
the fact that M, Trotsky recognized the independence of the Polish State to its 
full extent. If the chairman of the Rus.sian Delegation would also recognize 
the Independence of the other Western Border Peoples of Russia, the negotia- 
tions would thereby make a considerable step forward. 

In reply to a previous observation of M. Trotsky that the govern- 
ments of the Central Powers had not yet recognized the new Finnish 
Government, Baron von Kiihlmann said that he had not yet been 
adequately informed regarding the events in Finland, but he had 
received from a trustworthj' Finnish source numerous complaints 
that the Russian Ami}' had interfered in domestic conflicts there, 
and that the frequently expressed wish that the Russian troops should 
be withdrawn from Finnish territory had not been answered satis- 
factorily by the Russian Government. His attitude, therefore, to 
the situation created by the events in Finland must remain in 
suspense. 

Count Czernin pointed out tliat ~Sl. Trot:-ky hud made a quite 
correct distinction between the States and their Governments. 

M. Trot-ky recognizes only the imlependeuce of the Polish Stiitc, Init is 
unwillins to recdtruize the right nf the existing (iuveniment tliere to repre- 
sent this State. 1 note with s.itisfactiou that M. Trotsky, by his declarations 
to-day. at least reLcignizes the existence and independence of the Polish State 
and that a path appeai-s to be thus opened for a rapprocheinrnt of view.si on 
both sides. On the other hand, I i-in not admit that the question whether the 
present Polish (iovernment is entitled to represent the Polish Stale should 
be submitted to the arbitration of a tliii'd Government. 

M. Trotsliy then observed that as regarded the Finnish question, 
the Petrograd Government had recognized Finland's independence 
during the w-ar, so that at that time portions of the trciops who had 
taken part in the war were btiil on Finnish soil. 

When the Finnisli Senate requested the Petrograd (fovernment to recog- 
nize Finland's independence, it expresseil the idea itself that the troops should 
be withdi-awn at the latest after the conclusion of the war, if it were not 
possible for military reasons to withdrav.- them earlier. A (.'ommission was 
formed with a view to reaching an agreement on the subject. When the 
Revolution of the v.orking classe- l>egan in Finland, the Finnish Social- 
Democracy expressed the \\-ish to the Russian tfocjps that they ^vould not 
intervene in any conflicts that might arise. A telegram voicing this wish was 
sent by the Social Democrats themselves to the Finnish Government. It was 
not impossible that collisions might have taken place between detachments of 
the Russian troops and portions of the Finnish Citizen Army, but he denied 
that these collisions could have any effect on the course of the internal con- 
flicts in Finland. 

Eeo-ardine the adnii-ioii of Polish representatives, M. Trotsky 
continued, tlie que.-tioii was tigain addressed to the Russian Delega- 
tion w-hether it recoGiuzed Poland's independence or not. It was 
clear that this question contained an ambiguity. He recognized to 
the full the unrestricted right of the Polish people to an inde- 
pendent existence. Ijut he could not close his eyes to the fact t tat 
this Polish .'^tate \^:is now occupied by foreign troops, and that 



148 PROCEEDIXGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFERENCE. 

the so-called Polish Government could only move within the limits 
imposed on it from above. If the Polish State were a State it 
must have iieographical frontiers: if the Polish Kingdom were a 
kingdom it must have a king. If the State had neither frontiers 
nor a king, then it was no State, no kingdom. It was a question 
here of conditions that had not yet reached their final shape. To 
the observations of the Chairmar, of tlie Austro-Hungarian Dele- 
gation he had to reply that his Government in nowise wanted to 
act as arbiter in this question, and only proposed a way for testing 
and justifying the Polish Govei'nment. 
In reply. Baron von Kiihlmann * said: 

I should point out tliat the DeU'nations of the nejiotiutiiin Powers liave not 
come here to inchilge in intfUeetual cnmhat. hut to try whether and h(]\v far it 
is possiljle to attain agreement. It is difficult for a representative of a foieign 
State to determine to what i^xtent the Govci-nment existing in another State has 
tlie right to exist. It would, in my opinion, be fruitless to continue the discus- 
sion of this topic. Tlu' I'olisli State is in the development singe, and its devel- 
opment is not yet concluded. Poland, therefore, as M. Trotsky quite rightly 
remarked, has no establislied frontiers yet. Iiut neither has the Russian Republic, 
which is still undergoing development, yet established frontiers. This, however, 
does not prevent the Powers of the Germanic Alliance fi'om negotiating with 
the iiresent Ru.ssian (4overinnent without entering into an examination of its 
credentials. J[. Trotsky appeal's lo rejiroach the ( 'entral Powers because they 
have not recognized the new Finnish (lOvernment. I must say that nothing is 
i^nown to me about any intention not to recognize it. That the Central Powers, 
moreover, are ready to negotiate with Govei-nments which they regard as fairly 
ladical is sufficiently evident from the tact ef the Brest ne,gotiations. 

Baron von Kiihlmann added that the second declaration of the 
President of the Eussian Delegation had again shown how difficult 
it was, without the text (jf such far-reaching declarations before one, 
to form a sure judgment cm what had been said. 

As a contradiction in the statements of so schooled a dialectician as 
M. Trotsky appeared to be out of the question, there was cleai'ly a 
misunderstanding on his part. He had received the impression from 
M. Trotsky's first declaration that the speaker had in it unreservedly 
and fully recognized the independence of the Polish State. Xuw, 
however, M. Trotsky had said in his second declatatiou that Poland, 
without fixed frontiers and without a king, was neither a State nor a 
kingdom. It was, to be sure, difficult to recognize the indejDendence 
of a State which was no Stiite at alb He must, howe^'er. point out 
that one got entirely lost in the clouds when one forsook the founda- 
tions of sound juridical construction. 

Finally Baron von Kiihlmann announced that he was obliged by 
imperative duties to leave Bre.st for a short time. He suggested that 
the time which would be lost by his absence, as far as the Political 
Connnission was concerned, might be utilized by direct negotiations 
between the other .Vllied Delegations represented at Brest and the 
]?ussian Delegation, as well as by Avork on the part of the Law and 
Ti'ade Commission. 

'J'he sitting thei-eupon closed. 



* The toxt asciibfs lliis ul li'iiuicc to Czi'rnin, liiit " Baion vou Kiihlmann .iddecl " at 
the Ijeginning of the next sertion. Intern.Tl eviilni.H sn^'gests Kiihlmann. 



SESSIOX OF TEEEITOBIAL COMMITTEE, 3 FEBEUAKY. 149 

<i. .^KSSKix (IF Co-MilTTTEE OX TeRRITOKTAL QuKSTIO.N S, 3 FeBRUART. 

RUSSIAN ACCOUNT. 

[From the ( BrilKh) Dnilp Rerieir of the Forciiin Press, 9 February, 1918, p. 823.] 

Russian wireless sends out the following fragment of a report of 
the proceedings at Brest-Litovsk on Feb. 3. The report covers the 
speeches of Trotsky and Von Kiihlmann printed in the first column of 
page 709, of the Daili/ Review (Feb. 6). 

Tkotsky. * as foiinded. I think it necessar.v to establij^h firstly the 

folloxving facts: Neither the German nor the Austro-Htmgarian delegations 
proposed, on their own initiative, to invite to the iiesotiations the represent- 
atives of the Polish Rada (i. e., Regency Council) as the representative body 
of an independent Polish State. This question arose only' after the Ru.ssian 
Delegation bad indicated to the opposite side that their attitude was one of 
complete contradiction. While in their statement the German and Austro- 
Hungarian Governments did recognize the sovereign rights of the Polish State, 
they did not raise the question of the participation of its Government in these 
ne,gotiations when the destiny of Poland was under discussion. In reply tc 
our declaration the opposite side remarked that if Ave .should submit such a 
proposal to them it woiild lie favorabl,\' received. It is of great importance 
for us to insi.st upon the fact that the German and Austro-Hungarian Dele- 
gations began the negotiations without having in their possession a prelimi- 
nary decision on the part of their Governments concerning the participation 
of the Polish Rada in the negotiations. Snch a preliminary decision would 
have been obligatory for them if they had considered the Polish Ministry as 
the Government of an independent Poland. 

In opposition to snch an attitude we, in spite of all the affirmations of the 
opposite side completely and without reservation recognize the independence 
of the Polish people and of its State. But we can not shut our eyes to the fact 
that this independence remains unreal so long as Poland is under the regime 
of military occupation. Because we do recognize the independence of the 
Polish people and of its State, and because we have not in view any attempt on 
this independence, we can not regard as plenipotentiary representatives of the 
Polish people those persons who have been designated for this office by the 
Governments which have occupied Poland. We could, pi-esnmptively, recognize 
the unquestioned right of independent participation in the negotiations only in 
the case of such a provisional Government of I^oland which had received the 
.■sanction of authoritative and legal bodies of the Polish people. Taking into 
consideration that the Polish people have a rich political experience, and that 
its social and national tendencies have been able to find their exiircssion in 
powerful and durable political parties, we express our belief that it would be , 
possible immediately to create a provisional representation of independent 
Poland for the participation in the peace negotiations liy a free agreement of 
the Polish political parties which have the support of the masses of the people. 
particularly of the working classes. We. on our side, are ready to recognize 
completely, without any restrictions, such representation. So far as the Polish 
Rada, created by the Governments of the Central Empires, expresses its will to 
take part in the peace negotiations, we have no objection. The delegations of 
the Central Empires are seemingly In favor of such a desire and previously 
declared to us that the Polish Ministry does possess the right of Government 



150 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFERENCE. 

so fill- as iienuitted by the e(iiTesii(.inaing German and Austro-Hungarian 
authorities. 

We believe that the government of the Central Empires could also impose 
the same limitations for the particiiiation of the Polish Jlinistry at the present 
negotiations, and that such an arrangement would lie only in accordance with 
the real situation. I shall only recall here that when the question (jf the par- 
ticipation of the Delegation of the Ukrainian Kada arose we did not demand 
from the opposite side that it should recognize Ukraine and its Government 
before the signature of the peace treaty. A\'e believe it to be necessary that in 
view of the indeflniteness of all our rehitions these relations should be cleared 
up in the course of the negotiations. We, on our side, could only agree to this 
form of participation by the Polish Rada in these negotiations, because such a 
position would afford to it the opportunity for declaring oiienl.\-, in facing the 
whole of the Polish people, its attitude to such questions as the evacuation of 
Polish territories by foreign troops and the alteration of the frontiers against 
the interest of the independent Polish pei.iple. The declarations and demands 
of the Kuharszewsky Ministry would receive a more complete and more just 
estimation, because we have also in our Delegation representatives of the labor- 
ing masses of Poland. 

In concluding these remarks I shall once more draw your attention to the 
logical misunderstanding which often occurs in our negotiations, that our atti- 
tude to the one or the other of the Governments depends entirely upon our atti- 
tude to the people or to the State. If we do not consider the Kuharszhewsky 
Ministry, by reason of information in our possession, to be the ijlenlpotentiaray 
Government of the Polish people, then that does not mean that we do not recog- 
nize the independence f the Polish State and the Polish people. I do not know 
so far if the German Government has had the time to recognize the new Govern- 
ment of Finland, but nevertheless I think that the bare fact of the existence of a 
new Government in Finland can not alter a further recognition of the inde- 
pendence of Finland's Republic. 

VoN KuHLMANN. In Connection with the explanation as given by the Presi- 
dent of the Russian Dele.gation, it will lie of certain utility to return once 
more to these questions which have already occun-ed several times. So far 
as I remember, I explained thera in a previous discussion on Jan. 11. The 
preceding speaker complains that until now there have been present no repre- 
sentatives of the various nationalities. If he means that, in his opinion, 
these peoples have already becimie entities, and that they can use their rights 
of self-determination in external questions, then I, from my side, if these 
premises aie ujiconditionally recognized by 1lie Uiissian DelegaLion, am always 
ready to discuss whether or not these peoples ought to take part in the peace 
negotiations, and, if so, then in what form. The question was again discussed 
on .Tan, 15, and then the President of the Russian Delegation remarked that 
the Austrian and German Delegations, at one of the preceding sessions, had 
exjiressed the desire to invite the representatives of the.se regions who are 
jiersoually known to them. and. nniiieb. of these regions which, in the opinion 
of these Delegations, have ali-eady completed their State formation, because 
(hey have in a sufficient degree shown their desire for an independent State 
life. We could not reply to these questions immediately because we considered 
it nei-essary to knov,' the conditions by which we should decide whether these 
peoples have a sufficient right to take pai-t in the peace negotiations. 

The proposals and discussions upon these questions, which we submitted in 
writing, hiid for theii- ob.iei't the jirovision of nurterials for their solution. 
.\s I remarked yesterday, these re|ilies which we have heard impressed ns as 
being conti adictoi-y. Kitlier the occuiiation authorities have been given the 



SESSION OF TEREITOBIAL COMMITTEE, 3 FEBKUAEY. 151 

i"i,2;lit and power to determine the destiny of these regions in accordance with 
then- plenipotentiaries, or tliey have been instructed to malve use of the 
decisions of the local bodies which have been created on a social basis which 
IS not In accordance with the real political importance of these classes. It was 
also said that the occupation authorities are creating entirely arbitrary 
frontiers. So far as I can understand, the government of the opposite side 
Is of the opinion that, at least within the limits of the peace negotiations, 
these bodies are the expressions of the will of these peoples which have 
already used their right for self-determination. 

With the ob.iect of know-inn- the conditions under which we could recognize 
them, we should consider it very useful if the repi-eseutatives of these bodies 
could be invited to these peace negotiations. They would theu have the oppor- 
tunity, here before us, of demonstrating their right to represent their peoijles 
before the whole world. And if even by such an arrangement the inconsislenc-y 
would not be abolished, the outstanding points of difference would certainly 
disappear, amongst which the following: That the German and Austro-Hun- 
garian Governments, in recognizing the right of certain bodies to express the 
desire of the people, are, at the same time. Isolating these sovereign ijodies, 
liy the regime of occupation, from participation in the peace negotiations, 
where the destiny of these regions avIU be decided. 

[Message ends.] 



EliSSIA.X ACCOUNT, CONTIXTED. 

[From the (British) Diritii licricir of the Furv'Kjn /'/-c.v.s-, 11 Feljruary, 191S, 

p. 883.1 

The following is a contimuition of tlie Eiissian version of the pf<->- 
ceedings at Brest-Litovsk on P>b. 3. part of which was printed in the 
Daily Eeview (Feb. 8). 

It opens with Kiihlniami"s speech, broken off in the last inessaoe : 

The presence of these Delegations will als(j involve the rec-oguition liy the 
Rus.sian Delegation of the pre.sumpti^-e State existence of these nations, I draw 
your attention to the fact that the President of the Russian I lelegatinu, in the 
course of pi'evious negotiations, declared that he considered the expressiim of 
will be the Landtags :is the expression of some definitive, influential gi-onjis of the 
population. In my opinion, there is no great divergence between this point of 
view, as previously expressed, and the recognition of their presumptive character 
as was now indicated to me. But, in the nature of things, admission of ihese 
repre.sentatives excludes such i-ecognitinn, and no further explanation is neces- 
sary. Either these representatives \\\\\ i-ome here as an expiession of tlie will 
of these peoples, and then an agreement must be reached between us that these 
peoples have been already constituted as nations, or the.v will come here as 
private iiKlividuals, and in the cajiacity will have nothing to do here. If these 
premises are agreed to b.y the Presiilent of the Russian Delegation th( n I shall 
inunediately begin pourparliM-s with our Allies, sci as to know if they are 
willing to agree with the desire as expressed by the Russian Delegation, and, 
if so, then under what conditions the representatives of these regicjus can par- 
ticipate, I believe that the publication of these minutes will be suHicienr for 
explaining these views, as they appeared in the preceding negotiations. I do 
not quite understand why to-day the I'residcnt of the Russian Del<>:;-;ition 



I:y2 PBOCEEDIKliS OF THE BKEST-LITOVSK CONPEKENCE. 

fsiiecially iiiiuU' u distiiietiou witli rfniird to the Poles umon.n' tlie iieoples of 
I he occu|iie(l regions. 

Up to now we have iliseiisisert the iineslion of Poliind, I^ithtuuna, auil Courlauil 
as one. I see in this a lii.n' slei) forward, because the President of the Russian 
Iiele.i^.i) ions has liimself recognized tlie existence iii' a Polish Slat(;'. But, on the 
otlier liand, if I have properly understood him (and it is very diflicidt without 
liavin.sr tlie original at liand), I can not realize why he does not I'ecognize the 
Polish ;\Iiuistry as the plenipotentiary (iovernnient of the I'olish State. With- 
out consulting the Allied (iovernuient I can not innnediately exijress niy.self hi 
a definite manner concerning the question ^\•hether it would be desirable that 
the I'olish representatives should par1ici]jate indepeudeidly in the negotiation.s, 
because other questions may arise for discussioji where it niay .ipiiear neces- 
sary that the representatives of other re.gions shmdil also take part in defense 
of their inteiesls. If the Pi'csident <>( the I^ussian Iiclegatioii could recognize 
the riolitical existence of these Slate formations, then in my opinion, we could 
make an ai)preciable advance in ou.r slow and difficult method "f negolijiting. 
As I lia\e promised, I shall consult the I'ciiresentatives of the Allied Govern- 
menls with regard to these questions. 

Concerning the (pu-stion of the recognition of the new Finnish Covermnent, 
1 ha\e not so far received sntHciently exact information as re.gards the situation 
in rinland. But 1 have I'eceived complaints from very Influential circles of 
Finland that the Russian army has taken part in the internal struggle there, 
and that all reipiests for the withdrawal of Russian troops from Finland have 
received no satislactory reply from the Russian side. Our attitude In regard 
to the sitiuition in Finland as i( is at the ijresent must remain for the time 
being an open (|uestion. 

I shall give my reply to the explanation of the President of the Russian Dele- 
gation in a lew w"ords. I can in no sense associate myself with the distinction 
which the President of the Knssian Delegation is vei-y clearly and .justly making 
between State and people on the one side and Government on tbe other side. 
In the pi-esent case be recognizes the Polish State but refuses to recognize the 
plenipnteneity oT the Poli.sh Government. I do not remember that in the pre- 
<'eding discussions on the rei-iignition of the I'olish State these limitations had 
been exiiressed «dtii the same force. But if that has taken place now. then I 
welcome it. because it n<'ccssarily means the fusion of both points of view. 
But I can not admit that the question as to whethei' Ihe Polish Slate has or has 
not full po«oi-s should be left to the decision of the Russian Delegation. I am 
of the opinion Ihat in regard to this question no International ne.gofiations could 
take place under such conditions, Iicrause every i-epreseiitative mi.ght express 
doubts as fo whether lie i^ entitled to take part in the negotiations. As re,gards 
the sulistan<e of the question, I can only repeat what I have already had the 
honiir |c] declare — if the Russian Delegation agrees to particiiiation in the peace 
negotiations of the ])resent Polish fbivernnn^nt. tlien I should only weh'onie such 
a decision. 

I must make siane I'cmarks on the queslion which arises here, as a suiiplemen- 
tary qtu'slion to I lie Polish question, namely, the question of Finl.-ind. T'nknown 
persons or institutions have made complaints to the ,Soci'etary of State that we 
are not withdrawing our troojis from Finland. It is m;cessary to recall that the 
rec'iLiiiition of Finland's inde])eiidi>iice was made by us • -^ ' when detach- 
ments of our Iroojis. which have taken liart In this war A\-ere still on Finnish 
t'MTitorx'. The I'Mnnish Diet, when it addressed tis with the rei|uesl to I'ccognize 
the iiideiieiidenc<> of Finland, itself demanded that the troops should be withdrawn 
before till' conclusion of [iciice. We entircl\ agreed with this proposal * * 



SESSIOX OF TEREITOEIAL COMMITTEE, 3 FEBRUARY. 153 

nrsSIAX A('(Ul NT. tONTIXUflD. 

[From the (British) Daily Ix'ciicic af the Foreign J'/i-s, 1.", Fclmiary, 1918, 

p. STO. I 

Eussisui wireless (Feb. i:]) send& ont the folio-wing: 

Continuation of the session of the Russian and Austro-German 
Delegations on Feh. ?>. 

It was said that if the Polish (Government is recognized as a Sov- 
ereign Government, then it has the light to take i^art in these nego- 
tiations, or that if siieh recognition is ii-regiilar, then it has no right 
to be here. 

Tkotsky. I should say that if tlie Piilisli State is .in indeiiendeut State, then 
it must liuve its ijeoKraplucal frontiei-s, and if it is a kinsdoni. then it must have 
its kini;-. But if it has ni>itlier froutievs nor kini;. tlien it is not a State, and it 
is not a kingdom. Nevertheless. I am of the opinion that we -have to reckon 
here not with unformulated and unestablished relations, and that we must not 
create out of juridical fcuanulas ohslacles to the solution of questiiais of real 
importance. At the present time ail diplomatic and .iuridical niceties gen- 
erally — in State treaties especially — ai'e not of iimeli value. The politi(/al 
aspect of the question must give us the solution, and juiidical technicalities 
have njerely to hel|) us in its expression. In my opinion this is a ]ierfectly 
correct and exact estimate of the situation, especially after the Secretary of 
State has .given us, with much freedom and sagacity, a .iuridical .justitication 
for the Ukrainian Itada, I tliink that he could find in his experience and from 
out of liis .iuridical knowledge all the necessary formulas for securing the 
participation in the negoii.itions of any Goveiaiment which he had the desire 
to recognize, without submitting to as at this stage a.n ultimatum whicli can 
only lie answered when the whole question has been solved. These remarks 
concern those arguments which we have had the honor to listen to from the 
I'resident of the Austro-Cerman Iielegations, We have no desii'e to act as 
arbitrators on this question. We have proposed the simplest way for the con- 
trol of these mandates, (lur jiroposal was that the leading political parties 
of I'olund should be eonsidted. If an arliiti'ator is then found to be necessary. 
then as such he can act only in con.iunctiou with the Avhole of the Bowers. 
('e]-tainly we do not base oui'selves upon the inconsistent consideration as to 
the duration of any i;.i\ ernment, as the Pi'esident of the Austro-Hungarian 
Delegation has supposed. AVe lielieve and we hope, by Ihe .grace of tlod. that 
all (iovernments here represented will last for a long time, but in the present 
ca^e we have to recognize a new (lovernment Protessor * * says ver.\- truly 

that no syllogism will solve this question ; it will rather lie solved liy its political 
nature. If we had not to finish our discussion (I fear we began tno late to- 
day). I should ask- ?.I. Babinsky. the representative of our Commissariat for 
Xationalities, to ex)iress his views. 

CzERMX. I should like to make a brief statement. The President of the Rus- 
sian Delegation has said that we slimild not create obstacles. We are not here 
for the sake of mere di.siaission, but witli the sincere desire to arrive at agree- 
ment so far as that is possible. I state emphatically that the I']-esident of the 
liussian Delegation is wasting words in \-ain. He defends himself against re- 
jiroaches, and insists upon the difference between Slate and Covernnient. It 
is true that tbes,. denounnatlons are different. But I state again that it is 
quite impossible for the represenlatives ,,[ a foreign State to know if haimony 
exists between a State and its (oivernmeid. ami if any particular <;overnment 
has the ri.ght to further existence. If wc were to continue these discussimis 



154 PEOCEEDIXGS OP TIIE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFEEENCE. 

•\ve sliould nsnin lii';ir of ri.ulil niicl miulit, and si> on. My view Is tbat such 
(U^cnssions do not form the purpose of o\u- iiosotiations. The I'olish State is 
a State in <-()ni-se of foiination, which lias liecome independent tlii'oii.cli the 
(.'enti'al T'owers. Its formation lias not yet been completed, a fact which finds 
its exjiression in different ways. .M. Trotsky has himself, quite correctly, 
indicated that when he spoke of the undetini-d Polish frontiers. But tlie Rus- 
sian Republic is also a new State, and so far as I am aware its frontiers also 
arc not at jiresiait defined. But this fact does not prevent our being engaged 
in pea<'e negotiations with the pi-esent Russian (Jovernment. If the President 
of the Itussian Delegation reproaches us for not recognizing the new Finnish 
novernment then I nuist point out thai for all tliey know we may be prepar- 
ing for such recognition. The pre.sent negotiations prove that we are ready 
to enter into negotiations with <!overnmeuts which we consider quite radical. 

KvHLMANN. The second declaration of the President of the Russian Dele- 
gation once more proves that it is impossible to appi'eciate every point Avithout 
having the text of such important declarations before us. The astuteness of 
sucli an o))ponelit as the President of the Russian Delegation creates contradic- 
tions, uy at least misunderstandings. I was of the opinion that he desired to 
I'ecognize the Polish State without any limilations. and I had ;dieady prepared 
an agreement, in c-on.iunetion with the President of the Austro-Hun.garian Dele- 
j^atiou. To our surprise, at the second Session, 11, Trotsky declared that Po- 
land, being witliout frontiers and without a King, is neither a State nor a 
Kingdom. I think that even such a competent Professor as Nimever, whose 
opinion we all hold in esteem, could find no ob.iections to our proposals. It is 
said that a too skillful construction of phrases is a danger to diplomacy. If this 
be so it may safely be said that such nicety of langua.ge is not less a danger 
for our negotiations. As regards Finland, I reserve for myself complete free- 
dom, as I have already stated. I may say that so far as I am aware no pro- 
liosal for the recognition of the so-called new Government of Finland has reached 
me in an official form. I regret that it is too late to-day to hear any explana- 
tion by a member of the Russian Delegation, but for that we shall have an 
opportunity at the next session. If there is no ob.jection I proijose that the 
]u-esent session be closed, as it is so late. 

Teotskv. I should like the date of the next sessicui to be agreed upon 
•* I can not take part in the sessions of February 4, o, and 6. On Febru- 
a}-y 7 I am ready to attend a session at any time. I propose 11 o'clock on 
February 7. The time which we have at our disposal can be employed in dis- 
cussions between the different States, between you and us and the representa- 
tives of our Allies. I also hope that the Fconomic Commission will have 
jirogressed sufficiently with its work as to have a clear conception of all that 
has to be accomplished. If nobody wishes to speak I declare the session closed. 



72. Session of 7 February. 

german account. 

[I'rom the ( Ih'itisli) Daihi I'ciiiir nf th( l'iir(i(in l'ie>i'S. 12 February. I'.ilS, 

p. 844.*] 

A Brest-Litovsk toleoram of Feb. 8,- states ;. 

Bai-oFi von Kiihlmanii and Count Czernin returned to Brest -Litovsk 
last night. The German, Austro-Hungarian, and Enssian Commis- 



* The DciilKClirr Tfeirhsiiii:elr/ri- of !) Fcliruary has an account substantially Identical 
with this. 



SESSION OF 7 FEBRUARY. 155 

^loiis for the regulation oi political and territorial question-, held 
another joint sitting this morning.. 

Baron ^ on Kiihlniann first reverted to the question of the origin of 
certain alloged falsified telegrams of the Petrograd Telegraph 
Agency. He said that, as the presumption might be drawn from 
the statenients of the President of the Russian Delegation that the 
falsification had been committed in Germany, he had made a s|)ecial 
point of inquiring into the matter as far as had been possible. 

By far the most important false report referred to the Brest- 
Litov^k sitting of Jan. 27. He had had it established that this re)30rt 
Avas circulated by the Ritzau Bureau in Copenhagen. The original 
telegram in Ritzau's posse^^^sion was dispatched from Petrograd and 
bore the signature " Vestnik." like all other telegrams from the 
Petrograd Telegraph Agency. He must therefore leave it to the 
President of the Russian Delegation to make further inquiries re- 
garding the responsibility for the dispatch of the telegram from 
Petrograd. A further report which had likewise created a political 
sensation, and which was de-;ignated incorrect by the People's Com- 
missioner for Foreign Affairs, related to the speech of M. Trotsky 
at the third Congress of the "Workmen's and Soldiers" Council. The 
most important sentence in the report ran : 

Tlie Imperialists falsely .issert that we (le><ii-e to conduct scpiirate iicuofin- 
tioiis : 

while a subsequent sentence stated : 

The Ru.isian Delegation will not renoimce its demands, and will oonolude 
no separate peace. 

These communications were in French, and were received as an 
annoimcement of the Petrograd Telegraph Agency on the evening 
of Jan. 29. It was confirmed from Stockholm that the French text 
transmitted to the Berlin semiofficial news agency had in fact arrived 
in Stockholm as a telegram from the Petrograd Telegraph Agency. 
If there were falsification, therefore, this must have occurred between 
Petrograd and Stockholm. The Berlin semiofficial agency and the 
German Press had acted entirely ho7ia fide in the matter. It appeared 
to Baron von Kiihlmann to be in -the interests of Russian policy that 
it should be cleared up on the Russian side who were the authors of 
these politically important falsifications and where they occurred. 

M. Trotskv replied that, regarding the first telegram, he had had 
all the original dispatches of the Petrograd Telegraph Agency laid 
before him. but that the telegram concerned was not found among 
them. 

Regarding the second, he had been hindered by recent frequent 
interruptions of telegraphic communication with Petrograd, but 
as soon as he could he would try to clear up these two misgivings 
or falsifications. 

Passing to the actual agenda on "hich stood the continuation of the 
discussion of the question of participation of the Polisli i-epresenta- 
tives at the peace negotiations, ^1. Trotsky pj'otefted against what 
he thought was a very well organized campaign in the Gennan and 
Austro-Hungarian Press aiming at accusing the Russian Deleeatinn 
of protracting the peace negotiations. Against that he said he had to 
point out that the great importance of the conditions made known 



156 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFERENCE. 

by the other side necessitated a pause for their examination by tlie 
Russian Government. In any case, he must state that the respon- 
sibility for the protraction of the negotiations did not fall on the 
Russian Delegation. It was the President of the Grerman Delegation 
himself wlio had tlesired a theoretical discussion of the \arious 
questions. 

Baron von Kiihlmann, replying, said the (lerman Press had been 
able to form its own opinion from the published reports of the pro- 
ceedings, and if that judgment did not please the Russian Delegation 
the Russian Press was entirely free to champion those \'iews which 
it considered right. 

He must, in any case, most emphatically rej^udiate any supposition 
that the Presidents of the Allied Delegations faAored the protraction 
of negotiations. It was decidedly necessary to consider the questions 
discussed also in their theoretical asjiect. If an agreement on theo- 
I'etical points were reached, then a satisfactory solution to the joint 
tasks wc)uld have been wry nearW attained. M. Trotsky had rightly 
indicated that the importance of the proposals of the other side had 
made a thorough study appear necessary to him. He tlmugllt he 
understood from ^I. Trotsky that it would correspond with his 
wishes if the results of the negotiations so far attained were summed 
up in one of the next sittings. 

Coimt Czernin hereuiion stated that the Anstro-IIungarian Press 
had also expressed its o])inion on the Bolshevists' attitude, free of 
Government influences. j\[. Trotsky remarked that he must frankly 
admit that during the revolution his Government had suppressed an 
entire series of newspapers, not because they had criticized the 
People's Gonmiissionei' for Foreign Affairs, but because they had 
incited to deeds of violence. On the other hand, no pre\entive cen- 
sorship existed in Russia as in other States. 

Baron rt^n Kiihlmann pointed out that there was no preventive 
censorship in Germany either, and that criticism on foreign policy 
and its directors, as could not have escaped one so thoroughly ac- 
quainted with German papers as M. Trotsky, did not usually lead 
to the suppression of German papers. 

Count Czernin then stated that the Austro-Hungarian censorship 
authorities were not in a position to influence the positive utterances 
of the Press. 

They could only work negatively and hinder in a limited measure 
the Press utterances which they considered harmful. So far as he 
knew, no newspaj^er had been su]ipressed in Austria-Hungary for a 
long time. 

M. Bodiuski, the Russian Delegation's expert for Polish affairs, 
then read a statement in Russian, which his colleague, ^I. Raclek, 
repeated in German. 

Both delegates, who described themselves as the sole appointed 
representatiA'es of the Polish people, demanded the immediate re- 
moval of the present Go\'ernment organs in Poland and criticized the 
independence of Poland as hitherto developed. They further de- 
clared in their statement that uj) to now revolutionary Russia alone 
had defended the true interests of Poland's freedom, and both ap- 
pealed to the Poles fighting in the German and Austro-Hungarian 
Armies. Baron \-on Kiihlmann ask-cd M. Trotsky -whether the docu- 
ment just read was to be regarded as an official communic.ition of the 



SESSIONS OP 9 FEBEITAEY. 157 

Russian Delegation. M. Trotsky replied that the views stated were 
naturally only admissible within those limits which the Eussian Dele- 
gation had fixed at the beginning of the present negotiations, that 
within such limits the views were to be regarded as an official decla- 
ration, and that in so far as they exceeded those limits they were only 
to be considered as information. 

Baron von Kiihlmann. in i-eply, said that the statement just read 
appeared to him to be wholly addressed to the gallery, and that it 
was quite incomprehensibl? to him how M. Trotsky could have had 
an idea that the progress of the negotiations would be served bv such 
purely " agitational " speeches. 

He personally emphatically refused to receive anv declarations 
from the side of the Eussian Delegation which did not from the out- 
set represent the official declarations of the entire Delegation. He 
feared the patience of the Presidents of the allied Delegation would 
be put to a very hard test by occurrences like the speeches of the 
members of the Eussian Delegation just listened to, and a doubt must 
now- arise, not only on the part of the German Press, whether an 
intention really existed on the part of the Eussian Delegation to 
bring the negotiations to a successful conclusion. General Hoffmann 
said: 

I iivore.-t as'.-iiijst il. Pindiiiski and il. Radek presiimins to speak in tlie name 
of any persons belonging to the German Army. I must most energetically pro- 
test against such attempts against the soldiers of Polish nationality in the 
German Army, who have fought with honor for their Fatberlanrt and the Gei-- 
man Empire in all theaters of war. 

M-. Trotsky replied that as acainst the well-known expressions of 
will to which the opposing party appealed he considered the views 
and judgments of the Poles represented in his Delegation as extraor- 
dinarily important for the determination of the attitude of his Dele- 
gation on this question. 

Baron von Kiihlmann hereupon closed the sitting with the remark 
that in accordance with the wishes of the Eussian Delegation the 
results of the work done up to the present should be summed up for 
discussion at the next sitting. 



73. Si:ssif!N OF 9 Fi;i;r,rARY — (^enthal Po\\-ki!s and T^kraine. 

GERMAN ArfOUN'J'. 

fFi-iini the n'.iiti.slil DdUji Hcririr nl tlir Foniiiii I'lX'xt!. VZ Feliniary. 1918. 

p. S40. I 

A semi-official telegram from Berlin to Copenhagen (Feb. 9) 
states : 

This morning (Feb. 9) at 2 a. m. peace was signed between the 
Quadruple Alliance and the Uki'ainian Eada. 

A telegram from Brest-Litovsk to Amsterdam (Feb. 9) states that 
at i o'clock this morning (Feb. 9) peace was signed between the four 
Central Powers and the Ukrainian Popular Eepublic. 



158 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFEBENCE. 

A telegram from Brest-Litovsk (Feb. 10) via Berlin says: 

It was possible to announce at the beginning of the last pause in 
the negotiations that a basis for the conclusion of peace between 
the Quadruple Alliance and the Ukrainian People's Republic had 
been found. After the return of the Delegation to Brest-Litovsk 
negotiations on this basis were continued. Thanks to the energetic 
and untiring work of all the commissions, and thanks to the spirit 
of conciliation which inspired all parties, an agreement on all 
points was established in the course of yesterday, so that the final 
drafting of the treaties and their signatures coxdd be carried out. 
Owing to technical difficulties connected with the framing of five 
treaty texts, it was not possible to hold the formal final sitting and 
affix signatures until the early morning hours of Feb. 9. 

Baron von Ktihlmann, as president, opened the sitting shortly be- 
fore two in the morning with the following speech: 

Gentlemen, none of you wiU be able to close his eyes to the historical 
signifieance of tliis hour at which representatives of the four allied Powers 
are met In this hall with representatives of the t^kralnlan People's Republic 
to' sign the first peace to be attained in this world war. That this peace is 
si.sjied with a young State which Jias emerged from the storms of the great 
war gives siiecial satisfaction to the representath-es of the allied Delegations. 
May this peace be the first of a series of blessed conclusions of peace, blessed 
lioth for the .illied Powers and for the tJkrainian People's Republic, for the 
future of which we all cherish the liest wishes. 

The president of the Ukrainian delegation replied: 

We state with joy that from this day peace begins between the Quadruple 
Alliance and the Ukraine. It is true that we came here in the hope that we 
.should lie able to achieve a general peace ami make an end to the fratricidal 
war. The political position, however, is such that not all the Powers are met 
t<j.uether hei-e to sign a general peace treaty. Inspired with the most ardent 
love of our ))eople and rec(.^)iizing that this long war has exhausted the 
cultural and national powers of our people, \\e must now direct all our 
strength to do our part to bring about a new era and a new liirth. AVe are 
firmly persuaded that we conclude this jjeaee in the interest of our great 
democratic masses, and that this peace will contribute to a general termination 
of the great wai-. We gladly state here that the long and hard labor per- 
formed at Brest-Litovsk has been crowned with sue-cess. and that we have 
attained a democratic peace that is honorable for both parties. From to-day 
the Ukrainian People's Republic is born to a new life; it enters as an inde- 
pendent State into the circle of nations, and ends the war on its front. It will 
see to it that all the Powers which in it lie will rise to new life and flourish. 

Biir<m von Kiihlmann then invited the plenipotentiarv representa- 
tives to proceed to sign the peace treaty. At one minute before two 
Baron von Kiihlmann, as the first signatory, signed the copy of the 
peace treaty prepared for Germany, and bv 2.20 all the signatures 
were appended. 



SESSIONS OF a FEBEUAEY. 159 

TJr. Session oi' i) Febiu^JlRY. 

CEliJlAX ACCOUNT. 

[From tlie (Hi-itisli) Daily Bcririr of the Forciim Prcsn, 16 Feljniary, 191S, 

p. SST.-l 

Berlin telegrams (Feb. 14) gi\e an account of events at the t^TO 
last sittings of the conference at Brest-Litovsk for the regulation of 
politicii] and territorial questions, which were closed by M. Trotsky's 
declaration of Russia's determination not to enter into a treaty of 
peace, but to disband the army. 

At the opening of the sitting on Feb. 1), Baron von Kiihhnann 
summed uij the result of the previous discussions and said that very 
thorough debates had not etfect(Hl a considerable rapprochement be- 
tween the opposing standpoints. 

He had not personally the impression that further discussion on 
the basis hitherto taken up by the two parties promised a more favor- 
able result than had hitherto been attained, and the unlimited exten- 
sion of the negotiations, which offered no prospect of success, could 
not be contemplated. 

Count C'zernin also said that, however long these essentially theo- 
retical discussions were prolonged, they offered little prospect of 
agreement. 

He Avould like to raise the question, however, whether such an 
accord from the standpoint ' of the conclusion of peace was really 
unconditionally necessary. It appeared to him from the discussion 
that it was not at all certain that an agreement could not be reached 
regarding these alterations themselves. He therefore proposed to 
leave the question open as to how the projected alterations were to 
be comprehended, and, without touching on this question, to estab- 
lish Avhether the form of these alterations would actually place hin- 
drances in the way of the conclusion of peace or not. 

M. Trotsky replied that from the Russian standpoint the applica- 
tion which the opposing party wished to give to the principle of the 
people's right of self-determination was equivalent to a rejection of 
this principle. 

In consequence, he admitted that the discussion on the basis of this 
principle had been helpless. The new "Western frontiers proposed 
for Russia must be condemned from the standpoint of view of stra- 
tesric considerations. Fresh difficulties had now arisen, however, 
through the attitude of the Quadruplice toward Ukraine. The 
Ukrainian People's Republic had been recognized by the Quadru- 
plice. The representatives of the Quadruplice had even, he under- 
stood, signed a peace treaty with the plenipotentiaries of the Kiev 
Rada whereby, it was alleged, the delimitation of Ukrainian terri- 
torv was also dealt with. The speaker protested at length against 
this action of the Powers of the Quadruplice, remarking, inter alia, 
that this manner of procedure must e^'olve a doubt Mhether the 
Central Powers desired to reach an understanding with the Govern- 



• The Deiitscher Beichsau:cir/( r of lo February has an account substantially identical 
with this. 



160 PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK COXFEKENCE. 

iiient of Federal Eussia. He therefore declared that the treaty al- 
leged to have been signed ^Yith the Kiev Eada conld have no validity 
Avhatever for the T^kiainian people and the Government of all 
Russia. 

In reply to ^l. Trotsky, Baron von Kiihlmann proposed to intrust 
the question of delimitation to a snbcommission which should report 
to the Commission next day. 

The message here ends, and is apparently defective. , Some fur- 
ther details can be inferred from the message pi'iuted immediately 
below. 



GERMAN ACCOUNT CONTINUED. 

|Tr;iusl;ition from the DcnimlK r Reichxaiizcliicr, l'< February, 1918.] 

With reference to the remarks of M. Trotsky that the line proposed 
as the western Eussian boundary would ha^e to be submitted to the 
discussion of experts, the Secretary of State, Herr von Kiihlmann, 
made the proposal to submit the boundary question to a subcommis- 
sion to l)e formed at the end of the present session, whicli should 
report the results of its deliberations at the meeting of the political 
commission on the next day. It appears, Herr von Kiihlmann added, 
from the importance and basic significance of the question to be dis- 
cussed Ijy the subcommission, that its report will be of great impor- 
tance in the development of further negotiations. He said that he 
wished to de^-ote a few words to the general principles which should 
govern the determination of the boundary, because in the Subcom- 
mission the discussion would l)e centered primarily on technical 
questions. 

In suggesting a line to the Eussian delegates the Allies were 
prompted by considerations of nationality. An attempt Avas beino- 
made, he said, to agree on boundaries for Poland, Courland, and 
Lithuania Avhich would be in accord with the historical lines of 
demarkations and ethnographic conditions. To certain remarks of 
the previous speaker, M. Trotsky, to the effect that in tracing this 
boundai'y the allied Central Powers hiul been impelled by sinister 
moti\es against Eussia, the Secretary of State answered that he need 
remind il. Trotsk}' only of the firm basis on which the German 
policy toward Eussia rested, a ]3olicy which had always aimed to cul- 
tivate good and friendly ridations \vith the great eastern neighbor 
until the moment when, by virtue of events witli which the Eussian 
delegation was quite as familiar as the German, or more so, the Ger- 
man people were forced into a struggle with Eussia. Toward newly 
organized Eussia, too, he asserted, Germany will always endeavor to 
]:)reser\e friendly and neighborly relations, and will refrain from 
meddling in its internal affaii's as soon as the war shall have come 
to a satisfactory conclusion. In reply to the statements of the Com- 
missioner of the People on the attitude of the Central Powers toward 
tlie Ukrainian Peojjle's Eepublic, Herr von Kiihlmann stated that the 
Quadruple Alliance reserved the right to use its own judgment as to 
whicji states it might see fit to recognize. He said that the Powers 
of the Quadruple Alliance had in fact concluded a peace treaty on 



ftRSSlONS OF 9 FEBEUART. 161 

this very day with the representatives of ttie Central Powers, and 
a discussion of the political relations of the Ukraine was not perti- 
nent to the present deliberations. 

With regard to the future destinies of the peoples of the occupied 
frontier territory, he referred to statements made on that subject by 
the delegates of the Central Powers in the course of the present delib- 
erations and to pertinent utterances of German and Austro-Hun- 
garian statesmen before their popular representations. In spite of 
the theory represented and maintained by the Central Powers, accord- 
ing to which the right of self-determination has already been exer- 
cised in these territories, the allied Powers, he said, are prepared by 
means of systematic development of the there existing bodies of rep- 
resentation to offer the possibility of a vote on the subject which 
will be based on the broader principles of popular representation. 
The time and manner of such a vote would be determined in agree- 
ment with the representative bodies of the countries in question. 

The Minister of Foreign Affairs, Count Czernin, declared that the 
relations of the Ukraine to the Petrograd government are of no con- 
cern to the Quadruple Alliance. The conclusion of peace with the 
Ukraine on the part of the Alliance can not be considered an un- 
friendly act, since the latter concluded with the Ukraine a cove- 
nant of peace and not of alliance. As far as the Quadruple Alli- 
ance is concerned, the Ukraine is therefore a neutral and not an 
allied state. If peace should be effected by the Alliance with Rus- 
sia, too, the latter would similarly become a neutral state. The rela- 
tions between the Quadruple Alliance and Russia would be identical 
with those existing between the former and the Ukraine. There 
would only be a difference in the respective relations, if the Quad- 
ruple Alliance should fail to arrive at a peace with the Council of the 
People's Commissioners, for in that case the Alliance would have to 
consider Ukrainian territory as neutral, but the territory under the 
jurisdiction of the Council of the People's Commissioners as hostile, 
at least for the present. With regard to the question of the future 
of the territory now occupied by the Austro-Hungarian troops. Count 
Czernin referred to his explanation in the last session of the Austro- 
Hungarian delegates to which he had at present nothing to add. 

To a question of Trotsky on the boundary south of Brest-Litovsk, 
which was discussed with the Ukrainians, the Secretary of State 
von Kiihlmann replied that in determining it, too, an attempt had 
been made to compromise between the ethnographic distribution of 
peoples and the historically developed boundary lines. After Count 
Czernin had remarked that he could see no reason why the Russian 
delegation should not be informed of the nature of the line south 
of Brest-Litovsk, M. Trotsky agreed to the formation of a mili- 
tary commission for examining the boundary line. 

The Secretary of State, von Kiihlmann, emphasized the' necessity 
of clearing up these matters before the meeting of the next day. It 
is highly important, he said, to arrive at definite decisions. Inspired 
by the wish to hasten the proceedings, he suggested a new version 
which might form the second article of the Treaty of Peace, to wit : 
Eussia recognizes the following territorial changes which shall go into effect 
with the ratification of the present Treaty of Peace. The territory between the 
frontiers of Germany and Austria-Hungary and a line which runs . shall no 
90244—18 11 



162 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFERENCE. 

longer be subject to the territorial sovereignty of Russia. No obligations 
toward Russia shall be incumbent ui)on it as a result of its former dependence 
on the Russian Empire. The future of this territory shall in this respect be 
henceforth decided by the inhaliitauts thereof, In conjunction with agreements 
wliich (lermany or Austria-Hungary will make with them. 

In this connection M. von. Kiihlmann also remarked that the Quad- 
ruple Alliance considers the contents of Article 1 of the first proposal 
a condition sins qua no-ii to a conclusion of peace. He said that the 
evacuation of certain territories on the part of the Central Powers 
had been agreed to by the latter on the condition that the territory 
of their allies should be evacuated at the same time. It had at that 
time been stipulated that the obligation of the Central Powers with 
regard to evacuation would go into effect simultaneously with the 
completion of Eussian demobilization. M. von Kiihlmann said that 
he did not hesitate to declare that the Central Powers would be ready 
to make concessions with regard to this period, but that a conclusion 
of peace without the guaranty of evacuation of allied territory on 
the part of the troops of the Petrograd government was out of the 
question. As a result of information given to him some time ago 
by the People's Commissioner for Foreign Affairs, he said that he 
was certain that the Russian troops in the occupied Turkish Terri- 
tory, which he had especially in mind, are under the jurisdiction of 
the Petrograd government. With reference to the Aland question, 
which had frequently been touched upon, he stated that the Treaty 
of Peace would have to guarantee to Germany as a minimum those 
contractual rights which it enjoyed at the outbreak of the war. 
Finally he called attention to the earnest wishes of the Swedish 
people, who, for geographical as well as ethnographical reasons, have 
a vital interest in these islands. 

M. Trotsky answered that Russia would withdraw its troops from 
Turkey just as it was now doing in Persia. He said that this matter 
would, of course, receive clear definite expression in a treaty which 
will' be made with Turkey. With regard to the Aland question, he 
remarked that he did not understand the reference of the Secretary 
of State to German minimum rights. 

The Secretary of State, von Kiihlmann, replied that by the word 
minimum he wished to characterize a German demand. The cor- 
responding minimum, he said, would be the measure to which he 
had already referred several times, namely, the neutralization in the 
broader sense of the word of the islands of the territory adjacent to 
the Baltic Sea. To put the matter still more precisely, he said, 
the former statement is a demand the latter a suggestion. 



T"). Session of 9 February. 



RUSSIAN ACCOUNT. 



[From the (Britisli) 7Ji//7;/ AVr/r/p o/ the I'ovc'k.ui I'icss, 18 Felu-uary, 1918, 

J). 900.1 

The following account of the final stages of discussion at Brest on 
P\'b. i). the AVolff version of wliich was printed in the Daily Review 
(Fel). IG) : 



SESSIONS OF 9 PEBRUABY. 163 

KuELiiANN. I opened this session of tlie Commission wliicli has been agreed 
upon. The representatives of the Allied Delegations are of the opinion that we 
have reached the point at which it is necessary to give an account of the negotia- 
tions. As we all know, these negotiations have been of a political character. 
The views of both sides have been explained, before the Christmas postpone- 
ment, in provisional formulas. The substance of these formulas has since been 
carefully examined at our debates. During these debates it became possible to 
state both points of view in greater detail. I shall beg you to-day, when we 
have to summarize briefly, all that has been done, to forego any repetition of the 
discussions. I resret to say that up to the present we have not succeeded In 
bringing together to any great extent the two points of view, in spite of all the 
debates. Jly task to-dny is to summarize matters, and I shall not indicate 
which party or which side is to be blamed for the negotiations not having 
been successfully concluded. I am personally of opinion that any further dis- 
cussions on either side are in the same position, and can not give us more favor- 
able results than those which have already been secured. It is beyond doubt 
that we can not proceed with interminable discussions which have no promise 
of success. But, faithful to my principles, during all the negotiations, I still 
hope that a free discussion of principles will bring us nearer to our goal, but I 
shall dispel all doubts and I say that the circumstances at the moment are of 
such a character that we must reach a decision promptly. And if I am again 
putting before you the political question in its full complexity, I desire to say 
that I hope the discussions will take place with the sincere wish to find a way 
for arriving at an agreement. In putting these questions again before you, I 
only wish to tell you that I desire to see them all connected up, the one with the 
other. The commissions have already discussed all the details, and an agree- 
ment upon the whole question should not present many difficulties. So far as 
the economic questions are concerned, the preparatory work of the commissions 
has not at present suffliciently progressed, but, nevertheless, I hope that in 
regard to these questions, during the short time which remains at our disposal, 
we shall reach some satisfactory agreement — satisfactory to both sides. 

CzEBNiN. For a week we have been discussing whether we shall consider 
the territorial changes which have to be made in connection with the war as 
regards the self-determination of nations or not. Further discussions of the 
same character will certainly bring us no nearer to a settlement. But I would 
ask you whether such deliberations would not be calculated to bring us nearer 
to peace? The question now is not as to how these territorial changes are to 
be designated, changes which must take place, and we need not associate 
these questions with the conclusion of peace itself. I think that the past 
discussions have shown the different points of view qualifying the territorial 
changes which must take place, but they have not indicated that an agreement 
in these matters is impossible. The Secretary of State von Kfihlmann on 
Dec. 28 clearly stated what changes must take place. They concern Courland 
and Lithuania, parts of Livonia and Esthonia, and also Poland. Let us put 
aside the question as to how these proposed changes must be regarded. Let 
us try and clear up the point as to whether these disputed questions would 
form an obstacle to the conclusion of peace. 

Teotskt. We also considered it necessary, after the last interval (I am 
speaking of the postponement occasioned by us, and not of the postponement 
occasioned by the Austro-German Delegations), to sum up all our preceding 
work. The peace negotiations began with our declaration of Dec. 23 and the 
declaration of Dec. 25, by which the Quadruple Alliance replied to our 
declaraticm. These two declarations formulated the object of the negotiations 
as being based upon the principle of self-determination of peoples. During 



164 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFEBJENCE. 

a short interval, which could be measured by hours, it appeared that this 
principle, accepted by both sides, would serve as a means for the solution of 
these national and territorial questions as arising out of the war. But after 
an exchange of views on Dec. 27, it became clear that the appeal to this prin- 
ciple -v^as of a character calculated only to complicate all other questions. The 
points of view of one side, namely, our side, as applied by the other side were 
a direct negation of the very principle itself. Afterwards all the discussions 
took an entirely academic character, without any prospect of a practical settle- 
ment, because the opposite side was striving, with the aid of complicated logical 
maneuvers, to draw from the principle of .';elf-determination what, in their 
opinion, was in accordance with the true situation as disclosed by the' military 
maps. 

The question concerning the occupied regions, which was the principal theme 
of all the discussions, was reduced, after a number of sessions, to the question 
of the evacuation of these regions by the troops in occupation. To this prin- 
cipal question, in consequence of the nature of the discussion, it was only 
possible to reach a certain amount of clarity, and this only after great diffi- 
Until the end of the war, so far as Germany was concerned, and so far as 
we understood it — and we honestly tried to understand it — was as follows: 
Until the end of the war, so far as Germany was concerned and so far as 
Austria-Hungary was concerned, there could be no question of the evacuation 
of occupied territory on any front, owing to military considerations. Our 
Delegation later understood that the opposite side now had the intention of 
evacuating these occupied regions on the conclusion of a general peace, when 
the above-mentioned strategical considerations would have been put on one side. 
This conclusion, however, also appeared to be wrong. The German and Austro- 
Hungarian Delegations have refused categorically to make a declaration which 
could force them to withdraw their troops from the occupied regions, with 
the exception of the small belt of territory which they proposed to return to 
Russia. The situation only then became clear. This clarity became, if pos- 
sible, greater when General Hoffmann, in the name of both Delegations, pro- 
posed to us the frontier line which would in future separate Russia from its 
western neighbors, namely, from Germany and Austria-Hungary, because the 
separated regions were to be occupied by their troops for an indefinite period, 
unrestricted by any treaty. 

We have already realized during the past discussions that if we were to 
trace the new frontier of Russia In accordance with the principle of self- 
determination, then we should have the best guarantee, under present condi- 
tions, against military assvession, because all the peoples on both .'sides of this 
frontier would be interested in maintaining it. The German conditions and 
the policy which dictates them, entirely exclude any such kind of guarantees 
for peaceful relations between Russia on the one side and Germany and 
Austria-Hungary on the other. The new frontier proposed by the other side 
is dictated by military and strategical considerations, and from this point of 
view must be estimated not only the separation from Russia of Poland and 
Lithuania, but even the separation of the Lettish countries. If such had been 
the desire of the peoples of those regions, then no danger would arise for the 
safety of the Russian Republic. Friendly relations with these States, which 
had freely formed for themselves an Independent existence, would follow as 
a natural consequence of their origin and of their conditions. In such cir- 
cumstances questions concerning the strategical character of the new frontiers 
would have for us no important significance. But these new frontiers which 
the opposite side propose appear to us in a very dlfEerent light. Germany and 
Austria-Hungary, while maintaining their troops In the occupied regions, are 



SESSIONS OF 9 FEBRUARY. 165 

linking these regions to their States by railways and by other means, and 
for us the new frontier must thus be considered not as a frontier with Poland, 
Lithuania, and Courland, and so on, but as a frontier with Germany and 
Austria-Hungary. Both these States are seeking military expansion, as is 
clearly shown by their attitude toward the occupied regions. A new question 
arises for us, therefoi-e, as to what these independent States mean for the 
Russian Republic in the future. The dependence of these peoples upon these 
two States will place very near to Russia the new frontier within their terri- 
tories proposed by Germany and Austria-Hungary. What are really the mili- 
tary conceptions of the other side when they ask for such a frontier? For 
the purpose of examining this new question from the point of view of the 
leading military institutions of the Republic, I shall ask for the views of our 
military advisers. We have here to meet a fresh difficulty. 

We have heard nothing of that part of the new frontier which is to run to the 
south from Brest-LItovsk. The opposite side was of the opinion that this part of 
the frontier had to be established in discussion with the Delegation of the Kiev 
Rada. We have decided that. Irrespective of the unestabllshed political state 
of Ukrainia, there can be no question of a one-sided tracing of the frontier, 
based upon an agreement with the Rada alone ; we declared that the consent of 
the Delegation of the Council of the People's Commissaries was also necessary. 
Subsequently the political situation of XJkrainia was defined by its entrance 
into the Federal Russian Republic. The Delegation of the Central Powers, in 
spite of their declaration that they would examine the international position of 
the Ukraine after the conclusion of peace, has hurriedly recognized the inde- 
pendence of Ukrainia, and, to wit, at the very moment when Ukrainia entered 
the Russian Federation. After this date events took place which should have 
had a decisive influence upon these separate negotiations of the other side with 
the Kiev Rada. The latter fell under the blow of the Ukrainian Council. The 
fate of the Rada, inviolable in itself, was accelerated by the fact that the Rada, 
in its struggle for authority, make attempts, with the help of the Central Powers, 
to draw the Ukrainian people away from the Russian Federal Republic. We 
officially informed the opposite side that the Ukrainian Rada was deposed, but, 
nevertheless, the negotiations with a nonexistent Government have been con- 
tinued. We proposed to the Austro-Hungarian Delegation, in a private con- 
versation, it is true, but formally, nevertheless, that they should send their 
representative to Ukrainia with the object of seeing for himself that the 
Ukrainian Rada no longer existed, and that the negotiations with its Delegation 
could not have any practical value. We understood that, so far as the Delega- 
tions of the Central Powers needed confirmation of facts, they would postpone 
the signature of the Peace Treaty until the return of their representative from 
Ukrainia. We have been informed that the signature to the Peace Treaty could 
not be postponed any longer. Whilst negotiating with the Government of the 
Federal Russian Republic the Governments of the Central Empires not only, 
in spite of their former declaration, hurried to recognize the independence of 
the Ukrainian Republic on Feb. 1, at the very moment when it declared itself 
to be a part of the Russian Federation, but is signing a treaty with a Govern- 
ment which, as we have categorically declared to the opposite side, does not 
exist any longer. 

Such conduct is creating doubts if there is any sincerity of purpose on the 
side of the Central Powers for the establishment of peaceful relations with the 
Russian Federation. We are striving for peace now as in the beginning of the 
negotiations. The whole conduct of the opposite side, as far as this question 
is concerned, is creating the impression that the Central Powers were striving 
to [message defective] for the representatives of the Russian Republic. Only 



166 PROCEEDINGS OP THE BREST-LITOVSK CONFEEENOE. 

such a peace treaty will be binding for the Russian Federal Republic and Its 
countries as will be signed by our Delegation. 

Concerning the question of frontiers, it can be discussed only aS a whole, 
and only in such a way can we reach practical results. We ask the opposite 
side to complete on our map the frontier line which was submitted to us by 
General Hoffmann. 

KtJHLMANN. If I am not replying to the detailed explanation of the preceding 
speaker, it is, as I have already stated to-day, with the purpose of according 
every controversy. Accordingly I shall not reply to the historical review of our 
negotiations. They have become public ; they can be studied and compared, The 
preceding speaker examined for a long time the question of frontiers. I should 
not like to start the discussion of this question until I am sure that the pro- 
posal which I shall make to the opposite side will be accepted. The preceding 
speaker has already indicated that the discussion of this frontier is necessi- 
tating the participation of military advisers. I shall propose that the question 
of frontiers should be first submitted to a military subcommlssion composed of 
one diplomatic representative and two military specialists — one for the "Navy 
and one for the Army — from each side. I shall not participate personally in 
this subcommlssion. I shall send to it one of my diplomatic collaborators. 
This subcommlssion could be formed at the present session, and must prepare 
for our next session, to-morrow, a report concerning the result of Its discussions. 
From the importance and difficulties of all these questions which the subcom- 
mlssion has to clear up it is obvious that the decisions of the subcommlssion 
will have a decisive Influence upon our further negotiations. 

Our policy as regards the newly created States will always be directed toward 
the maintenance of friendly relations and nonintervention in their internal 
life as soon as this war is satisfactorily ended. 

[From this point the message continues that given in the Daily Review 
(Feb. 16).] 

That is all that I have to say concerning the frontiers. I hope that by the 
discussion in the subcommlssion we shall have a report that will be beyond 
dispute for our session of to-morrow. 

Concerning the explanation of the People's Commissary for Foreign Affairs 
of the relations between the Central Powers and the Ukraine, I have only to 
declare that Information which has reached us — and the tendency of which 
is beyond doubt to us — Is in direct opposition to the real facts, and we find It 
unnecessary to take it into consideration. The point of view of the Central 
Powers has been repeatedly stated here, and we are of the opinion that all 
further explanation is unnecessary. 

The Central Powers have concluded to-day a peace with the representatives 
of the Central Rada, which they have recognized. The consequences for the 
Central Powers are obvious. At the present time, when the circumstances are 
such as we see them, we can not expect a practical result from our negotiations. 
The opinions concerning the rights .of the Ukrainian State and of its repre- 
sentatives, the reciprocal relations of it and of the Petrograd Government, they 
all are questions which do not concern us whilst we are concluding peace with 
Ukraine. 

This is no hostile act against Russia. We have concluded with Ukraine no 
alliance, but only a peace treaty. Ukraine has not become to us an ally, but 
only a neutral State. If we could arrive at a peace with Russia, Russia would 
also become a neutral State. In such a case our relations to Russia would be the 
same as they are now to the Ukraine. There will be a difference, if we are 
unable to come to an agreement with the Government of the People's Cornmis- 
saries, because then, while we shall have to consider the Ukraine as a neutral 



SESSIONS OP FEBRUAEY. 167 

countrj', those regions which submit tliemselves to tlie authority of the Councils 
of the People's Commissaries we shall have to consider as regions against which 
we are in a state of war. We are willing to avoid that by a conclusion of 
peace with Russia. • 

If we had ignored the Itada, as M. Trotsky wished, that would have meant 
that we should have had to intervene in the internal life of Russia. And we 
will not do it. If we had not recognized the Ukraine, we had, in fact, recog- 
nized the Council of the People's Commissaries as the only authority for the 
whole of the territories which composed the old Russian Empire. But we know 
that many countries are not willing to recognise the authority of the Council of 
the People's Commissaries. We are not arbiters in questions which concern 
only Russia herself. Our attitude is nonintervention. AVe do not demand that 
the President of the Russian Delegation should renounce his claim for the 
authority of the Council for the whole of former Russia We shall avoid the 
difficulties if we sign an eventual treaty concerning these regions which are 
under the authority of the Council of the People's Commissaries. How many 
regions such -treaty would concern we can not tell at the present. We know that 
such treaty could be concluded without knowledge for which regions exactly 
it would be valid. But nevertheless the situation which would be created would 
be more disagreeable for us than for the Government of the Russian Republic. 
Nevertheless, we agreed to do it for the sake of peace. Concerning the question 
of the President of the Russian Delegation upon the fate of the occupied regions, 
I refer him for a reply to, my declaration, which was made in public before the 
last session of the Austrian Delegation, which perhaps is known Ijy the gentle- 
man, and to which I have nothing to add, because my point of view has not 
changed. 

A considerable portion of message here missing; tlie following 
section is taken from the conclusion of the W. T. B. wire, which 
was not to hand on Feb. 16 : 

As regards the future lot of the peoples in the occupied border territories, 
despite the conception adhered to by the Central Powers, according to which the 
right of peoples to self-determination had already been exercised in these re- 
gions, the Allied Governments were ready, by a systematic extension of the 
existing representative bodies, to provide for the possibility of an expression 
of national will on the part of these States on the broadest possible popular 
basis. The determination of the time and form of this expression of the will 
of the peoples concerned would, however, have to be fixed in accordance with 
the existing representative bodies in those territories. 

I can not give a categorical reply as asked for by the President of the Russian 
Delegation, but I gladly agree that a communication on this subject should be 
made to the Sub-Commission. 

CzEExiN. I agree completely with the preceding speaker, namely, that this 
question needs to be discussed by the Allies, and that I do not see any reason- 
able objection why a reply could not be given to this question afterwards. 

Ti:oTSKV. It has been said that there are not, and can not be, any reason- 
able objections to a statement concerning the frontiers projected for this part 
of Russia, which, thanks to the energy and decision of the Ukrainian workmen, 
is now under the authority of the Ukrainian Councils. It seems to me that 
there can be no objection to the creation of a military technical Sub-Commission 
which will have to examine the question of frontiers if the project is submitted 
to that Commission. 

KiJHLiiANN. I should be very much obliged to the President of the Russian 
Delegation if he would give his views upon the details of the creation of the 



168 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFEBENCE. 

Sub-Commission as proposed by me. Then we could decide who shall take part 
in this Sub-Commission at this session. 

Trotsky. Before I give you a detailed reply I must have a consultation 
with my«Delegation. It will require but little time. 

KiiHLitANN. I expect to have the reply to-day, because, as I have already 
said, we need this preparatory work complete for our session of to-morrow. The 
representatives of the Sub-Commission could then have a day at their disposal 
for their labors. Our proposal has been known a long time. All the questions 
concerned have )ieen discussed in detail, and I firmly believe that all arguments 
have been already used, and that now we have to bring them to a conclusion with 
a view to making a decision concerning our peace negotiations. I have already 
stated our proposal, which could in a certain degree replace the second clause 
of the projected peace treaty. This formula is as follows : 

Russia must agree to the following territorial changes, which will enter into 
force after the ratification of the peace treaty. The regions between the fron- 
tiers of Germany and Austria-Hungary and the indicated line will not be in 
the future a dependency of Russia. As a result of their former adhesion to 
the Russian Empire, no obligation will result to them toward Russia. The 
further destiny of these regions will be settled in agreement with the peoples 
concerned, namely, on the basis of those agreements which have been concluded 
betA'^•een them and Germany and Austria-Hungary. 

In handing over this formula to the President of the Russian Delegation, 
I state that an essential part of our proposal is in clause 1, which we have 
already sufficiently discussed, and during these discussions no insurmountable 
obstacles have appeared . for the conclusion of peace. I will give my point 
of view in a few words. It is as follows : 

The evacuation of certain regions was promised by us under the condition 
that at the same time the evacuation of resions taken from our allies will be 
carried out. At that time we considered as the nearest date when the evacua- 
tion by us was to begin, the date of the complete demobilization of the Russian 
Army. I state that concerning this date we are ready to compromise, and I 
must repeat what I have already stated. I declare that we can not accept a 
peace treaty, in which it is not diplomatically promised to evacuate the Provinces 
taken from our allies. In accordance with the explanation given by the 
People's Commissary for Foreign Affairs, I think there is no ground for doubt 
that the troops which are in occupation, of Turkish provinces, and of which I 
think, in the first place, are under the authority of the Petrograd Government, 
I shall touch here also the second clause, which has been discussed by us many 
times, namely, the question concerning the future of the Aaland islands. I 
must point out that the peace treaty must give us at least the same rights as 
we had before the beginning of the war, I shall also recall to you the most 
passionate wish of the Swedish people to reunite with these Islands, where 
they have, besides geographical and ethnographical considerations, the most 
vital interests. 

Trotsky. Concerning the evacuation of the Turkish provinces, we find in our 
principles sufliciently weighty considerations for our declarations that the 
evacuation of the Armenian territories could not be considered simply as an 
exchange for the evacuation of the one of the other portions of the occupied 
Russian territories. As we are withdrawing our troops from Persia, we shall 
also withdraw them— we have already begun it— from Armenia. It is beyond 
doubt that we shall stiite that clearly in our peace treaty with Turkey, if our 
negotiations should advance so far. Concerning the Aaland Islands, I must 
say that I did not understand of what minimum of rights the Secretary of 
State was speaking. If he had in view the obligation of Russia not to fortify 
these islands, then. Independently of the very essence of the question, the 
arguments of the Secretary of State appeared to me as being not entirely cor- 
rect, so far as the rights of Germany created, and so far as Germany has not 



SESSION OF 10 FEBBUAEY. 169 

renounced, these rights. Perhaps the information in possession of the Secre- 
tary of State will help us to clear up this question from other points of view. 
As is known, we have in our possession documents which prove that, in 1907, 
Von Schoen, for Germany, and Gibastoff, for the Tsarist Russia, signed a 
treaty which can not be published, in which ^'on Schoen declared that Germany 
would not consider it as a breach of the Treaty of Paris if Russia fortified 
the Aaland Islands. Before this question can be discussed, my opinion is that 
it should be prepared, from a technical point of view, by the Military Com- 
mission. 

KtJHLMANN. In remaining faithful to the statement at the beginning of this 
session, I will not discu.ss the importance of the document which the preceding 
speaker refers to. I shall again, once more, express my opinion in a few words, 
that the peace treaty must return us all those rights which we possessed before 
the war. As far as these islands are concerned, it is a demand of principle. 
If in the opinion of the President of the Russian Commission we did not pos- 
sess any rights before the war, then such a demand must appear to him as one 
which can be easily agreed upon. I used the word " minimum " with the object 
of expressing exactly that our demand is, for us, a demand of principle. If 
somebody asked me of what I was thinking in using the word " maximum," 
then I should reply, as I have suggested several times previously, that It means 
the neutralization of th(^sc Islands by the consent of the peoples on the borders 
of the Baltic Sea. 

For the further discussion we need some preparatory work done by the Sub- 
Commission. I regret that the Sub-Commission has been unable to finish its 
work for our meeting of to-day. All other matters have been finished. I have 
to state that I am expecting this evening from the Russian side, the creating of 
a Sub-Commission for the discussion of the frontiers. In any case, I propose 
to have our next session at 6 p. m. We shall discuss the report of the Sub- 
Commission. I shall not waste time, and I here give notice that I, from my 
side, shall send to this Sub-Commission, if it is created, von Rosenburg and 
General * ^ *. As also a naval specialist will take part, I shall send 
* * * von * + f 



I declare the session closed. 



L. Kakahan. 



76. Session of 10 Febetjart. 

german account. 

fFi-om the (British) nail;/ Reviem of the Foreifin Press, 18 February, 1918, 

p. 903.*] 

The W. T. B. wires give the following conclusion : 

On February 10 the Sub-Committee mentioned above held two 
sittings under the chairmanship of the Austrian Sectional President, 
Dr. Gratz, when the respective military experts were the principal 
speakere. The Eussian delegates attempted to demonstrate the 
strategical disadvantages to which Russia would be exposed by the 
proposed new frontier line, whilst the Germans denied this conten- 

* The Deutscher Reichsanzeiger of 15 February, 1918, has an account substantially 
identical with this. 



170 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BREST- LITOVSK CONFEEENCE. 

tion, adding that it was not a matter of the Ensso-German frontier, 
but of the frontier between Russia and the new border States. 
Agreement, however, could not be reached on this point. 

At a plenary sitting held on the same clay M. Trotsky, replying 
to Baron von Kiihlmann, denied any knowledge of an alleged order 
by the Russian Supreme Command urging Russian soldiers to incite 
German tioops against their Generals and officers. 

Dr. Gratz having reported that an agreement could not be reached 
in the sub-committee over which he had presided, Baron von Kiihl- 
mann asked M. Trotsky whether he had any communication to make 
which might contribute to a satisfactory solution. 

M. Trotsky, replying, said his Delegation considered that the deci- 
sive hour had arrived. After a bitter attack on Imperialism, M. 
Trotsky declared that Russia would no longer participate in the war, 
as she was unwilling to shed the blood of her soldiers in the interests 
of one party against another. Russia, therefore, had decided to with- 
draw her army and people from the war. She had notified all peo- 
ples and their Governments of her decision, and had ordered the com- 
plete demobilization of all the Russian Armies now confronting the 
armies of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey. His 
Government, however, refused to sanction the conditions of Ger- 
many and Austria-Hungary. Russia had abandoned the war, but 
she was obliged to forego the signing of a peace treaty. 

Then follows the declaration of the ending of the state of war, 
and the demobilization order, which have already been published. 

To this statement of M. Trotsky, Baron von Kiihlmann rejoined 
that, if he analyzed the present position correctly, he found that the 
Quadruple Alliance was still at war with the Russian Government. 
Warlike operations were suspended for the time being by the armis- 
tice treaty, but on the lapse of this treaty these would automatically 
revive. If his memory did not deceive him, the real purpose of the 
armistice was the conclusion of peace. If, therefore, peace were not 
concluded, and the essential object of the armistice should thus van- 
ish, Baron von Kiihlmann concluded that warlike operations would 
revive again after the termination of the prescribed period. The 
fact that one of the two contracting parties had demobilized its 
armies would in nowise alter this, either in fact or in law. The 
existence of the customary international relations between States, 
and of legal and commercial relations, was the mark of a state of 
peace. He therefore requested M. Trotsky to state whether the Rus- 
sian Government intended, in addition to making its declaration 
regarding the termination of the state of war, to say where the fron- 
tiers of Rus^a ran, as this would be a necessary requisite before the 
resumption of diplomatic, consular, legal, and commercial relations, 
and also to say whether the Government of People's Commissioners 
was willing to resume legal and commercial relations to precisely the 
same extent as would naturally result from the termination of the 
state of war. 

These questions, he said, it was essential to determine in order to 
judge whether the Quadruple Alliance was still at war or not. 



SESSION OF 10 PEBBXJAEY. 171 

Baron von Kiihlmann then proposed a sitting for the next day, at 
which the attitude of the Central Powers to the latest statement of 
the Russian Delegation might be made known. 

To this proposal M. Trotsky replied that his Delegation had now 
exhausted all its power, and considered it necessary to return to 
Petrograd. All communications, he added, which the allied Dele- 
gations might make would be deliberated upon, by the Federal Rus- 
sian Government, and a reply would be given in due course. 

On being asked through what channel this exchange of views 
was to take place, M. Trotsky said that the Russian Delegation had 
had direct telegraphic communication with Petrograd from Brest- 
Litovsk. Furthermore, before the inauguration of the armistice 
negotiations, an understanding had been reached by wireless, and, 
moreover, there would be presently representatives of the four allied 
Powers in Petrograd who might communicate with their respective 
Governments. Communication might, therefore, suggested M. 
Trotsky, be restored in this way. 

The sitting then closed. 



77. Session of 10 February, 
russian account. 



[From the (British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, 15 February, 1918, 

p. 877.] 

Russian Wireless sends out the following : 

T?ie peace negotiations, Brest-LitovsJe, Fei. 10. 

At the session of Feb. 10 the following declaration was made: 

Trotsky :— 

The object of the Sub-Commission, as we understood it, was to 
give us a reply to the question to what degree the new frontier, 
as proposed by the opposite side, would guarantee the right of the 
Russian people for self-determination. We have listened to the 
communication made by our representatives in the Sub-Commission, 
and we believe that, after long discussions, the moment has come for 
taking a decision. 

The peoples are awaiting with impatience the results of the peace 
negotiations at Brest-Litovsk. The various peoples are asking them- 
selves when this self-extermination of mankind — a result of selfish- 
ness and will for domination on the part of all governing classes 
of all countries— will be stopped. The war ceased long ago to be a 
defensive war. When Great Britain takes African colonies, Bagdad, 
and Jerusalem, then that is certainly not a defensive war. When Ger- 
many occupies Serbia, Belgium, Poland, Lithuania, and Roumama, 
and captures the Moon Islands, then that also is not defensive war. 
That is a struggle for the partition of the globe. At the present 
this fact must be obvious to all. lu the present Imperialism war, 



172 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFEKENCE. 

when the ambitions of the possessing classes are openly paid for 
■with human blood, we will take no longer any part. 

We are equally hostile to the Imperialism on both sides, and we 
do not agree to shed any longer the blood of our soldiers in the 
defense of the one side against the other. In awaiting the moment — 
we hope it is near — when all the oppressed working classes of all 
countries will take in their own hands the authority, as the work- 
ing people of Russia have already done, we are removing our armies 
and our peoples from the war. Our peasant soldiers must return 
to their land to cultivate in peace the field which the Revolution has 
taken from the landlords and given to the peasants. Our workmen 
soldiers must return to the workshops and produce, not for destruc- 
tion, but for creation. They must, together with the peasants, create 
a Socialistic State. 

We are going out of the war. We inform all peoples and their 
Governments of this fact. We are giving the order for a general 
demobilization of all armies opposed at the present to the troops of 
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria. We are wait- 
ing in the strong belief that other peoples will soon follow our 
example. 

At the same time we declare that the conditions as submitted to 
us by the Governments of Germany and Austria-Hungary are op- 
posed in principle to the interests of all peoples. These conditions 
are refused by the working masses of all countries, amongst them 
by those of Austria-Hungary and Germany. 

The peoples of Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Courland, and Es- 
thonia consider these conditions as a violation of their will. To the 
Russian people these conditions mean a permanent threat. The 
masses of the people of the whole world, led by their political in- 
telligence or by their moral instinct, are refusing these conditions. 
In awaiting the day when the working masses of all countries will 
establish their own conditions of peaceful intercourse and fraternal 
collaboration between peoples, we decline to sanction these conditions 
which the German and Austro-Hungarian imperialism is dictating 
to the peoples. We can not place the signature of the Russian Revo- 
lution under these conditions which bring with them oppression, 
misery, and hate to millions of human beings. The Governments 
of Germany and Austro-Hungary are determined to possess lands 
and peoples by might. Let them do so openly. We can not ap- 
prove violence. We are going out of war, but we feel ourselves 
compelled to refuse to sign the peace treaty. 

In connection with this I give to the Allied Delegation the fol- 
lowing written and signed declaration : 

In the name of the Council of the People's Commissaries, the Government of 
the Russian Federal Republic informs the Governments and peoples Involved 
In war against us, the Allied and neutral countries, that, in refusing to sign a 
peace of annexation, Russia declares, on its side, the state of war with Ger- 
many, Austro-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria as ended. 



TEEMINATION OF ARMISTICE. 173 

The Russian troops are receiving at the same time an order for a 
general demobilization on all lines of the fronts. 
Beest-Litovsk, February 10, 1918. 

L. Trotsky, 

President of the Russian Peace Delegation, 
People''s C ommissary for Foreign Affairs. 

A. BiCENKO, 

W. Karelin, 
Members of the Delegation. 

A. JOFFE, 

M. POKEOVSKT, 

People's Commissary for State Properties. 

W. Med\'ediev, 
President of the AU-Uhrainian Central 
Executive Committee of the Coumoils. 
Shakheat, 
Peofle's Secretary for 'War of the Ukrainian Republic. 

L. Kaeahan, 
Secretary of the Delegation. 



78. Rtjssia's Declaeation to the Powees, 10 Febeuaet. 

[From the (British) DaUij Rcrieic of the Foicign Press, 20 February, 1918, 

p. 929.] 

The following declaration (Feb. 11) has been issued by the Rus- 
sian Council of People's Commissioners, according to the Bolshevist 
Official Agency: 

In the name of the Council of People's Commissioners, the Govern- 
ment of the Russian Federal Republic informs the Governments and 
peoples of allied and neutral countries and those in a state of war 
with us that we renounce any intention of signing an annexationist 
peace. Russia, for her part, declares that she ceases hostilities and 
puts an end to the state of war with Germany, Austria-Hungary, 
Bulgaria, and Turkey. At the same time, an order has been given 
for the complete demobilization of the Russian troops on all lines of 
the front. 

(Signed) Teotsky, Medivediev, 

BiTZENKO, SCHACHEAI, 

JoFFE, Kaeachan (Secretary). 

POKEOWSKT, 

Beest-Litovsk, Jan.* 10, 1918. 



79. Teejmixation of Armistice, 17 Febeuaey. 

GERMAN OrnCIAL COMMUNIQUE. 

[From the (British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, 20 February, 1918, 

p. 924.] 

A German headquarters' communique (Feb. 17) says that the 
ai-mistice on the Great Russian front will terminate at midday to- 
morrow. 



* Should be " Feb." 



174 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFEBJENCE. 

The following is the full text of the Berlin official communique: 

In his well-known statement of Feb.- 10, whilst proclaiming on behalf of Rus- 
sia the termination of the state of war and the demobilization, Trotsky, at the 
same time declined to sign a peace treaty. He refused to participate in the 
plenary sitting at which the decision of the Quadruple Alliance was to be 
communicated to him, and broke oft the negotiations. By Russia's one-sided 
statement the state of war was naturally not abolished and not replaced by the 
state of peace. The refusal to sign a peace treaty, moreover, rendered the 
establishment of peace impossible. It was precisely for the establishment of 
peace that the armistice treaty of Dec. 1-5, 1917, was concluded, as the treaty 
in its preface expressly points out. AVith the renunciation of peace, Bolshevik 
Russia has therefore also denounced the continuation of the armistice. This 
denunciation must be considered equivalent to notice of the termination of the 
treaty. The Imperial Government accordingly states that the Petrograd Gov- 
ernment by its conduct has, in fact, denounced the armistice. This denunciation 
Is regarded as having occurred on Feb. 10. Conformably herewith, the Imperial 
Government must, after the lapse of seven days' notice of the termination of the 
treaty, reserve a free hand in every direction. 

[Note. — It will be observed that the German Army report of Feb. 
18 announces the resumption of military operations. Advances across 
the Dvina and from Kovel have been made.] 



80. KussiAN Request for Explanation, 17 Febetjaet. 
[From the (British) Daily Rerieio o/ the Foreign Press, 19 February, 1918, 

p. 916.] 

A Russian Government wireless (Feb. 17) sends out the following: 
To the Government of the German Empire, Berlin: 

To-da_v, Feb. 17, we receiAed a message by direct wire from Brest- 
Litovsk from General Samoilu that General Hoffmann declared on 
Feb. 16 that from Feb. 18, at midday, the state of war will be re- 
sumed between Germany and Russia. 

The Russian Republic supposes that the telegram received by us 
was not issued by those persons by whom it was signed, and we con- 
sider that it has a provocative character, for even if the cessation of 
the armistice on the part of Germany is to be assumed a notice of 
seven days must be given according to the conditions of the armistice, 
and not merely two days. 

We request an explanation of this misunderstanding and ask that 
it may be sent by radio. 

(Signed) L. Teotskt, 

Peofle^s Commissary for Foreign Affairs. 



81. Surrender of Russia, 19 February. 
[From the (British) Daihi Reviriv of the Foreign Press, 21 February, 1918, 

p. 940.] 

Russian Government wireless (Feb. 19) sends out the following: 
To the Government of the Geemetn Empire, Berlin: 

The Council of the People's Conunissaries protests against the fact 
that the German (xovernment has directed its troops against the 



SUBRENDER OF RUSSIA. 175 

Russian Councils' Eepublic, whicli lias declared the M'ar as at an 
end, and Avhich is demobilizing its army on all fronts. 

The Workmen's and Peasants' Government of Russia could not 
anticipate such a step, because, neither directly nor indirectly, has 
any one of the parties which concluded the armistice given the seven 
days' notice required in accordance with the treaty of Dec. 15 for 
terminating it. 

The Council of the People's Commissaries in the present circum- 
stances regards itself as forced to formally declare its willingness to 
sign a peace upon the ccmditions which have been dictated by the 
Delegations of the Quadruple Alliance at Brest-Litovsk. 

The Council of the People's Colnmissaries further declares that 
a detailed reply will be given without delay to the conditions of peace 
as proposed by the German Government. 

(Signed) For the Council of the People's Commissaries: 

V. Uliano\-Lexix, 
Pi-exUh nt of the ('ouncil of the PeopJ-e's Commissaries. 

L. Trotsky, 
People's Commissary for Foreign Affairs. 



[Prom the (British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, 22 February, 1918, 

p. 953.] 

Russian Government wireless (Feb. 20) sends out the following: 

To-day, Feb. 19, at 7 p. m., a reply has been received by the Tsar- 
skoye Selo Station from General Hoffmann to the wireless message 
of the Council of the People's Commissioners, which is as follows : 

To the Council of the People's Comiiiissioners: 

A wireless message, signed by Ulianov-Lenin and Trotsl^y, from Tsarskoye 
Selo, was to-day, Feb. 19, recei\'ed at Konigewusterge uen at 8.12 a. m. 

It has been handed over to the Royal Governmeni, although a wireless mes- 
sage can not be regarded as an official document, because the original signa- 
tures are absent. 

■ I am authorized to request from the People's Commissioners an authentica- 
tion in writing of the wireless message, which must be sent to the German 
Command at Dvlnsk. 

(Signed) General Hoffmann. 

The following reply was sent : 

We are sending to-day from Petrograd a messenger to Dvlnsk with the wire- 
less mes.sage containing the original signatures of the President of the Council 
of the People's Commissioners, Vladimir Ulianov-Lenin, and of the Commissioner 
for Foreign Affairs, Leon Trotsky. 

(Signed) The Council of the People's Commissioneks. 

We beg you to give us an acknowledgement of this message, and to Inform 
us if it has been received promptly. We also beg you to reply in Russian. 



[From the (British) Dailii Rerinc of the Foreign Press. 25 February, 1918, 

p. 97.-).] 

A telegi-am from Berlin to-day says : 

A Russian courier, who passed through the German lines on 
Wednesday last, arrived last evening in Berlin, and handed over the 



176 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFERENCE. 

peace proposals of the Petrograd Government. This document, 
which agrees textually with the Petrograd wireless message, is, ac- 
cording to the Berliner TageMaU, signed by Lenin and Trotsky. 

Conferences are still taking place regarding the German reply, 
which probably will not be sent for a few days yet. 



[From the (British) Dailij Reriric of the Foreign Press, 26 February, 1918, 

p. 985.] 

According to Russian wireless (Feb. 23) it is notified that, in reply 
to the proposal dated Feb. 19, 1918, of the Russian Government, Ger- 
many will renew peace negotiations with Russia, -and will conclude 
peace upon the following conditions : 

1. Germany and Russia to declare the state of war to end. Both 
nations believe that in the future they will live in peace and friend- 
ship. 

2. Regions which are to the west of a line as indicated at Brest- 
Litovsk to the Russian Delegation, and which formely belonged to 
ihe Russian State, are no more under the territorial protection of 
Russia. In the region of Dvinsk this line must be advanced to the 
eastern frontier of Courland. The former attachment of these regions 
to the Russian State must in no case involve for them an obligation 
toward Russia. Russia renounces every claim to intervene in the 
internal affairs of those regions. Germany and Austria-Hungary 
have the intention to define the further fate of these regions in agree- 
ment with their populations. Germany is ready, after the completion 
of the Russian demobilization, to evacuate regions which are to the 
east of the above-named line so far as it is not stated otherwise in 
Clause 3. 

3. Livonia and Esthonia must be immediately cleared of Russian 
troops and Red Guards, and will be occupied by German police until 
the date when the constitution of the respective countries will guar- 
antee their social security and political order. All inhabitants who 
were arrested for political reasons must be released immediately. 

4. Russia will conclude peace with the Ukrainian People's Re- 
public. Ukraine and Finland will be immediately evacuated by 
Russian troops and Red Guards. 

5. Russia will do all in its power to secure for Turkey an orderly 
return of its eastern Anatolian frontiers. Russia recognizes the 
annulation of the Turkish Capitulation. 

6. Complete demobilization of the Russian Army, inclusive of 
detachments newly formed by the present Government, must be 
carried out immediately. 

7. Russian warships in the Black Sea, Baltic Sea, and Arctic Ocean 
must immediately either be sent to Russian harbors and kept there 
till -the conclusion of a general peace or be disarmed. Warships of 
the Entente which are in the sphere of the Russian authority must 
be regarded as Russian ships. Merchant navigation on the Black 
and Baltic Seas must be renewed as stated in the Armistice Treaty. 
The clearing away of mines to begin immediately. The blockade of 
the Arctic Ocean to remain in force till the conclusion of a general 
peace. 



SUKEENDEE OF EUSSIA. 1T7 

8. The Eusso-German commercial treaty of 1904 comes into force 
as stated in paragraph 11, clause 2, of the peace treaty with the 
Ukraine, with the exceptions as foreseen in paragraph 11, clause 3, of 
the Commercial Treaty concerning special privileges in the Arctic 
countries. Further, the whole of the first part of the final limits is 
reestablished. In additioh, there must be a guarantee for the free, 
untaritfed export of ores; the immediate commencement of negotia- 
tions for the conclusion of a new commercial treaty; the guarantee 
of the most favored-nation treatment at least until 1925, even in the 
case of the termination of the provisorium; and, finally, the sanc- 
tioning of clauses corresponding to paragraph 11 of the clauses 3, 
4a, and 15 of the Peace Treaty with Ukraine. 

9. The legal-political relations to be regulated in accordance with 
the decision of the first version of the Germano-Russian Convention. 
So far as action on that decision has not been taken, especially in 
respect to indemnities for civil damages, this must be in accordance 
with the German proposal, and there must be indemnification with 
expenses for war prisoners in .accordance with the Russian proposal. 
Russia will permit and support as far as it can German commis- 
sioners for war prisoners, civil prisoners, and war refugees. 

10. Russia promises to put an end to every propaganda and agita- 
tion either on the part of the Government or on the part of persons 
supported by the Government against the members of the Quadruple 
Alliance and their political and military institutions, even in locali- 
ties occupied by the Central Powers. 

11. The above-named conditions must be accepted within 48 hours. 
Russian plenipotentiaries must start immediately for Brest-Litovsk 
and sign there within three days the Peace Treaty, which must be 
ratified within two weeks. 

Minister for Foreign Affairs, 
Von KiJHLMANN, 
Lieut. General and Commander in Chief of the Arjny. 
Berlin, Feh. 21, 1918. 



[From the (British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, 26 February, 1918, 

p. 994.] 

Russian Government wireless (Feb. 24) sends out the following r 
To THE German Government, Berlin : 

Our Parliamentary representative left Petrograd to-day at midday 
in the direction of Dvinsk for the purpose of transmitting to the 
German Government, through the Dvinsk High Command, the offi- 
cial reply of the Russian Government on the peace conditions offered 
by the German Government, which had been communicated already 
to Berlin by radio from Tsarkoye Selo to-day at 7.32 a. m. 

(Signed) - Gorbunoff, 

/Secretary of the Soviet of the Peofleh Commissioners. 

To All: 
The following has been sent to the German Government at Berlin : 
According to the decision talten by the Central Esecutive Committee of the 

Soviets of Workers, Soldiers, and Peasant Deputies on Feb. 24 at 4.30 a. m. 
90244—18 12 



178 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFEEENCE. 

the Soviet of the People's Commissioners has decided to accept the peace condi- 
tions offered by the German Government and to send a delegation to Brest- 
Litovsk. 

Vt. Ulianoff-Lenin, 
President of the Soviet of People's Commissioners. 
L. Tkotsky, 
People's Commission for Foreign Affairs. 

The delegation leaves for Brest-Litovsk at 8 p. m. Feb. 24. 

N. GOEBUNOFF, 

Secretary of the Soviet of the People's G ommissioners. 

The Bolshevist Commander in Chief, Krylenko, has sent the fol- 
lowing message, addressed to the General Staff of the German Gov- 
ernment, Berlin (Feb. 24) : 

Supposing that all reasons for a continuation of war should disappear from 
the moment the Soviet of the People's Commissioners declares that it accepts 
the conditions of peace proposed by the German Government, I request you 
hereby to reply to me whether the German High Command takes a similar 
view ; and if so, whether it considers that from the moment its Government 
receives the aforesaid acceptance it may be concluded that the armistice 
becomes automatically reestablished in the same conditions as those which 
regulated operations before the state of war was restored on Feb. 18 last by the 
German High Command. 



IFrom the (British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, 27 February, 1918, 

p. 1005.] 

Russian Government wireless sends out the following (Feb. 25) : 

To All : 

To Berijx, Dvinsk, Sofia, and Constantinople: 

In the Council's newspapers of Petrograd of to-day the following 
statement has been published: 

In reply to the expressed v\'iUingness of the Council of the People's Commis- 
sioners to renew peace negotiations with the Quadruple Alliance, the German 
Government proposed fresh peace conditions, including a request for the recog- 
nition of the right of Germany to Courland, Livonia, Esthonia, and Dvinsk. 
This proposal is dated Berlin, Feb. 21, and demanded from the Government of 
the Russian Federal Government a reply within forty-eight hours, without speci- 
fying from what hour this period of delay was to be reckoned. 

The proposal of the German Government was handed to our parliamentaire 
in a sealed envelope on Feb. 22, and the Council of the People's Commissioners 
re(/<'ived it at 10.30 a. m. on Feb. 23. 

On Feb. 24, at 4.30 a. m., the highest authoritative body in Russia — the Cen- 
tral Executive Committee of. the Councils — decided to accept these conditions 
as rcijuesled ))y the German Government. This decision was immediately trans- 
mitted by the Council of the People's Commissioners to the German Government 
at Berlin, where it was received on Feb. 24 at 7.32 a. m. 

According to another message the decision was also sent to the 
Austro-IIungarian Government at Vienna, the Bulgarian Govern- 
ment at Sofia, and the Ottoman Government at Constantinople, in 
the following form: 



EESI7MPTI0N OF NEGOTIATIONS, 28 FEBRUAEY. 179 

In conformity with the decision talien by the Central Executive Committee of 
the Council of Worljmen's, Soldiers', and Peasants' Delegates, at 4.30 a. m. on 
Feb. 24, the Council of the People's Commissioners decrees that it has accepted 
the conditions of peace laid down by the German Government, and will despatch 
a delegation to Brest-Litovsk to sign peace. 

Moreover, the Commander in Chief, Krylenko, sent to the Supreme 
Commander in Chief of the German Armies on Feb. 24 the following 
declaration : 

In the belief that, from the moment when the Council of the People's Com- 
missioners agreed to accept the conditions as proposed by the German Govern- 
ment for the conclusion of peace, the need for continuing hostilities ceases, I 
beg to inquire whether the German High Command also believes that from the 
moment when the German Government receives the above-mentioned reply of 
the Council of the People's Commissioners an armistice automatically ensues 
upon the same basis as existed before Feb. 18, when the German Command re- 
opened hostilities. 

(Signed) Kbtlenko, 

. Supreme Commander in Chief. 

This declaration was received at the Headquarters of the German 
Command on Feb. 24, at 1.35 p. m., but no reply has been received, 
either from the German Command or from the German Government, 
by the Commander in Chief or by the Council of the People's Com- 
missioners, and German detachments are still advancing. 

We are now inquiring whether the German Government and the 
High Command of the German Armies will or will not reply to the 
expressed consent of the People's Commissioners to sign the pro- 
posed conditions of peace, and also to the proposal of the Com- 
mander in Chief, Krylenko, to discontinue hostilities. 

(Signed) V. Ulianov-Lenin, 

President of the Council of the People''s Commissioiiers. 

L. Teotskt, 
Commissioner for Troops. 
Please acknowledge receipt. 



82. Resumption or Negotiations, 28 Febeuaet. 
[From the (British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press,, 4 Blarch, 1918, p. 31.] 
A German wireless message (Feb. 28) states: 

The Eussian deputation arrived at Brest-Litovsk this afternoon 
for the resumption of the peace negotiations. Sokolnikov is at its 
head. Trotsky was not present at the negotiations. 

Eussian GoA'ernment wireless sends out the following (Mar. 1) : 

To All : 

To All Councils : 

To-day, Mar. 1, we have received from the Russian Peace Delegation at 
Brest-Litovsk the following wireless message : 

To Lenin, Smolny, Petrograd. 

We arrived at Brest-Litovsk on Feb. 28 at 8 p. m. A conference took place 
regarding the Order of the Day for to-morrow's session. 



180 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK OONFEBENCE. 

In answer to our request for the cessation of Ijostilities, in view of the fact 
that we have accepted the ultimatum and have arrived here, the opposite side 
replied that hostilities will only cease when the peace treaty is signed. 

The three days allowed for the negotiations commence on Mar. 1. 

The following official proclamation has been issued at Petrograd 
(Mar. 1) : 

A wireless telegram received from the Brest-Litovsk Peace Delegation says 
that the Germans replied to our request that they should cease warlike opera- 
tions, that the cessation of hostilities could not take place until after the signa- 
ture of the peace treaty, and not before 11 o'clock in the morning of Mar. 4. 

It is evident that the Germans propose to profit by the delay to penetrate 
more deeply into Russian territory in order again to be able to dictate terms. 
We order that nothing is to be given up without fighting to the last and that 
you are to make efforts to drive back the Germans as far as possible toward 
the West. According to our Information, the enemy is everywhere acting with 
small detachments, which will not be difficult to keep back with a little energy 
on our part. 

Russian Government wireless (Mar. 1 ) sends out the following : 

To all. 

To all councils. 

On Mar 1, at * * * p. m., the following message was received 
from Brest-Litovsk: 

To the Council of the People's Commissioners, 

Smalny Institute, Petrograd. 
Send us a train to Toroshino (near Pskov), escorted by sufficiently large 
forces. Communicate with Krylenko copcerning the bodyguards. 

(Signed) Kakahan. 

This message most probably signifies that the peace negotiations 
have been broken off by the Germans. 

We must be ready for an immediate German advance to Petrograd, 
and on all fronts generally. 

It is necessary for all the people to rise and to strengthen the 
measures taken for the defense. 

(Signed) Lenin, 

President of the Council of the PeopWs Commissioners. 



[From the (British) Daili/ Review of the Foreign Press, 5 March, 1918, p. 50.] 

Russian Government wireless (Mar. 2) sends out the following: 
To the Peace Delegation, Brest-Litovsk. 

The message of Comrade Karahan asking for a train was under- 
stood by us to indicate that the opposite side has refused to conclude 
peace. We beg for an immediate solution of this question. The non- 
receipt of a reply will be regarded by us as a confirmation of our 
supposition. 

^ , (Signed) Trotskt. 

1 beg you acknowledge this. 



PLENARY SESSION OF 2 MARCH. 181 

That the People's Commissioners were mistaken was shown by the 
following telegram, published in the Press of Mar. 3, to them from 
the Peace Delegation : 

To Lenin and Teotsky, Petrograd. 

As we anticipated, deliberations on the peace treaty are absolutely useless. 
They could even only make things worse in comparison with the ultimatum of 
February 21, and might assume a character leading to the presentation of 
another ultimatum. In view of this and of the refusal of the Germans to 
cease their military action until the signature of peace, we have resolved to 
sign the treaty without discussing its contents and to leave after the signature. 
We have, therefore, requested a train to be put at our disposal, and we count 
on signing the treaty to-day and leaving afterwards. The most serious aggra- 
vation in the demands, as compared with those presented on February 21, is 
the following: — 

" To detach from Russian territory the regions of Ardahan, Kars, and Batum, 
on the pretext of the right of peoples to self-determination." 

The Delegates sent the following message to the Council of the People's Com- 
missioners, in explanation of their conduct. It was received at Petrograd on 
Mar. 2 at 9 p. m., and appeared in the Press of Mar. 3 : 

The Russian Delegation declared yesterday that they refuse to deliberate on 
the peace conditions offered, in view of the fact that the military operations 
against Russia are continuing in spite of the resumption of the. Peace Confer- 
ence. The demand of the Russian Delegation for the cessation of the offensive 
was declined by the Central Powers. Under these conditions the whole peace 
treaty is merely an ultimatum, which is being forced, upon us by means of mili- 
tary power. The Russian Delegation, signing without deliberation, the condi- 
tions which are dictated to them, consider it their duty franljly to say the 
whole truth about the matter to the Workers and Peasants of Russia, and to 
the world, leaving the whole of the circumstances to their judgment. 

The signing of the Peace Treaty between Russia and Germany and her Allies 
will take place on Sunday, Mar. 3. 

sokolnikov. 

Petrovskt. 

Chichekin. 



83. Plexart Session of 2 March. 
[From the (British) Daily Revieio of the Foreign Press, 5 March, 1918, p. 40.] 

A telegram of March 2 from Brest-Litovsk says : 

The fresh peace negotiations between the Quadruple Alliance and 
Russia were opened this morning in a plenary meeting under the 
chairmanship of the German Minister Baron von Rosenberg. As 
regards the regulation of political questions the chairman proposed 
that a common treaty should be concluded between the four allies 
and Russia, whilst economic compacts and legal questions should be 
dealt Vith partly in appendices to the main treaty, and partly in 
supplementary treaties for each separate allied Power. M. Sokolni- 
kov, the head of the Russian Delegation, expressed his agreement 
with this proposal, whei'eupon the actual negotiations began. The 
chairman handed M. Sokolnikov the draft of the political main 
treaty jointly drawn up by the allies, and gave a detailed explana- 



182 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BEEST-LITOVSK CONFEEEWUB. 

tion of the individual treaty stipulations. Drafts for economic and 
legal agreements with a corresponding explanation, were likewise 
communicated to the Russian Delegation by the representatives of 
the four allied Powers. The Russian Relegation reserved a decision 
as to its attitude to the individual points until the material in its 
entirety was laid before it. In the afternoon the negotiations were 
continued. 

An official telegram from Brest-Litovsk dated Mar. 2 says: In- 
formal discussions took place in the course of the day between the 
presidents and individual members of the allied Delegations and the 
Russian Deputation. The next plenary sitting has been fixed for 
11 a. m. on Sunday. 

An official telegram from Berlin to the Swiss Press (Mar. 3) an- 
nounces that peace between Germany and Russia was signed at 
five o'clock this evening. 

A telegram from Brest-Litovsk via Vienna (Mar. 3) states that 
in addition to the main peace treaty with Russia supplementary trea- 
ties have also been signed. 

[Note. — German Main Headquarters announce (Mar. 3) that mili- 
tary operations have ceased in view of the conclusion of peace.] 



Si. Plenary Sesion of 3 March. 

GERJIAN account. 
[From the (Bi'itish) Daihi Revicii- of the Foreign Press, 8 March, 1918, p. 79.*] 

A telegram from Brest-Litovsk, dated Mar. 4, gives the follow- 
ing report of the proceedings which accompanied the signature 
of peace: 

On Mar. 1, having received the draft peace treaty with annexes 
and supplementary treaties, the President of the Russian Delega- 
tion, M. Sokolnikov, declared that the Delegation would abstain 
from examining them in committee. On Mar. 2 the President and 
some of the members of the Russian Delegation approached the 
Delegates of the Quadruple Alliance with a view to obtaining in- 
formation regarding several of the prescriptions contained in the 
draft. The Russian Delegation proposed alterations. Mar. 3 was 
unanimously fixed as the date for signing the treaties. In the fore- 
noon of Mar. 3 the Delegates met in plenary session under the 
presidency of the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador, Herr von Merey. 
Their credentials were examined and found to be in order. It was 
generally agreed that Baron von Kiihlmann and Count Czernin 
were to sign the treaties later at Bucharest. 

The President of the Russian Delegation thereupon made the 
following two statements: 

Firstly, regarding Article IV, paragraph 3, of the draft re- 
garding the disclaiming by Russia of interference with the re- 
organization of political and international relations in the formerly 

• The Deutscher Beiohsanzeiger of 6 March, 1918, contains an account substantially 
Identical. 



PLENARY SESSION OF 3 MARCH. 183 

Turkish districts of Ardelian, Kcars, and Batum. M. Sokolnikov 
declared tliat the treaty prescription was a territorial change with- 
out the consent of the inhabitants, and that Eussia vs-ould only 
accept it under protest. 

In his second statement he declared that German}' 's ultimatum 
had found the Russian Government in the state of demobilization. 
Therefore Russia saw herself forced to accept the ultimatum and 
sign the treaties now laid before her. This peace, he said, was no 
peace l)y understanding. Under, the pretext of the right of self- 
determination the Russian border peoples were placed under the 
influence of their opponent in order to protect the classes in power 
there against revolution, and strengthen the anti-revolutionary forces. 
Also in Finland, continued Sokolnikov, the Quadruple Alliance 
had supported anti-revolutionary currents. Forced by the rupture 
of the armistice. Eussia signed the peace treaty without delibei'ating 
on it, after her appeal to the German working classes had been in 
vain. 

Herr von Merey regretted that the Russian declaration had been 
made, and went on to say that the Delegations of the Quadruple 
Alliance had hoped and wished that the last days of the negotiations 
would pass off in a peaceful and conciliatory spirit. If the Russian 
Delegation objected to the prescriptions regarding Ardehan, Kars, 
and Batum, the Russian gentlemen had been in a position and had 
had sufficient time to negotiate and propose their wishes. When 
accepting the drafts en -masse, without thoroughly discussing the 
details, they had no right to complain, and had to bear the responsi- 
bility for them themselves. The Quadruple Alliance declined re- 
sponsibility or blame for the present position of Russia. The Brest 
negotiations with a complete armistice had lasted two months. With 
an adequate appropriation of this time, the Russian Delegation had 
had ample time to discuss the peace work on the basis fixed at the 
beginning of the negotiations and to bring it to a fruitful tei-mina- 
tion. The greater part of the subject, however, had, in fact, been 
thoroughly discussed at previous sittings. If later the Russian 
Delegation had deviated from this course and now abstained from 
conclusive discussions, they themselves were exclusively to be blamed. 
Hakki Pasha hereupon replied to the first statement of M. Sokolni- 
kov in a long speech citing historical, ethnogarphical, and geographi- 
cal evidence. He pointed out that the three districts in question had 
belonged to Turkey for four centuries, and that Russia had annexed 
them for the nonpayment of a war indemnity, and that Turkey, 
when in possession of these districts, had never threatened Russia 
from that direction. He repudiated the charge that this was a case 
of annexation by referring to the text of the prescription in the peace 
treaty proposed by the Quadruple Alliance, according to which the 
population had the right to determine its future political destiny. 

General Hoffmann protested against the charge of violation of 
the armistice treaty by Germany, and in this connection referred to 
Baron von Kiihlm'ann's statement in the plenary sitting of Feb. 10, 
when the German Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs frankly 
told M. Trotsky that a one-sided rupture of the peace negotiations 
would automatically abrogate the armistice treaty. Without con- 
tradicting this, M. Trotsky had taken cognizance of it. The Russian 
demobilization did not begin only with the order of February 10, but 



184 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BREST-LITOVSK CONFEEENCE. 

in reality it had begun weeks ago, and the Russian Army was de 
facto demobilized already on Feb. 10. Weeks before the German 
Army Command had said this, and had stated the number of kilo- 
meters of unoccupied Russian positions. These de facto conditions 
were naturally also known to the Russian Government. 

The Minister, Herr von Rosenberg, then said that in December 
and January the German delegates had made honest efforts to ac- 
complish a peace by understanding, and had not insisted on rights 
which might issue fiom the conquest of enemy territories. They 
had renounced them in order to make concessions to the ideals of 
new Russia. But two parties were necessary in order to come to an 
understanding, and good will for that was lacking on the Russian 
side. Unfortunately, the Russian Delegation did not want to be- 
lieve in the honesty of the German intentions regarding the border 
peoples. In the meantime, conditions had naturally changed, and 
with them Germany's demands. Even to-day Germany's demands 
were far from being a reckless exploitation of her strong position. 
But if the Russian Delegation spoke of only three days which had 
been at their disposal, this gave a wrong impression. The armistice 
had lasted nearly six weeks, till the negotiations were broken off on 
February 10. Therefore not three days, but six weeks plus three 
days had been at the disposal of the Russian Government to decide 
on the acceptance or refusal of peace. To that must be added that 
the negotiations in January and February had yielded far-reaching 
results regarding complicated matters. Peace had not been forced 
upon Russia. It depended on the free decision of the Russian people 
to accept the German conditions or continue the war. The Russian 
Government had no right to doubt the sincerity of Germany's inten- 
tions regarding the border peoples, and the less so because sharp 
inconsistencies had been established between the words and deeds of 
the Russian Government in their short reign. 

M. Sokolnikov, continued Herr von Rosenberg, had also referred 
to the German workmen. Anyone who believed that the German 
workman would get his instructions from abroad for his attitude 
on home or foreign politics did not know the German workman. He 
was the same man who for the last four years with unparalleled 
devotion had defended the Fatherland, and if he had any objections 
to the organizations of the German State or to the existing conditions 
of public affairs, he did so within his own State, and with his own 
compatriots. The idea that he needed advice from abroad would 
insult the German workman. 

The Bulgarian representative, M. Tontcheff, pointed out that the 
Delegations of the Quadruple Alliance had met the Russian dele- 
gates to conclude a lasting peace, not to sow the germ of new wars. 
M. Sokolnikov 's language and declarations, however, created an at- 
mosphere which was incompatible with this intention. He must 
repudiate the imfounded assei'tion of the Russian Delegation that 
it was the intention of the Quadruple Alliance to oppress Russia. 
That Avus an idea which was foreign to Bulgaria and her allies. If 
Russia was in such a position to-day, it was solely due to her insuffi- 
ciently far-seeing policy. 

After a reply from M. Sokolnilcov, who on the whole repeated his 
previous sentiments, and after some hasty retorts from Herr von 
Rosenberg and General ■ Hoffmann, the sitting was postponed for 



RUSSIAN delegates' pbotest. 185 

two hours. The sitting was reopened at four o'clock for the signa- 
ture of the peace treatj', which ended at five o'clock, whereupon, the 
signing of the legal treaties began, lasting till 5.30. Lastly, Herr 
von Merey said : " I do not like to let pass the solemn act just con- 
cluded without expressing the sincere hope that the peace which is 
signed to-day may enable the peoples of our Alliance and Kussia 
which were opposed in war for over three and a half years, gradually 
to resume their former friendly relations." 

After expressing thanks to the Bureau and the interpreter, Herr 
von Merey declared the peace negotiations terminated. 



85. EussiAN Delegates' Protest Against German Terms. 

IFrorn the (British) Daily Revicir. of the Foreign Press, 12 March, 1918, p. 119.*] 

Eussian Government wireless [Mar. 9] issues the following : 

To all. 

To Paris, Vienna^ Berlin, Sebastopol, Odessa, Kharkov, Nikolaiev, 
Tashkent, Arkhangelsk, Kazan, Irkutsk. 

The Declaration of the Peace Delegation. 

The Eussian Peace Delegation made the following Declaration 
before signing the Peace Treaty at the Session of the conference at 
Brest-Litovsk on Mar. 3 : 

The Workmen's and Peasants' Government of the Eussian Eepub- 
lic was forced, after the offensive of the German troops against 
Eussia, when the latter had declared the war to be at an end and had 
commenced the demobilization of its armies, to accept an ultimatum 
presented by Germany on Feb. 24. We have been delegates to sign 
these conditions, which have been forced upon us by violence. 

The negotiations which have been carried out so far at Brest- 
Litovsk between us, on the one part, and Germany and her allies, on 
the other, have shown strongly and clearly enough that the " peace 
by agreement," as it is termed by the German representatives, is 
really and definitely an annexationist and imperialistic peace. The 
Brest-Litovsk conditions at the moment are considerably worse than 
this. The peace which is being concluded here at Brest-Litovsk is 
not a peace based upon a free agreement of the peoples of Eussia, 
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey, but a peace dictated by 
force of arms. This is the peace which Eussia, grinding its teeth, is 
compelled to accept. This is a peace which, whilst pretending to 
free Eussian border provinces, really transforms them into German 
provinces and deprives them of the right of free self-determination, 
such as was recognized by the Workmen's and Peasants' Government 
of Eevolutionary Eussia, as due to them. This is a peace which, 
whilst pretending to reestablish order, gives armed support in these 
regions to exploiting classes against the working classes, and is help- 
ing again to put upon them the yoke of oppression which was removed 
by the Eussian Eevolution. This is a peace which gives back the 
land to the landlords, and again drives the workers into the serfdom 
of the factory owners. This is a peace which for a long time to come 

* a slightly different text is found in the (British) Datty Review of the Foreign Press, 
9 March, 1918, p. 90. 



186 PROCEEDINGS OP THE BKEST-JUTUVbii DOJNiJiitJiiNUJi;. 

imposes upon the workers of Eussia in a still more aggravated form 
the old commercial treaty which was concluded in 1904 in the inter- 
ests of German agrarians, and which is at the same time guaranteeing 
to German and Austro-Hungarian capitalists interest on the debts 
of the Tsarist Government, which have been repudiated by Eevolu- 
tionary Eussia. Finally, as if it was the purpose explicitly to em- 
phasize the character of the German armed offensive, the German 
ultimatum is attempting to muzzle the Eussian Ee^'olution by forbid- 
ding all agitation directed against' the Governments of the Quadruple 
Alliance and their military authorities. But even this does not suf- 
fice. Under the same pretense of reestablishing order, Germany is 
also occupying by arms regions in which the population is purely 
Eussian and is establishing there a regime of military occupation in 
disregard to revolutionary institutions. For the Ukraine and Fin- 
land Germany is requesting the nonintervention of Eevolutionary 
Eussia, and at the same time is intervening actively with the object 
of supporting the counter-revolutionary forces against the workmen 
and peasants. 

In the Caucasus, in direct contradiction to the conditions of the 
ultimatum of Feb. 21, as formulated by the German Government 
itself, Germany is breaking away for the benefit of Turkey regions 
of Ardahan, Kars, and Batum, which never have been taken by 
Turkish troops during this war, and with complete disregard of the 
real wishes of the populations of these regions. The most cynical 
and violent territorial seizures, the occupation of the most important 
strategical points, can have but one purpose — to prepare a new 
offensive against Eussia and to defend capitalistic interests against 
the Workmen's and Peasants' Eevolution. Such is the real object 
of the offensive undertaken by the German troops on Feb. 18 with- 
out the seven days' notice which was agreed upon in the armistice 
treaty concluded between Eussia and the Central Powers. This 
advance was not stopped, in spite of the Declaration of the Council 
of the People's Commissioners that they accepted the German ulti- 
matum of February 21. This advance was not stopped in spite of 
the fact that the conference of Brest-Litovsk was resumed and in 
spite of an official protest by the Eussian Delegation. Through this, 
all the conditions of peace presented by Germany and by her allies 
are transformed into an ultimatum presented by them to Eussia 
and supported in the interests of such a peace treaty, with the threat 
of immediate armed violence. Nevertheless, in the present situation 
Eussia has no alternative choice. After having demobilized her 
armies, the Eussian Eevolution has by the same act given its fate 
into the hands of the German people. The Eussian Delegation has 
already declared openly at Brest-Litovsk that no honest man can 
believe that the war against Eussia can now be termed a defensive 
war. Germany has taken the offensive under the pretense of reestab- 
lishing order, but in reality with the purpose of strangling the 
Eussian "Workers' and Peasants' Eevolution. For the benefit of 
world imperialism German militarism has succeeded at the present 
time in moving its troops against the masses of the workmen and 
peasants of the Eussian Eepublic. The German proletariat has not 
as yet shown itself powerful enough to stop this offensive movement. 
We do not doubt for one moment that this triumph of the imperialist 



RUSSIAN delegates' PROTEST, 187 

and the militarist over the international proletarian Eevolution is 
only a temporary and passing one. Under the present conditions 
the Soviet Government of the Russian Republic, being left to its 
own forces, is unable to withstand the armed onrush of German 
imperialism, and is compelled, for the sake of saving Revolutionary 
Russia, to accept the conditions put before it. We, being empowered 
by our Government to sign the treaty of peace, are compelled, in 
spite of our protest, to negotiate under the absolutely exceptional 
conditions of continued hostilities against nonresisting Russia. We 
can not submit to any further shooting of Russian workmen and 
peasants who have refused to continue the war. We declare openly 
before the workmen, peasants, and soldiers of Russia and Germany, 
and before the laboring and exploited masses of the whole world, 
that we are forced to accept the peace dictated by those who, at the 
moment, are the more powerful, and that we are going to sign 
immediately the treaty presented to us as an ultimatum, but that 
at the same time we refuse to enter into any discussion of these terms. 

o 



CONFIDENTIAL 

For Official Use Only 



TEXTS 



OF THE 



RUSSIAN "PEACE" 



{WITH MAPS) 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFHCE 

I91S 



CONFIDENTIAL 

for Official Use Only 

TEXTS 

OF THE 

RUSSIAN "PEACE" 



{IVITH MAPS) 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFHCE 

1918 

Oj_ 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page. 

1. Russia — -Central Powers: Armistice. Signed at Brest-Litovsk, 15 De- 

cember, 1917 , 1 

German text from the Deutscher Reichsanzeiger, 18 December, 1917, with translation. 

2. Russia — Central Powers: Supplement to Armiatice. Signed at Brest- 

Litovsk, 15 December, 1917 9 

German text from the Deutscher Reichsanzeiger, 18 December, 1917, with translation. 

3. Russia — G-ermany: Alleged Secret Convention concerning Poland. 

Signed at Brest-Litovsk, 22 December, 1917 11 

English translation taken from the (British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, Neutral 
Press Supplement, 5 July, 191.S. 

4. Russia — Central Powers: Treaty of Peace. Signed at Brest-Litovsk, 3 

March, 1918 13 

German text from the Reichs-Gesetzblatt, No. 77, 11 June, 1918, with translation. 

5. Russia — Central Powers: Appendix I to the Treaty of Peace between 

Russia and the Central Powers. Signed at Brest-Litovsk, 3 March, 1918. 23 
Map and description from Vorwdrts, 5 March, 1918, with translation. 

6. Russia — Germany: Appendix II to the Treaty of Peace between Russia 

and the Central Powers. Signed at Brest-Litov^, 3 March, 1918 25 

German text from the Reichs-Gesetzblatt, No. 77, 11 June, 1918, with translation. 

7. Russia — G-ermany: Sub-appendix 1 to Appendix II of the Treaty of 

Peace between Russia and the Central Powers. Signed at Brest-Litovsk, 

3 March, 1918 29 

German text from the Reichs-Gesetzblatt, No. 77, 11 June, 1918, with translation. 

8. Russia — Germany: Final Protocol to Sub-appendix 1 of Appendix II to 

the Treaty of Peace between Russia and the Central Powers. Signed at 
Brest-Litovsk, 3 March, 1918 41 

German text from the Reichs-Gesetzblatt, No. 77, 11 June, 1918, with translation. 

9. Russia — Germany: Sub-appendix 2 "to Appendix II to the Treaty of 

Peace between Russia and the Central Powers. (Tariff A and Tariff B.) 
Signed at Brest-Litovsk, 3 March, 1918 57 

German text from the Reichs-Gesetzblatt, No. 77, 11 June, 1918, with translation. 

10. Russia — Germany: Legal-Political Treaty, Supplementary to the Treaty 

of Peace between Russia and the Cenitral Powers. Signed at Brest- 
Litovsk, 3 March, 1918 115 

German text from the Reichs-Gesetzblatt, No. 77, 11 June, 1918, with translation. 

11. Russia — Germany: Notification regarding Germany's ratification of the 

Peace Treaty with Russia and of the Treaty Supplementary to the Peace 
Treaty, 7 June, 1918 ■ 139 

German text from the Reichs-Gesetzblatt, No. 77, 11 June, 1918, with translation. 

12. Russia — Austria-Hungary: Appendix III to the Treaty of Peace between 

Russia and the Central Powers. Signed at Brest-Litovsk, 3 March, 1918. 141 
EngUshtext from State Department WeeUy Reports, Central Powers, JVo. 40, 8 April, 1918. 

13. Russia — Austria-Hungary: Legal-Political Treaty Supplementary to 

the Treaty of Peace between Russia and the Central towers. Signed at 
Brest-Litovsk, 3 March, 1918. 143 

German text from the Fremden^Blatt. 16 March, 1918, and the Fester-Lloyd, 16 March, 
1918, morning and evening edition, with translation. 

HI 



IV TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Page. 

14. Bussia — Bulgaria: Appendix IV to the Treaty of Peace between Rus- 

sia and the Central Powers. Signed at Brest-Litovsk, 3 March, 1918. . . 159 
English text as transmitted to the State Department by the American;consul at Moscow. 

15. Bussia — Bulgaria: Legal-Political Treaty Supplementary to the 

Treaty of Peace between Russia and the Central Powers. Signed at 
Brest-Litovsk, 3 March, 1918 161 

English text as transmitted to the State Department by the American consul at Moscow. 

16. Bussia — Turkey: Appendix V to the Treaty of Peace between Russia 

and the Central Powers^ Signed at Brest-Litovsk, 3 March, 1918 165 

English text as transmitted to the State Department by the American consul at Moscow. 

17. Bussia — Turkey: Legal Political Treaty Supplementary to the Treaty 

of Peace between Russia and the Central Powers. Signed at Brest- 
Litovsk, 3 March, 1918 167 

English text from the State Department Weekly Reports, Central Powers, JVo. |4j 6 May, 
1988. 

18. Bussia — Central Powers: Protest of Russian Delegates against the 

Treaty of Peace of Brest-Litovsk, 3 March, 1918 .■ 173 

Text issued by the Russian Go\'ernment Wireless on 9 March, 1918, as given in the 
(British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, 12 March, 1918. 

19. Bussia — Central Powers: Protest of Great Britain, France, and Italy 

against the Treaty of Peace of Brest-Litovsk. Issued by the British 

Foreign Office, 18 March, 1918 177 

Text as pubhshed in the London Times, 19 March, 1918. 

20. Bussia — Germany: Supplementary Treaty to the Treaty of Peace be- 

tween Russia and the Central Powers. Signed at Berlin, 27 August, 1918. 179 
German text from the Deutscher Reichsanzeiger, 7 September, 1918, with translation. 

21. Bussia — Germany: Finapcial Agreement supplementing the Russo- 

GermaB Supplementary Treaty to the Treaty of Peace between Russia 

and the Central Powers. Signed at Berlin, 27 August, 1918 '. 191 

German text from the Deutscher Reichsanzeiger, 7 September, 1918, with translation. 

22. Bussia — Germany: Civil Law Agreement supplementing the Russo- 

German Supplementary Treaty to the Treaty of Peace between Russia 

and the Central Powers. Signed at Berlin, 27 August, 1918 203 

German text from the Deutscher Reichsanzeiger, 7 September, 1918, with translation. 

23. Bussia — Germany: Memorandum on Russo-German Boundary as estab- 

lished by the Treaty of Peace of Brest-Litovsk. By Mark Jefferson 221 

24. Esthonia: Protest to the German Government by representatives of the 

Provisional Government of Esthonia, against the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk 
Signed at Copenhagen, 3 July, 1918 223 

Translation Irom a German text transmitted to the Department of State. 

25. Memorandum: Status of the Russian Fleet. 14 September, 1918 227 



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1. RUSSIA— CENTRAL POWERS. 



ARMISTICE, CONCLUDED AT BREST-LITOVSK, 15 DECEMBER, 

1917. 



[Oerman text as published in the Deut- 
scher Reichsanzeiger, 18 Dec, 1917.] 



3)er aBaffettftillftanb beginnt am 17. 
S)esember 1917, 12 Uf)r 9Wtttagg (4. 
SDejember 1917, 14, Uf)r ruff, ^eit) 
unb bauert big 14. ^atiuar 1918, 12 
U^r MttagS (1. ^anuar 1918, 14 
U^r ruff. 3ett). 3)te bertragfc§tte= 
feenben "iporteien ftnb berec^ttgt, ben 
SBaffenfttllftanb am 21. Sage mit 7 
tttgtger grift ju fiinbigen; erfolgt bie§ 
ni^t, fo bauert ber aSaffeuftillftanb 
automatifc^ tneiter, big eine ber ^ar= 
teien itin mit 7 tttgiger grift filnbigt. 



II. 



S)er SBaffenftiaftanb erftrecEt \id) auf 
atk ?anb= unb Suftftreitfrafte ber ge= 
nannten SKiic^te auf ber ganbfront 
3h)ifc^en bem ©cfitDarjen 9)2eer unb ber 
Oftfee. §Iuf ben ruffifc^ = ttirfifc^en 
frieggf($aupla^en in Slfiert tritt ber 
aSaffenftillftanb gteidixeitig ein. 

S)ie 33ertragf(^Iie6enben berpflid^ten 
fic^, mi)renh beg SBaffenftiltftanbeg bie 
Slnja^t ber an ben genannten gronten 
unb auf ben 3nfeln beg 9Woonfunbeg 
befinblic^en JruppenOerbiinbe — auc^ 
£)infi(fitlic^ it)rcr ©lieberung unb if)reg 
@tatg — nic^t 5U berftarfen unb an 
biefen gronten feine Umgruppierungen 
jur 33orbereitung einer Offenfifte bor= 
3unet)men. 

gemer berpfKcfiten fi(^ bie 35ertrag= 
fc^Iie^enben, big gum 14. ^onuar 1918 
(1. S'ttnuar 1918 ruff. 3eiO t)on ber 



[Translation.] 

I. 

The armistice begins on 17 
December, 1917, at noon (4 De- 
cember, 1917, at fourteen o'clock, 
Russian time) and extends until 
14 January, 1918, noon (1 Jan- 
uary, 1918, foiu-teen o'clock, 
Russian time). The contracting 
parties have the right on the 
twenty-first day of the armistice 
to give a seven days' notice of 
termination ; such not being done, 
the armistice automatically re- 
mains in force until one of the 
contracting parties gives such 
seven days' notice. 

11. 

The armistice applies to all 
land and air fighting forces of the 
said Powers on the land front 
between the Black Sea and the 
Baltic Sea. In the Russo-Turkish 
theaters of war in Asia the armis- 
tice goes into effect at the same 
time. 

The contracting parties obli- 
gate themselves, dirring the period 
of the armistice, neither to aug- 
ment the number of detachments 
of troops stationed on the said 
fronts and on the islands of Moon 
Sound — this applies also to their 
organization and status — nor to 
attempt any regroupings in prep- 
aration for an offensive. 

Further, the contracting parties 
obligate themselves not to under- 
take any transfers of troops until 
14 January, 1918 (1 January, 



THE RUSSIAN PEACE. 



^ront 3ltit[d)en bem ©d^ttiarsen 9J?eer 
unb ber Oft[ee feme operattben Zxup' 
peitberf(f)iebungen burd)?ufi:f)ren, eg fei 
benn, bafe bte 95er[d)iebungen tm 2lu= 
genblid ber Unterjeicfjung be§ 5Baffen=' 
fttl([tanbstiertrages [d)on eingetettet finb. 
Snblid) bert)fltd)ten fid) bie 33er= 
tragfd)Iie|enben, in ben ,§afen ber 
Oft[ee o[tttd) beg 15. "^'angengrabeS Tjt 
Son ©recntoic^ unb in ben §afen beS 
ediitiarjen SDIeereS mafjrenb ber Sauer 
hcg aSaffenftiltftanbeg teine Jruppen 
,5ufammensu5iel)en. 

HI. 

?llg 3)emarfation§Iinicn on ber euro= 
paifd)en gront gelten bie beiberfcttigen 
oorberften §inberniffc ber etgenen 
e'tcllungcn. 33tefe ?inien bltrfcn nur 
unter ben S^icbingnngen ber ^iffe^ I^ 
iiberfdnitten icerben. 

Sort, rto feine gefd)(offenen £tel= 
lungen befte{)en, giit beiber[eit§ al§ 
3)emarfationgIinie bie ®erabe jtoifdjen 
ben Oorberften befetjeu ^^unften. 2)er 
^tDifd}enraum jtoifdien ben beiben 
?inien gift ate neutral, (gbenfo finb 
fdliffbare gfUffc, bie bie beiberfeitigen 
<iteltungen trennen, neutral unb unbe= 
fabrbar, eg fei benn, bafe eg fid) urn 
oeretnbarte §anbetefcbifffaf)rt banbelt. 
3n ben SIbfdinitten, mo bie ©tellungen 
toeit augeinonber liegen, finb algbalb 
bur(^ bie 2Baffenfttltftanbgtommiffion 
(3iffer VII) 2)emartationgIinien feft= 
jutegen unb fenntlid) ju mac^en. 



2luf beft ruffifd)»tlirfif(^en llriegg= 
fd)auplci^en in Slfien finb bie S)einar= 
Iationg(inien folnie ber 35erM)r liber 
biefeiben (^iffei^ IV) nad) 23ereinbarung 
ber beiberfeitigen §bd} ftfommanbics 
renben ^u beftimmen. 

IV. 

3ur Sntmirflung unb 23efeftigung Der 
freunbfcbaftiic^en Sejiebungen ^tBifdjen 
ben 35o(fcru ber oertragfd)Uefienben ^ar= 
teten tnirb ein organifierter S5erfef)r ber 
Truppen unter fotgenben SSebingungen 
geftattet: 



1918, Russian time), on the front 
between tlie Black Sea and the 
Baltic Sea, unless such transfers 
had already been begun at the 
moment of the signing of the 
armistice. 

Finally, the contracting parties 
obligate themselves not to assem- 
ble any troops in the harbors of 
the Baltic Sea east of 15° longi- 
tude east of Greenwich and in 
the harbors of the Black Sea 
during the period of the armistice. 

III. 

The advance entanglements of 
eaclr party's position wiU be con- 
sidered as demarcation lines on 
the European front. These lines 
may be crossed only under the 
conditions noted in IV. 

In places wliere entrenched 
positions do not exist, the demar- 
cation lines for each side will be 
a straight line drawn through the 
most advanced occupied positions. 
Tlie space between the two lines 
will be considered neuti'al ground. 
Lilce.Vi'ise, navigable rivers sepa- 
rating the opposing positions will 
be neutral and closed to naviga- 
tion, except in case of commer- 
cial shipping agreed upon. For 
sections in which the positions 
are widely separated it will de- 
volve upon the Armistice Com- 
mission (VII) to determine and 
establisli tlie lines of demarcation. 

In the Russo-Turkish theaters 
of war in Asia, the lines of demar- 
cation, as well as intercourse 
througli them(IV), are to be deter- 
mined by agrc^ement of the divi- 
sion commanders of both sides 

IV. 

For the development and 
strengtluuiing of the friendlj" 
relations botwtion the p(^o]dos of 
the contracting parties, organized 
intercourse between tlie troops is 
permittee I under the following con- 
ditions : 



ARMISTICE AGREEMENT. 



1. Ser 33erfe£)r ift erIauBt fiir 'iI3ar= 
lamentcire, fltr bte aJfttglteber bcr SBaf= 
fenfttllftanbsfommifftonen (differ VII) 
unb beren 33ertreter. ®te alk mtiffcn 
baju Slugmetfe Oon tninbefteng einem 
forpg^fi^ommanbo bejh). J!orp§fomitee 
be[i^en. 

2. 3n iebem 2Ibfd)nitt einer ruffifd)en 
3)itttftoTi fann an ettoa 2 big 3 SteHen 
organtiierter S3erfe£)r ftattftnben. 

^ier^u finb im gtntoernefimen ber 
fid) gegenliberftebenben Sioifionen 33er= 
lebrSftelkn in ber neutralen ,3one 
jlDifc^en ben Semarfationglintcn ein= 
juriditen unb burd) meifee glaggen ju 
bejeidjnen. SDer 58erfe£)r ift nur bei 
Xogc Son ©onnenaufgang big ©Dnnen= 
untergang julaffig. 

3In ben 33erfebrgftel[en bilrfen fid) 
gleidigeitig f)od)fteng 25 3Ingef)brige 
jeber "ipartei of)ne SBafJen auff)alten. 
3)er Jlugtaufd) bon 5^ad)rid)ten unb 
,3eitungen ift geftattet. Offene 5Sriefe 
fijnnen jur Seforberung ilbergeben 
luerben. Ser S3ertauf unb Slugtaufdj 
Don SBaren beg tctglidjen ®ebraud)g an 
ben 5Serfe£)rgfteIIen ift eriaubt. 

3. 35te Seerbigung ©efallener in ber 
neutralen 3one ift eriaubt.' 3)ie na= 
beren S^eftimmungen finb jebegmaj burc^ 
bie beiberfeitigen Sitiifionen ober ^obe= 
ren jDienftftellen ju Bereinbaren. 

4. Ueber bie JRttdfefir entlaffener 
^eeregange£)briger beg einen ?anbeg, bie 
jenfeitg ber ©emarfationglinie beg an= 
beren ?anbeg bef)eimatet finb, fann 
erft bei ben griebengDerfianbhingen ent= 
■fd^ieben toerben. ^ierju rec^nen aud) 
bie i'inge^origen polnifd^er Jruppen^ 
teite. 

5. Sllle '5?erfonen, bie — entgegen ben 
Borftebenben 25ereinbarungen 1 big 4 — 
bie ©emarfationglinie ber ©egenpartei 
liberfdjreiten, tnerben feftgetialten unb 
erft bei griebengfcfilufe ober .S'iinbigung 
beg SBaffenftiltftanbeg ',urudgegeben. 

!Sie tjertragfdiUefjenben "iparteien tier= 
pflic^ten fid), it)re 2;ruppen burc^ 
ftrengen SSefebl unb eingel)enbe 58elef)= 



1. Intercourse is permitted par- 
lementaires and the members of 

the Armistice Commission (VII) 
and their representatives. All 
such must have passes signed by 
at least a corps commander or 
a corps committee. 

2. In each section of a Rus- 
sian division organized inter- 
course may take place at two 
to three places. 

For this purpose, by agreement 
of the divisions opposed to each 
other, centers of intercourse are 
to be established in the neutral 
zone between the demarcation 
lines and are to be distinguished 
by white flags. Intercourse is 
permissible only by day from 
sunrise to sunset. 

At the centers of intercourse 
not more than twenty-five un- 
armed persons belonging to either 
side may be present at any one 
time. The exchange of news and 
newspapers is allowed. Open 
letters may be passed for dispatch. 
The sale and exchange of wares of 
everyday use is permitted at the 
centers of intercourse. 

3. The interment of the dead 
in the neutral zone is permitted. 
The special details in each case 
are to be agreed upon by the 
divisional commanders on either 
side or their ranking officers. 

4. The question of the return 
of dismissed soldiers of one coun- 
try whose domiciles be beyond 
the demarcation lines of the other 
country, can be decided only at 
the peace negoti;itions. This ap- 
plies also to the members of Polish 
detachments. 

5. AU persons who — contrary 
to the agreements 1-4 preceding — 
cross the demarcation lines of tire 
opposing party will be arrested 
and not roloased until tlie conclu- 
sion of peace or the denunciation 
of the armistice. 

The con tracthig parties obhgate 
themselves to bring to the notice of 
their troops by strict orders and 



THE RUSSIAN " PEACE." 



rung auf @in{)alten ber S15erfel)rgbebm= 
flungen unb bte golgen tion Ueberf(firei= 
tungen ^inpmeifen. 



V. 

glir ben ©eefrieg tuirb folgenbes 
feftgelegt: 

1. 3)er SBaffenftiHftonb erftredt fic^ 
auf ha^ ganje ®cEih)arje 3D?eer unb auf 
bie Dftfee oftM) baS 15. Sangengrabeg 
Oft bon ©reentotd), unb jWar auf alte 
bort befinblt(^en ©ee= unb ?uftftreit= 
friifte ber bertragfcfiliefeenben '^Parteien. 

giir bie grage beg SBaffenfttffftanbeg 
im aSeifeen SKeer unb in ben ruffifc^en 
^iiftengetDaffern beg norbIid)en Sig= 
meereg h)irb tton ber beutfc^en unb 
ruffifc^en ©eefrieggteitung in gegenfei= 
tigem @intieme!)men eine befonbere 33er= 
einbarung getroffen rterben. @egen= 
feitige ^Ingriffe auf §anbetg= unb 
lf!rieggf($iffe in ben genannten ®e= 
raiiffem foHen nac^ 9)loglicf)teit f(f)on 
jefet unterbleiben. 

3n jene befonbere S3ereinbarung 
fotlen aucfi SBeftimmungen aufgenommen 
werben, um nad) S!}Jbg[id)feit ya. Ber= 
l^inbern, bafe ©eeftreitfrftfte ber t)er= 
tragfdjiiefeenben ^arteien fid) auf an= 
beren 50Jeeren befcimpfen. 

2. 3Ingriffe bon @ee aug unb aug 
ber Suft auf §afen unb .Suften ber 
anberen tiertragfc^liefeenben ^artei Votx- 
ben auf alien Sljeeren beiberfeitg unter= 
bleiben. 2Iud) ift bag Slnlaufen ber 'Don 
ber einen ^artei befe^ten §afen unb 
Silften burd) bie ©eeftreittriifte ber 
anberen 'ipartei berboten. 

3. S)ag Ueberfliegen ber ^a\m unb 
^'iiften ber anberen bertragfd}IieJ3enben 
^artei fomie ber SemarfationSlinien 
ift auf alien SJJeeren unterfagt. 

4. 3)ie !j)emarfationgUnien ber» 
laufen: 

a) im ©c^ttarjen Wttx: bon Olinfa — 
Seud)tturm (®t. ©eorgSmilnbung) 
— J?ap 3'erog (Jrapejunt), 



detailed explanation the neces- 
sity for the observance of the 
conditions of intercourse and the 
consequences of infraction thereof. 

V. 

With regard to naval warfare 
the following conditions are 
agreed upon: 

1. The armistice extends to the 
whole of the Black Sea and to the 
Baltic Sea east of 15° longitude 
east of Greenwich, and to all the 
naval and air forces of the con- 
tracting parties within these re- 
gions. 

Regarding the question of the 
armistice in the White Sea and in 
the Russian coastal waters of the 
northern Arctic Ocean, a special 
agreement will be entered into by 
the German and Russian naval 
high commands after mutual con- 
sultation. Attacks of either party 
upon mercantile and war vessels in 
the above-named waters shall cease 
from now on as far as possible. 

In this special agreement shall 
be included provisions to prevent, 
as far as possible, the naval forces 
of the contracting parties from 
engaging each other on other seas. 

2. Attacks by sea and by air 
upon ports and coasts belonging 
to one of the contracting parties 
will be discontinued by both, sides 
on all seas. Similarly, naval forces 
belonging to one party are for- 
bidden to enter the harbors and 
approach the coasts occupied by 
the other party. 

3. Flights over the ports and 
coasts of one of the contracting 
parties as well as over demarcation 
lines are forbidden upon all seas 
to the other party. 

4. The demarcation lines run 
as follows: 

a) in the Black Sea, from Olinka- 
Lighthouse (St. Georges 
mouth) to Cape Jeros (Trebi- 
zond), 



ARMISTICE AGEEEMENT. 



b) 3n ber Oftfee: bon 9Jogetuet 3Beft= 
flifte — Sffiormg — iSogSfaer — 
©oenSfa — ^oegartte. 

3)ie nat)ere geftfe^ung ber ?mie 
3tt)if(^en ilBormS unb S3oggfaer toirb 
ber 3Baffen[tttlftanbStommi[fion ber 
Oftfee (Btffer V II, 1) ijbertragen mtt 
ber 50?a6gabe, bafe ben rufftfc^en @ee= 
ftreitfraften bei alien SBetter= unb (gt8= 
tier{)altni[fen etne frete ga^rt na<i) ber 
SlalanbSfee getna£)rtetftet ift. 3)ie ruffi= 
fcEien ©eeftretttrafte hjerben bie 3)emar= 
fattonglmien ntrfit nadj ©iiben, bie 
®ee[trettfrafte ber 4 berbiinbeten iOJacEite 
m(^t nac^ S'torben ilberfc^reiten. 

3Die rufft[c^e 3Jegterang ubemtmmt 
bie ®elBaf)r bafiir, bafe ©eeftreittrafte 
ber Entente, bie fic^ bet SSeginn beS 
SBaffenftitlftanbeS nbrblic^ ber !Demar= 
fationglinien befinben ober fpater bort= 
t)in gelangen, fi(fi ebenfo beri)alten, h)ie 
bie ruffif^en ©eeftreitfrafte. 

5. 3)er §anbel unb bie §anbelg= 
fc^iffa{)rt in ben in differ 1 Slbfal? 1 
bejeicfineten ©eegebieten finb frei. 3)ie 
geftkgung alter SSeftimmungen fiir ben 
^anbel fotnie bie SSetanntgabe ber 
gefaf)rIofen SBege fiir bie §anbet§fc^iffe 
tbirb ben SBaffenftittftonbgfommiffionen 
beS ©c^aarsen JJJeereg unb ber Oftfee 
(3iffer VII, 1 unb 7) iibertragen. 

6. 2)ie dertragfcfiliefeenben ^arteien 
berpflic^ten fic£), hjctbrenb beS 2Baffen= 
ftillftanbeS int ®(f)tt)arjen 9}?eer unb in 
ber Oftfee feine SBorbereitungen ju 
Slngriff^operationen gur See gegen= 
einanber Borjune!)nten. 



h) in the Baltic Sea, from Rogekuel 
on the West Coast to Worms 
to Bogskaer to Svenska to 
Hoegarne. 

The more detailed determina- 
tion of the line between Worms 
and Bogskaer is delegated to the 
Armistice Commission for the 
Baltic Sea (VII, 1,) subject to the 
stipulation that the Russian war- 
ships are granted free passage to 
the Aaland Islands in all states of 
the weather and ice conditions. 
The Russian naval forces may not 
pass the demarcation lines to the 
south, the naval forces of the four 
Allied Powers to the north. 

The Russian Government guar- 
antees that the naval forces of the 
Entente which at the beginning of 
the armistice are situated, or which 
later may arrive, north of the de- 
marcationlines will conduct them- 
selves as provided for the Russian 
naval forces. 

5. Commerce and commercial 
shipping in the sea regions indi- 
cated under paragraph 1 is unre- 
strained . The establishment of all 
regulations for commerce as well 
as the publication of unrestricted 
lanes for merchant vessels are dele- 
gated to the Armistice Commis- 
sion for the Black Sea and the 
Baltic Sea (VII, 1 and 7). 

6. The contracting parties en- 
gage, during the duration of the 
armistice on the Black Sea and the 
Baltic Sea, not to undertake 
preparations for naval offensive 
warfare on the high seas. 



VI. 

Um Unrutje unb ^toifcEienfatle an ber 
grpnt ju bermeiben, bllrfen Uebungen 
mit 3"faitteriett)irfung nidit nciber alS 
5 kilometer, mit Slrtilleriemirfung ni(|t 
naljer alS 15 Ifilometer {jinter ben 
^ronten borgenommen merben. 

S)er ?onbminenfrieg toirb botlftcinbig 
eingefleHt. 



VI. 

To prevent disturbances and 
misunderstandings on the front, 
infantry firing practice nearer 
than five kilometers, artillery fir- 
ing practice nearer than fifteen 
kilometers, behind the fronts is 
prohibited. 

Mine warfare on land is to cease 
completely. 



6 



THE RUSSIAN' PEACE. 



Suftftrettfrftfte imb geffelbaffone muf= 
fen fid) aufeerfjalb etner 10 .tttometer 
breiten Suftjone tjinter ber eigetten 3De» 
marfation^Iinic f)alten. 

SIrbeiten an ben Stcdungen t)inter 
ben borberften ^rabtfjinberniffen finb 
eriaubt, jebod) nid)t fotcbe, bte ber 33or= 
berettung tton SIngriffen bienen fonnen. 

VII. 

Tlit SSeginn be§ 2BaffenftiIIftanbe« 
treten bte nad)ftel)enben „aBaffenfttII= 
ftanbigfommifftonen" (SSertreter iebeg an 
bem betrcffenben grontftiicf beteiltgten 
i^tantcS) 3ufammen, benen alle niili= 
tartfd)cn gragen flir bie SluSfiibrung ber 
SBaffenftillftanbSbeftimmungen in ben 
betreffenben S3ereid)en p^ufiibren finb : 



1. 5Riga fiir bie Cftfcc, 

2. 3)iinat)urg fiir bie gront Don ber 

SDftfee bis jur 33i«na, 

3. 58reft=?itoto6f fiir bie gront Oon 

ber CDiSna big jum $rtpet, 

4. 58erbitfdieh) fiir bie gront bom 

^rtbet bis jum Tnjcftr. 

5. J?oIo§ji3ar, unb 

6. Jocfani 

fiir bie gront bom Snjeftr big 
jum ©(^marjcn 9J?eer, ®ren3= 
beftimmung jtoifdjen beiben 
,f?ommiffionen 5 nnb 6 im ge= 
genfeitigen Einbernebmen. 

7. Obcffa fiir bag ©djtoarje Wkv. 
J)iefen .ft'ommiffionen iuerben un= 

mittelbore unb unfontrolfierte gern= 
fdjreibcleitungen in bie §eimntlanber 
ibrer 9V^itgIieber jur 5Perfiigung geftetit. 
3)ie Seitungen ioerben im cigenen ?anbe 
bis jur SDHtte jmifdjen ben T^emarfa^ 
tiongiinien bon ben betreffenben §eereg= 
leitungen gebaut. Slud) nuf ben ruffif(5= 
tiirfifdien ftricggfdiaupla^en in Slfien 
tberben bcrnrtige .^fommiffione'n einge* 
rid)tet nod) y'crcinbamng ber bciberfei= 
tigen .*ood)ftfommanbierenben. 



Aerial fighting forces and cap- 
tive balloons must be ke|)t outside 
an air zone of ten kilometers 
behind tlie respective demarca- 
tion lines. 

Work upon positions behind 
the advanced wire entangle- 
ments is permitted, but not such 
work as may serve as preparation 
for attack. 

VII. 

With inception of the armistice 
the following "Armistice Com- 
missions" (composed of repre- 
sentatives of each nation fighting 
on the section of the frcnt in 
question) wiU assemble, before 
which all military questions re- 
garding tire execution of the pro- 
visions of the armistice in the 
territories in question are to be 
laid. 

1. Riga, for the Baltic Sea; 

2. Dvinsk, for the front from the 

Baltic Sea to the Disna; 

3. Brest-Litovsk, for the front 

from the Disna to the 
Pripet; 

4. Berditschew, for the front from 

the Pripet to the Dniester; 

5. Koloszvar, and 

6. Focsani, 

for the front from the 
Dniester to the Black Sea, 
the boundaries between 
the two Commissions 5 and 
6 to be fixed by mutual 
agreement ; 

7. Odessa, for the Black' Sea. 
Direct and uncontrolled tele- 
graph lines to the home countries 
of their members wiU be placed at 
the disposal of these Commissions. 
The lines wiU be constructed by 
the respective army commands in 
their r(«[)ectivo countrii^s, as far 
as midway between the demar- 
cation lines. In the Russo-Tur- 
kish theaters of war in Asia sim- 
ilar Commissions will be estal)- 
lished in accoi'dance with agree- 
ments reached by the command- 
ers-in-clrief on both sides. 



ARMISTICE AGREEMENT. 



VIII. 

1)er iBertrag itber 9Boffcnruf)e tiom 
5. Desember (22. 9lobember) 1917 unb 
alle btSf)er fiir einjelne grontftilde 
abge[cf)Ioffenen 35erembarungen liber 
SBaf fenrube ober SBaf fenfttllftanb toerben 
burdb btefen SBaffenftiHftanbSbei^trag 
aufeer J?raft gefefet. 



IX. 

3)ie tiertragfdjKefeenben "iparteien tt)er= 
ben im unmtttelbaren S[nfcf)Iufi on bie 
llnterseicbnung biefcg 9Baffen[ttIIftonbS= 
bertragcS in grtebengberbanblungen ein= 
treten. ^ 

X. 

3tu§gef)enb Oon bem Orunbfa^e ber 
grei^eit, Unabf)(ingigfeit unb territo= 
rialen llnt)erfef)rtf)eit beS neutralen per= 
fifcben dtiidfei ftnb bie tilrfifc^e unb bie 
rufftfcfie Oberfte §eeregleitung bereit, 
if)re Jruppen au8 ^erfien gurlitfju^iefien. 
@ie toerben atebalb mit ber per[tfd}en 
9?egicrung in SSerbinbung treten, urn 
bie Sinjelfjeiten ber 9?aumurig unb bie 
jur ©icberftellung jeneS ©runbfa^eg 
fonft nod^ erforberlid^en 9Waftnaf)men ju 
regeln. 



XL 

3febe bertragfc^liefeenbe "iPortei erf)ttlt 
eine 2Iu6fertigung biefer S3ereinbarung 
in beutfc^er unb ruffifc^er ©pracfie, bie 
toon ben bebollmac^tigten 33ertretem 
unterjeic^net i[t. 

93reft=Sitoh)St, ben 15. ©eaember 
1917. 

(2. ©ejember 1917 ruffifc^en 
©til8). 

gej.: Unterfd^riften. 



VIII. 

The treaty concerning cessa- 
tion of hostirities of 5 December 
(22 November), 1917, and all 
agreements concluded up to this 
time on separate sectors of the 
front with regard to cessation of 
hostilities or an armistice are ren- 
dered null and void by this 
Armistice Treaty. 

IX. 

The contracting parties wiU 
enter into peace negotiations im- 
mediately after the signature of 
the present Armistice Treaty. 

X. 

Upon the basis of the principle 
of the freedom, independence, and 
territorial inviolability of the 
neutral Persian State, the Turk- 
ish and the Russian Supreme 
Commands are prepared to with- 
draw their troops from Persia. 
They will immediately enter into 
communication with the Persian 
Government, in order to regulate 
the details of the evacuation and 
the other necessary measures for 
the guaranteeing of the above- 
mentioned principle. 

XI. 

Each contracting party is to 
receive a copy of the agreement 
in the German and Russian lan- 
guages, signed by representatives 
with plenipotentiary powers. 

Bkest-Litovsk, the 15th day of 
December, 1917. 

(The 2nd day of December 
1917, Russian style). 

(Signatures foUow.) 



2. RUSSIA— CENTRAL POWERS. 



SUPPIEMENT TO ARMISTICE, COJiTCIUDED AT BEEST-LITOVSK, 

15 DECEMBER, 1917. 



[German text as published in the Deutscher 
Reichsanzeiger, 18 Decem.ber, 1917.] 

,Sur (Srcjiingung unb jum hjeiteren 
3lugbau be§ Slbfommeng iiber ben 2Baf= 
fenftillftanb ftnb bte Ocrtragfc&(teJ3enben 
■iparteien iiberemgefommen, fcbnellfteng 
bte 9?egelung beg 2lu8taufcf)e8 bon ,3^' 
bifgefangenen unb bienftuntauglid)en 
SriegSgefangenen unmtttelbar burd) ble 
gront in 2lngrtff iu nebmen. .gierbei 
fofi bte grage ber §eimf(^affung bee tm 
?aufe beS .filriegeg jurticfgcbaltenen 
gtauen unb -fjtnber unter 14 ^ab^en in 
erfter Sinie beruc![i(f)tigt merben. 

3)ic Dertragfrfiliefeenben "iparteien h)er= 
ben fofort filr tunlicbfte S3erbefferung 
ber ?age ber beiberfeitigen ffrieg§ge= 
fangenen ©orge tragen. 3)ieS foil eine 
ber bornebntften Slufgaben ber beteilig= 
ten SJegierungen fein. 

Um bie griebengDerbanblungen ju 
forbern unb bie ber Bi^'fifitton burc^ 
ben j?rieg gefdjlagenen SBunben fo 
fdinetl h)ie moglicb p beiten, foKen Tla^^' 
nabmen jur ${Bieber{)erfteIIung ber ful= 
tureffen unb lt)irt[d}nftli(|en SSejiebun^ 
gen jtoifc^en ben bertragfcbliefeenben 
fjarteien getroffen tuerben. ©iefem 
S^id foil unter anberent bienen: 

2)ie SBieberaufnabnte beS ^o[t= unb 
C>anbel§tierfebr§, ber S3er[anb bon SSiX' 
c|em unb .gettungen unb bergleicben 
innerf)alb ber burcb ben aSaffenftiltftanb 
gejogenen ®renjen. 



[Translation.] 

Supplementary to and in ex- 
tension of the armistice, the con- 
tracting parties have agreed to 
undertake as quicldy as possible 
the regulation of the exchange of 
civilian prisoners and prisoners 
of war unfit for military service 
directly through the front. The 
repatriation of women and chil- 
dren under fourteen years of age 
detained ]>y either side in the 
course of the war shall be first 
effected. 

The contracting parties will 
immediately arrange for the great- 
est possible amelioration of the 
condition of the prisoners of war 
on both sides. This shall be one 
of the foremost tasks of the Gov- 
ernments engaged. 

In order to promote the peace 
negotiations and to heal as 
quickly as possible the wounds 
inflicted by the war upon civi- 
lization, measures will be taken 
for the restoration of the cul- 
tural and economic relations be- 
tween the contracting parties. 
To this end the following, among 
other things, shall contribute: 

The reestablishment of postal 
and commercial intercourse, the 
transmission of books and news- 
papers and the like within the 
limits drawn by the armistice. 



10 



THE RUSSIAN ' ' PEACE. 



Snv 9?egelung ber gingelfietten toirb 
eine genitfc^te Sommiffion bon 93ertre= 
tern fcimtltc^er SBeteiligten bemnct(^[t in 
^etergburg sufammentreffen. 

33re[t=8ttoh38f, ben 15. S)ejember 
1917. 

©runbfci^ttd) genefimtgt unb unter 
35orbetiaIt ber enbgllltigen 5ormuUe= 
rung unterjeic^net: 

gej.: Unterfc^riften. 



For the settlement of the de- 
tails a mixed commission of rep- 
resentatives of all the parties en- 
gaged shall shortly meet in Petro- 
grad. 



Brest-Litovsk, 
1917. 



15 December,. 



Accepted in principle and 
signed under reserve of final 
formulation. 

(Signatures follo\\i 



3. RUSSIA— GERMANY. 



AlIEGED SECRET CONVENTION CONCERNING POLAND. CON- 
CLUDED AT BREST-LITOVSK, 22 DECEMBER, 1917.' 



English translation of the text published in the Gloa Naroda (Cracow) of 18 June, 1918, 
taken from the {British) Daily Review of the Foreign Press, Neutral Press Supple- 
ment, 5 July, 1918.^ 

Report of the sitting of Dec. 22, 1917, at General Headquarters, 
with the participation of the following persons: — (1) Representatives 
of the Russian Government — ^MM. Krylenko, Volodarsky, Zalkind, 
Uritsky, Raskolnikov, Fayerabend, Antonov, Derzhinsky, Kudraiev, 
Skrypkin; (2) Representatives of the German Command — MM. G. von 
Taubner, Erich von Schunemann, Rausch. 

The plenipotentiaries present have concluded the following agree- 
ment : — 

I. — Polish policy is to be conducted by the German Government. 

II. — ^The Russian Government does not in any way interfere in 
questions regarding the organisation of Poland, in consequence of 
which it has not the right to protest or to demand explanations — 

(1) Either in the question of the separation of the metal and 
coal district of Dombrova and its annexation to German terri- 

(2) Or in the question of the limitation of the rights of per- 
sons of Pohsh origin so far as concerns the petroleum industry 
in Galicia; 

(3) Or in the question of the separation and the government 
of the province oi Chelm; 

(4) Or in the question of the customs policy of Germany, of 
Austria-Hungary, of Lithuania, of Courland, of Esthonia, of 
Livonia, in relation to Poland; 

(5) Or in the question of the economic policy of Germany and 
of Austria-Hungary in the province of Posen, in Galicia, as well 
as the provinces that have just been detached from Russia. 

III. — ^The Council of Commissioners of the People has the right to 
remain in touch with the democratic, revolutionary centres existing 
in Poland, in order to propagate revolutionary ideas by sending into 

I A summary of this alleged treaty, corresponding in outline to the text here given, was published in the 
Gazette de Lausanne of 12 May, 1918. T'lc c dstence of the convention has been denied by the Soviet 
Government of Russia ( New York Times, 2 .1 ; ily, 1918) and by thf Austrian Government and the German 
Minister at Berne, (Christian Science ifonilo), 3 August, 191S). The (British) Daily Review of the 
Foreign Press, Neutral Press Supplement, 12 July, 1918, refers to an announcement in Novaya Zhtzn, 4 
May, 1918, of the discovery by the Speciiii CoLomittee for Fighting the Counter-Revolution of a secret 
organization led by two brothers, Lyntosla\'sJ<y, for the fabrication of forged documents, such as this con- 
vention concerning Poland. It also refers to an allegation by the Russische hachricUten (Berne) of an 
alibi for seven of the Russians alleged to have .ligned tlie convention, and to the same paper's denial of the 
existence of the two others. Anti-Bolshevik papers in Russia which printed the treaty were suppressed 
lor publishing false statements. 

86409—18 2 11 



12 

Poland agitators inscribed in the lists of the German information 
bureaux at Petrograd and also at Warsaw. 

IV.— The dispatch of agitators to Germany and Austria-Hungary 
will be interrupted by the Council of Commissioners of the People. 

V. — The Council of Commissioners of the People is to exercise 
surveillance over the groups of Polish Chauvinists, in order to pre- 
vent them raising volimteers for a territorial army in Eussia. 

VI. — Russia considers the crossing of the frontiers of Lithuania 
and the Ukraine by Polish troops a declaration of war by Poland 
on the German and Austro-Hungarian Empires, and Russia will give 
every assistance to the Germans and to the Austro-Hungarians to 
destroy these armies. 

VII. — The Council of Commissioners of the People, through its 
representatives at the future Peace Congress, will protest against the 
formation of a Polish army and Ministry of War in the name of 
Socialism and the abolition of war. 

VIII. — The Council of Commissioners of the People, with the help 
of its financial agents, is to see that Russian citizens do not place 
their capital, and also do not place French, English, or American 
capital, in industrial, urban, mining or maritime enterprises in 
Poland. 

IX. — If the German Government and the Austro-Hungarian. 
Government consider it necessary to change completely their po- 
litical relations in regard to Poland, the Government of the Com- 
missioners of the People undertakes to recognise the new course of 
things and to defend it against the obstacles which might be opposed 
to it by the former Allies of Russia. 

The protocol has been signed by the persons mentioned above and 
three copies have been made, which have been compared with the 
original, and found in conformity to it, Jan. 15, 1918. No. 82/924, 
No. 129. 

Head of the German Information Bureau. 

(Signed) A. Hafee, Adjutant. 
M. Keeisler. 



4. RUSSIA— CENTRAL POWERS. 



THE PEACE OF BEEST-LITOVSK— THE TREATY OF PEACE 
BETWEEN RUSSIA AND GERMANY, AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, 
BULGARIA AND TURKEY. SIGNED AT BREST-LITOVSK, 
3 MARCH, 1918/ 



[Gervian text as published in the Reichs- 
Gesetzblatt, No. 77, 11 June, 1918.] 

Sa Seutfcfilanb, Ofterretc^^Ungara, 
93u(garten unb bie Xiirtei einerfeitg 
unb 9?u6Ianb anbererfeits u&ereinge= 
fommen ftnb, ben .S'riegSjuftanb ju be= 
enben unb bie griebengoerlianblungen 
mogltc^ft rafcf) pm ^\dt ju filfjren, 
tourben ju S8et)ottmac^tigten emannt: 

fton ber Saiferlic^ Seutfc^en $Re= 
gierung: _ 

ber otaatgfefretiir beS 2tugmarti= 
gen 3lmte«, f aiferUd)er 9Birf= 
lid^er @e[)eimer 9Jat, §err 
3?icf)arb oon ,f uf)Imann, 

ber j?aiferlic^e ©efanbte unb be= 
Dotlmaditigte SWinifter, §err 
3)r. t)on ^Rofenberg, 

ber l?onigli(f) "ipreufeifiiie ®eneral= 
major Hoffmann, SI)ef be§ 
®eneralftabe§ beS £)berbefef)I§= 
^aberS Oft, 

ber ^apitctn jur ©ee §oni, 
oon ber f. u. f. gemeinfamen ofter= 
reid^ifcf)=ungari[cben OJegierung: 

ber aWinifter beg f aif. unb j^bn. 
§aufe8 unb beg Slufeem, Seiner 
f. u. t. Slpoftolifc^en aKajeftat 
©efieimer SRat, Ottofor ®raf 
Sjerain oon unb ju Sf)ubeni^, 



[Tra/wte(ion.] 

Germany, Austria Hungary, 
Bulgaria, and Turkey for the 
one part, and Russia for the 
other part, being in accord to 
terminate the state of war, and 
to enter into peace negotiations 
as speedily as possible, have 
appomted as plenipotentiaries: 

On the part of the Imperial 
German Government: 

The Secretary of State for 
Foreign Affairs, the Actual 
Imperial Privy Coun- 
cillor, Herr Richard von 
Kiihlmann; 
The Imperial Envoy and 
A'linister Plenipotentiary, 
Dr. von Rosenberg; 
Royal Prussian Major Gen- 
eral Hoffman, Chief of the 
General Staff of the Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the 
East; 
Naval Captain Horn; 
On the part of the Imperial 
and Royal Joint Austro-Hun- 
garian Government: 

The Minister of the Im- 
perial and Royal House 
and for Foreign Affairs, 
the Privy Councillor of 
His Imperial and Royal 
Apostolic Majesty, Otto- 
kar Count Czernin von 
und zu Chudenitz : 



'Ratifications exchanged between Russia and Germany, 29 March, at Berlin (Neut Freie Presse, 6 
July, morning edition; cf. infra, p. 1S9); between Austria-Hungary and Russia, 4 July, at Berlin (Neue 
Freie Presse, 6 July, morning edition); between Turkey and Russia, 12 July, at Berlin ( Neue Freie Presse, 
13 July, evening edition); between Bulgaria and Russia, 9 July, at Berlin (.Daily Review of the Foreign 
Press (British), 13 July, 1918, p. 602). 



14 



THE RUSSIAN PEACE. 



ber aufeerorbentlid^e unb betioH= 
maditigte 58otf(f)after, ©etner 
f. It. I. 2IpoftoIif({)en ajjajeftttt 
©el}eimer 9?at, §err ^ajetan 
9)?erei} Don Sapo8»2)tcre, 

ber ©eneral ber 3nfanterie, ©einer 
f. u. t. 3Ipo[toIif(f)eit gWajeftcit 
®el)eimer 9?at, §err 9(Kaft= 
mitian GftcfericS Son 93ac[anl), 

tion ber SomglicE) 33ulgarifd)en $Ke= 
gterung : 

ber ^ontgltdje Slufeerorbentlic^c 
©efanbte unb beboHmadjttgte 
SKintfter in SBien, Slnbrea 
2:ofcfieff, 

ber Cberft im ©eneralftabe, ^o= 
niglicb S3ulgarif(fier 5DttIitarbe= 
t>oI[mad)tigter bet ©etner 9D^a= 
jeftat bem !j)eutfd)en J?aifer unb 
glligclabiutant ©einer 9Jfoje= 
ftctt be§ ,S?bntg8 ber Sulgaren, 
■iPeter ©antfrfietD, 

ber IJoniglic^ S8ulgarifd)e Srfte 
?egatton§[etretctr 3)r. 2:f)eobor 
Sluaftaffoff, 
Don ber Saiferlid) Ogmantfi^en 5He» 
gierung: 

©eine §obett ^brabtm §affi 
^a[($a, efjematiger ©rofemefir, 
SWitgtieb beg £)ttomanif($en 
©enatS, beDottmaditigter S5ot= 
fd)oftcr ©einer a}?a)eftat beS 
©uitanS in SBerlin, 

©eine Sjjellenj, ©eneral ber Sta-- 
Datterie, ©eneralabiutant ©ei« 
ner SWaieftcit beg ©ultanS unb 
5D'Jititctrbet)oIImad)tigter ©einer 
SWaieftat beS ©ultnnS bei ©ei= 
ner aJJajcftat bem 'Deutfc^en 
,f dfer, „8efi ^ofc^n, 
Oon ber 9iuffifd)en goberatiben ©on)= 
ietg=9?epublif: 

©rigorij 3fotott)tetoitfdi ©otols 
nitom, 3WitgIieb' beS „3entral= 
ejefutitiau§f(|uffeg ber JKate ber 
^rbeiter=, @oIbaten= unb 58au= 
ernbeputierten, 



The Envoy Extraordinary 
and Plenipotentiary of His 
Imperial and Roval Apos- 
tolic Majesty, the Privy 
Councillor, itajetan Merey 
von Kapos-Mere; 

General of Infantry, His Im- 
perial and Royal Apos- 
tolic Majest3''s Privy 
Councillor, Maximilian 
Csicserics von P>acsany; 
On the part of the Royal Bul- 
garian Government: 

The Royal Envoy Extraor- 
dinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary in Vienna, 
Andrea Tosheff ; 

Colonel Peter Gantschew of 
the General StafT, Royal 
Bulgarian Military Envoy 
Plenipotentiary to His 
Majesty the German Em- 
peror and Aide-de-Carap 
of Plis Majesty the King 
of the Bulgarians; 

The Royal Bulgarian First 
Legation Secretary, Dr. 
Theodore Anastassof; 
On the part of the Imperial 
Ottoman Government: 

His Highness Ibraham Hak- 
ki Pasha, former Grand- 
Vizier, Member of the Ot- 
toman Senate, Envoy 
Plenipotentiary of His 
Majesty the Sultan to 
Berlin ; 

His Excellency, Zeki Pasha, 
General of Cavalry, Adju- 
tant General of His Maj- 
esty the Sultan, and Mili- 
tary Envoy Plenipoten- 
tiary to His Majesty the 
German Emperor; 
On the part of the Russian 
Federal Soviet-Republic : 

Grigory lakovlevich, Sokol- 
nikow Member of the Cen- 
tral Executive Committee 
of Councillors to the Depu- 
ties of the Workingmen, 
Soldiers, and Peasants; 



THE PEACE OE BREST-LITOVSK. 



15 



Seln 3JJid)ailohittj'(^ tarac^an, 
3WttgIieb be§ 3entralejefuti»= 
auSfd}uffe§ bcr !>Rate ber 3.lr= 
belters, ©oIbaten= unb S3auem= 
beputierten, 

©eorgii ilSaffitiewitfcf) 2;|c()itf(^e= 
rm, ©e^tlfe beg 58oI(gtommt[» 
farS fiir auStocirtige 2lngelegen= 
£)eiten, 

©rigorij ^manotoitfcfj "iPetroliDgtti, 
S3oIf6tommtffar fiir tnnere SIn= 
gelegenfietten. 

©te SBeboIlmac^tigten ftnb in S3reft= 
Sitoh)gf ju ben grieben^tierfianblungen 
pfammengetreten unb I)aben fic^ nac^ 
SSorlegung if)rer in guter unb gef)origer 
gorm befunbenen 25oIImac^ten itbet 
folgenbe 33e[timmungen geeinigt. 



2lrtifel I. 

Seutfc^lanb, Oefterreic^ = Ungam, 
iButgarien unb bie Jiirfei einerfeitS unb 
Sffufelanb anbererfeitS erflareu, ba& ber 
firiegSpftanb jmifc^en tEinen beenbet ift. 
®ie finb entfc^Ioffen, fortan in grieben 
unb greuubfcEiaft miteinanber ju leben. 



Slrtttel II. 

. 3)ie tiertragfdfiliefeenben Jeite toerben 
jebe Stgitation ober "iPropaganba gegen 
bie Siegierung ober bie ®taatg= unb 
$eeregeinri(^tungen beg anberen JeileS 
unterlaffen. 35ie ifierpflicfitung gilt, 
fotoeit fie Stufelanb obliegt, aucEi fiir bie 
Don ben SKac^ten beg 23ierbunbeg befe^= 
ten ©ebiete. 



Slrtifel III. 

■Die ©ebiete, bie tneftlicb ber jtoifc^en 
ben oertragft^Iie^enben STeilen t)erein= 
barten Sinie liegen unb ju 9?u6Ianb ge= 
f)ort i)aben,h)erbenber ruffifc^en^taatg= 



Lew Michailovich Kcarachan, 
Member of the Central 
Executive Committee of 
Councillors , to the Depu- 
ties of the Worldngmen, 
Soldiers, and Peasants; 

Georgy Vassilievich Tchi- 
tcherin, Assistant to the 
People's Commissioner for 
Foreign Affairs; 

Grigory Ivanovich Petrov- 
sk}", People's Commis- 
sioner for internal Affairs. 

The Plenipotentiaries met in 
Brest-Litovsk to enter into peace 
negotiations, and after presenta- 
tion of their credentials, and find- 
ing them in good and proper form, 
have agreed upon the following 
stipulations: 

Article I. 

Germany, Austria-Hungary, 
Bidgaria, and Turkey, for the one 
part, and Russia, for the other 
part, declare that the state of 
war between them has ceased. 
They are resolved to live hence- 
forth in peace and amity with 
one another. 

Article II. 

The contracting parties will 
refrain from any agitation or 
propaganda against the Govern- 
ment or the public and military 
institutions of the other party. 
In so far as this obligation 
devolves upon Russia, it holds 
good also for the territories occu- 
pied by the Powers of the Quad- 
ruple Alliance. 

Article III. 

The territories lying to the 
west of the line agreed upon by 
the contracting parties which for- 
merly belonged to Russia, will no 
longer be subject to Russian sov- 



16 



THE EUSSIAN 



PEACE. 



£)ot)ett nidjt met)r unterftef)en ; bie tierein= 
barte ?inte ergifat fid) oug ber bicfem 
griebmgbertrag ate ftiefentltdjer iBe= 
ftanbteit betgefiigten Jl'arte (31nlage 1). 
^ie genaue geftkgung ber ?tnie it)irb 
biird) eine beutfd)=ruf|'i[cf)e ,<}'ommiffton 
erfolgen. 

Sen in 9Jebe ftebenben ©ebieten ttier= 
ben aug ber ebemaligen 5ugef)ijrigteit 
3u JRufelanb feinerki S3erpfUd)tungen 
gegenitber SJufelanb erlnacbfen. 

$KufeIanb berjicbtet auf jcbe gin= 
mi[d)ung in bie inneren S^erbciltniffe 
biefer ©ebiete. Seutfcblanb unb Oefter= 
reid&=llngorn beabfic^tigen, baS fiinftige 
©cbidfal biefer ©ebiete im 93ene^men 
mit beren Seoblferung ju beftimmen. 



Slrtifel IV. 

3)eutf($Ianb ift bereit, fobalb ber 0(1= 
gemeine griebe gefdjioffen unb bk ruf= 
fifcfie Semobilmaci^ung tiollfommen 
burd)gefiif)rt ift, bag ®ebiet ofttic^ ber 
tm Slrtifel III 3Ibfo^ 1 bejeic^neten 
Stnie 3U rimmen, fotoeit nicbt Slrtifel 
VI anberg beftimmt. 

JKufelanb toirb al(e§ in feinen .ftraften 
©tebenbe tun, um bie afebalbige 9Jau= 
mung ber oftonatolifc&en ^robinjen unb 
if)re orbnunggmci^ige 9itl(fgabe an bie 
STlirfei ficberjuftetkn. 

3)ie ^Bejirfe (grbe!)an, J?arg unb 
58atum ftierben gkicbfallS obne 33erjug 
Don bm ruffifdjen jruppen gereiumt. 
JRufelanb >Dirb fid} in bie 9teuorbnung 
ber ftaatgre($tlicben unb t)oIferrecb= 
tlit^en 2SerI)aItniffe biefer SBejirfe nid)t 
einmifdien, foubern iiberlafet e8 ber 
58et)oIterung bkfer S3esirte, bk 9teu» 
orbnung im Sinbemebmen mit ben 
SfJac^barftaaten, namentlid) ber Xiirfei, 
bur(^3uflibren. 



SIrtifel V. 

9JufeIanb ibirb bk bbdige !J)emobil= 
ma(^ung feine§ ^eereg einfc^Ikfelicb ber 
Don ber jefeigen 9?egierung neugebitbeten 
§eeregteik unberjilglicb burcbfilbren. 



ereignty; the line agreed upon is 
traced on the map submitted as 
an essential part of this treaty of 
peace (Annex 1). The exact fixa- 
tion of the line will be established 
by a Russo-German commission. 

ISTo obligations whatever toward 
Russia shall devolve upon the 
territories referred to, arising 
from the fact that they formerly 
belonged to Russia. 

Russia refrains from' aU inter- 
ference in the internal relations 
of these territories. Germany 
and Austria-Hungary purpose, to 
determine the future status of 
these- territories in agreement 
with their population. 

Article IV. 

As soon as a general peace is 
concluded and Russian demobil- 
ization is carried out completely, 
Germany will evacuate the terri- 
tory lying to the east of the line 
designated in paragraph 1 of Ar- 
ticle III, in so far as Article VI 
does not determine otherwise. 

Russia will do aU within her 
power to insure the immediate 
evacuation of the provinces of 
eastern Anatolia and their lawful 
return to Turkey. 

The districts of Erdehan, Kars, 
and Batum will likewise and with- 
out delay be cleared of the Rus- 
sian troops. Russia will not in- 
terfere in the reorganization of 
the national and international 
relations of these districts, but 
leave it to the population of these 
districts, to carry out this re- 
organization in agreement with 
the neighboring States, especially 
with Turkey. 

Article V. 

Russia will, without delay, 
carry out the full demobilization 
of her army inclusive of those 
units recently organized by the 
present Government. 



THE PEACE OP BREST-LITOVSK. 



17 



JJemer rtirb Dtufelanb feme friegg^ 
fcf)tffe entttieber in rufftfc^e ^a^tn ii6er- 
fii^ren unb bort big jutti aKgenteinen 
griebensfdilufe belaffen ober fofort beg= 
armieren. Iltteggfd}iffe ber mit ben 
W&iiUn beg 95ierbunbeg im ^riegg= 
pftanb Derbleibenben ©taaten tcerben, 
fotoeit fie fic^ im ruffifdjen 9}^ac5tberei(^ 
befinben, ttiie ruffifc^e ffrieggf(^iffe 
befjanbelt luerben. 



Sag ©perrgebiet im (Sigmeer bteibt 
big pm attgemeinen griebengfc^Iufe be= 
ftefjen. 3n ber Oftfee unb, fotneit bie 
ruffifc^e SJJadit reicbt, im ©d)VDar3en 
2>?eere toirb fofort mit ber 3Begrau= 
mung ber SWinen begonnen. S)ie §an= 
belgf^iffaf)rt in biefen ©eegebieten ift 
frei unb h)irb fofort mieber aufge= 
nommen. S'^'^ Sefttegung ber na= 
l^eren Seftimmungen, namentlic^ 3ur 
99efanutgabe ber gefaf)rIofen SBege flir 
bie §anbelgf(^iffe, ftierben gemifd^te 
^ommiffionen eingefe^t. 3)ie ©c^if= 
fa{)rtgtDege fiub bauemb bou treibenben 
9)Jinen freijutjalten. 



Strtifel VI. 

JRufelanb berpflic^tet fic^, fofort 5rie= 
ben' mit ber Ufrainifc^en S5oItgrepubIi£ 
ju fdlliefeen unb ben ^^riebengbertrag 
jloift^en biefem ©taate unb ben 3}Jac6ten 
beg 93ierbunbeg onjuertennen. S)ag 
ufrainifc^e ®ebiet ftiirb unberjitglidi 
tion ben ruffifdjen Slruppen unb ber 
ruffifc^en JRoten ®arbe geriiumt. 9?u6= 
lanb ftellt iebe Slgitation ober "ipropa' 
ganba gegen bie JKegierung ober bie 
offentlic^en ginric^tungen ber Ufraini= 
fd^en 93oIfgrepubIif ein. 



gftlanb unb Siblanb toerben gleid)= 
fallg of)ne SBerjug bon ben ruffifc^en 
Zmpptn unb ber ruffifc^en 3? oten @arbe 
geraumt. ®ie Oftgrenje bon (Sftlanb 
lauft im attgemeinen bem 9larh)a= 
gluffe entlang. 3)ie Oftgrenje bon 
Siblanb berlauft im attgemeinen burc^ 
ben ^eiDug=©ee unb "iPfforafc^en ©ee big 



Furthermore, Russia will either 
bring her warships into Russian 
ports and there detain them until 
the day of the conclusion of a 
general peace, or disarm them 
forthwith. Warships of the 
States which continue in the state 
of war wath the Powers of the 
Quadruple Alliance, in so far as 
they are within Russian sov- 
ereignty, will be treated as Rus- 
sian warships. 

The barred zone in the Arctic 
Ocean continues as such until the 
conclusion of a general peace. 
In the Baltic sea, and, as far as 
Russian power extends within the 
Black sea, removal of the mines 
will be proceeded with at once. 
Merchant navigation within these 
maritime regions is free and will 
be resumed at once. Mixed com- 
missions will be organized to 
formulate the more detailed regu- 
lations, especially to inform mer- 
chant ships with regard to re- 
stricted lanes. The navigation 
lanes are always to be kept free 
from floating mines. 

Article VI. 

Russia obligates herself to 
conclude peace at once with the 
Ukrainian People's Republic and 
to recognize the treaty of peace 
between that State and the 
Powers of the Quadruple Alli- 
ance. The Ukrainian territory 
will, without delay, be cleared of 
Russian troops and the Russian 
Red Guard. Russia is to put an 
end to all agitation or propaganda 
against the Government or 
the public institutions of the 
Ukrainian People's Republic. 

Esthonia and Livonia will like- 
wise, without delay, be cleared of 
Russian troops and the Russian 
Red Guard. The eastern bound- 
ary of Esthonia runs, in general, 
along the river Narwa. The east- 
ern boundary of Livonia crosses, 
in general, lakes Peipus and Pskow, 



18 



THE RUSSIAN 



PEACE. 



ju beffen tollbtoeftede, batin liber ben 
Subanfdjcn ®ee in SJidjtung Sitien^of 
an ber 3)iina. @ft(anb unb ?ttilanb 
inerben Bon etner beutfcfjen ^otijeimad)t 
befe^t, bis bort bie ©id)erf)eit bur(^ 
eigene ?anbe«einrid)tungen getxia!)rkiftet 
unb bie ftaatltd)e Orbnung I)ergeftetlt tft. 
SKuistanb iuirb alle Berbafteten ober Ber= 
fdlleppten SetBobaer (S[tlanbg unb ?iB= 
lanbg fofort freilaffen unb gemdfirleiftet 
bie fid)ere 9?ucffenbung offer Berfd)Iepp= 
ten ©[tfcnber unb ?ioIanber. 



Slud) ginlanb unb bie SKalanbinfeIn 
tt)erben alsbalb Bon ben rn[ftfd)en 2;rup» 
pen unb ber ruffifc^en 9Joten ®arbe, bie 
finifc^en .giafen Bon ber ruffifc^en glotte 
unb ben ruffif(^en ©eeftreitfraften ge= 
raumt. ©olange bag @i8 bie Ueber= 
fiil^rung ber J?!rteggfd)iffe in ruffifdie 
§afen auSfdjIiefet, fterben auf ben 
^rieg§fd)tffen nur fc^toadie ^ommanboS 
priidbleiben. 9?u^Ianb [tefft jebe 2tgi= 
tation ober "ijJropaganba gegen bie $Re= 
gierung ober bie offentlic^en @inrid)= 
tungen ginlanbg ein. 

3)ie auf ben Slalanbinfein angelegten 
58efefttgungen finb fobalb ate mogtid) ju 
entfernen. Ueber bie bauernbe 9^id)t= 
befe[tigung biefer 3nfeln fortiie liber ibre 
fonftige SSebanblung in miKtarifd}er unb 
fd^iffab' ^ rifd)er §infi($t ift ein 6e= 
fonberet, .. , mmen jttifdien S)eutfdi= 
ianb, gin ■/ 
iu treffen; 

barliber, bafe b^»-o . »uf SBunfd) S)eutfcb= 
lanbS auc§ anbere Stnliegerftaaten ber 
Oftfee fjingugieben fein tolirben. 



^'anb unb ©dirteben 
■lebt ginBerftanbniS 



to the southwestern corner of the 
latter, then across Lake Luban 
in the direction of Livenhof on 
the Dvina. Esthonia and Livo- 
nia will be occupied by a German 
police force until security is in- 
sured by proper national institu- 
tions and until public order has 
been established. Eussia will lib- 
erate at once all arrested or de- 
ported inhabitants of Esthonia 
and Livonia, and insures the safe 
return of all deported Ethonians 
and Livonians. 

Finland and the Aaland Islands 
will imrhediately be cleared of 
Russian troops and the Russian 
Red Guard, and the Finnish ports 
of the Russian fleet and of the 
Russian naval forces. So long as 
the ice prevents the transfer of 
warships into Russian ports, only 
limited forces will remain on 
board the warships. Russia is to 
put an end to all agitation or pro- 
paganda against the Government 
or the public institutions of Fin- 
land. 

The fortresses built on the 
Aaland Islands are to be removed 
as soon as possible. As regards 
the permanent non-fortification of 
these islands as well as their fur- 
ther treatment in respect to 
military and technical navigation 
matters, a special agreement is to 
be concluded between Germany, 
Finland, Russia, and Sweden; 
there exists an understanding to 
the effect that, upon Germany's 
desire, still other countries border- 
ing upon the Baltic Sea would be 
consulted in this matter. 



Slrtifel VII. 



Article VII. 



IBon ber Zat\ad)t au«gel)enb, bafe 
^er[ien unb 2Ifgboniftan freie unb unab= 
I)angige ©taaten finb, Berpflid)ten fid} 
bie Bertragfc^Iiefeenben Xdk, bie poU» 
ttfd)e unb ltiirtfd)aftlid)e Unabljiingigfeit 
unb bie territoriote UnBerfet)rtf)ett biefer 
©taaten ju aditen. 



In view of the fact that Persia 
and Afghanistan are free and in- 
dependent States, the contracting 
parties obligate themselves to 
respect the political and economic 
independence and the territorial 
integrity of these States. 



THE PEACE OF BBEST-LITOVSK. 



19 



?Irttfel VIII. 

3)ie betberfeitigeu Uriegggefangenen 
tDerben in tt)re Seimat entlaffen. 3)ie 
9?ege(ung ber Ijiermit 3ufamment)an= 
genben^gragen erfolgt burrf) bie im 2Ir» 
tifet XII oorgefet)enen (ginjeltiertrctge. 



SIrtitel IX. 

Sie Bertragfdjllefeenben Xtik tierst(f)= 
ten gegenfeitig auf ben @rfa^ iijxtx 
I'rieggfoften, b. f). ber ftaatlicf)en 2Iuf= 
rtenbungen fur bie J?riegfu{)rung, foiDie 
auf ben (grfa^ ber j?rieggi(f)aben, b. f). 
berjenigen ©cfiiiben, bie i{)nen unb lijxm 
2lngef)brigen in ben ^riegggebieten burd) 
militarif(|e a)fa6naJ)men mit @infcE)Iu6 
aller in geinbegtonb tiorgenommenen 
9?equifittonen entftanben finb. 



Slrtifel X. 

S)te bi)Dlomatif(f)en unb fonfularifcfeen 
SSejiebungen jh)if(^en ben bertragf(^Iie= 
feenben Jeilen rterben fofort nacb ber 
9{atifilatton beg griebengbertrggeS h)ie= 
ber aufgenommen. SBegen ^ulaffung 
ber beiberfeitigcn .fonfuln bleiben be= 
fonbere 33ereinbarungen borbeI)aIten. 

Slrtifel XI. 

giir bie rtirtfcfiaftlic^en SSejie^ungen 
jrtiifd&en ben 9Ka(^ten beg 33ierbunbeg 
unb 3?u6Ianb finb bie in ben 21nlagen 2 
big 5 entbattenen SSeftimmungen ma6= 
gebenb, unb jtcar Slnlage 2 filr bie 
beutfcb=mffif(fien, Stnlage 3 fiir bie bfter= 
reic^if(fl=ungarifcb=ruffif(fien, Stnlage 4 
flir bie bulgarif(^=ruffifc^en, Hnlage 5 
ftlr bie tiirfifc^=ruffif(f)en SSejiebungen. 



Aeticle VIII. 

The prisoners of war of both 
parties will be released to return 
to their homeland. The settle- 
ment of the questions connected 
therewith will be efi'ected through 
the special treaties provided for in 
Article XII. 

Article IX. 

The contracting parties mu- 
tually renounce compensation for 
their war expenses, i. e., of the 
public expenditures for the con- 
duct of the war, as well as com- 
pensation for war losses, i. e., such 
losses as were caused them and 
their nationals within the war 
zones by military measures, in- 
clusive of all requisitions effected 
in enemy country. 

Article X. 

Diplomatic and consular rela- 
tions between the contracting 
parties wiU be resumed inmiedi- 
ately upon the ratification of the 
treaty of peace. As regards the 
reciprocal admission of consuls, 
separate agreements are -reserved. 

Article XI. 

As regards the economic rela- 
tions between the Powers of the 
Quadruple Alliance and Russia 
the regulations contained in Ap- 
pendices II-V are determinative, 
namely Appendix II for the Rus- 
so-German, Appendix III for 
the Russo — Austro - Hungarian, 
Appendix IV for the Russo-Bul- 
garian, and Appendix V for the 
Russo-Turkish relations. 



Slrtifel XII. 

©ie §erfteltung ber bffentlicben unb 
pribaten SJecbtgbestebungen, ber 2Iug= 
taufcb ber ^riegggefangenen unb ber 
^ibilintemierten, bie Slmneftiefrage fo= 



Article XII. 



The reestablishment of public 
and private legal relations, the 
exchange of war prisoners and 
interned civilians, the question 



20 



THE RUSSIAN PEACE. 



hjtc bie grage ber S^efjanfalung ber in bie 
©eraalt beg ®egner8 geratenen §anbete= 
f(^tffe merben in ©injetoertragen mil 
Siufelanb geregelt, njeldie einen rt)efent= 
lichen 93e[tanbteil be§ gegenhDctrtigen 
griebenSbertrageg bilben unb, fotceit 
tunlid^, gleid)iettig mit biefem in Jtraft 
treten. 



Strtifel XIII. 

S3ei ber Sluglegung biefeS 33ertrageS 
[inb flir bie ^^ejiefinngen jmifc^en 
2)eutfd)tanb unb Stufelanb ber beutfc^e 
unb ber mffif($e Jejt, fiir bie 33ejie= 
{)nngen jtcifc^en C)[terreic^=Ungam unb 
SJu^tanb ber beut[d)e, ber ungorifcEie unb 
ber ruffifc^e 3:eft, flir bie Sgejiefiungen 
5tt)if($en SSuIgarien unb $Ru§Ianb ber 
butgarifc^e unb ber ruffifc^e ieyt, unb 
flir bie 53esie£)ungen jttjifc&en ber iiirfei 
unb SRu^Ianb ber tlirfifd)e unb ber 
ruffifc^e feyt mafegebenb. 



5lrtifel XIV, 

3)er gegenttiartige griebenSDertrag 
ftjirb ratifijiert toerben. Sie 9iatififa= 
tionSurfunben follen tunlic^ft balb in 
Serlin auSgetaufc^t luerben. S)ie 9?uf= 
fif(fie 9?egierung berpftidjtet fic&, ben 
2Iu§tauW ber 9?atifitationgurfunben 
auf aSunfd^ einer ber SUJadite beS 3?ier» 
bunbeS innervate bon jmei Sffioc^en bor= 
june^men. 3)er griebengoertrag tritt, 
fomeit nicbt feine Slrtitel, feine 2tn= 
lagen ober bie ^ufiftbertriige onbcrS 
beftimmen, mit feiner 9?atififation 
in Sraft. 



^u Urfunb beffen ^aben bie ^foo\U 
mttcf)tigten biefen SSertrog eigenf)anbig 
unterjeii^net. 



of amnesty as well as the ques- 
tion anent the treatment of mer- 
chant ships which have come 
into the power of the opponent, 
will be regulated in separate 
treaties with Russia which form 
an essential part of the general 
treaty of peace, and, as far as 
possible, go into force simulta- 
neously with the latter. 

Article XIII. 

In the interpretation of this 
treaty, the German and Russian 
texts are authoritative for the 
relations between Germany and 
Russia; the German, the Hun- 
garian, and Russian texts for the 
relations between Austria-Hun- 
gary and Russia; the Bulgarian 
and Russian texts for the rela- 
tions between Bulgaria and Rus- , 
sia; and the Turkish and Russian 
texts for the relations between 
Turkey and Russia. 

Article XIV. 

The present treaty of peace wiU 
be ratified. Tlie documents of 
ratification shall, as soon as pos- 
sible, be exchanged in Berlin. 
The Russian Government obli- 
gates itself, upon the desire of one 
of the Powers of the Quadruple 
Alliance, to execute the exchange " 
of the documents of ratification, 
within a period of two weeks. 
Unless otherwise provided for in 
its articles, in its annexes, or in 
the additional treaties, the treaty 
of peace enters into force at the 
moment of its ratification. 

In testimony whereof the Pleni- 
potentiaries have signed this 
treaty with their own hand. 



THE PEACE OF BREST-LITOVSK. 



21 



Stuggeferttgt in filnffacfier Urfdjrift in 
S3reft=?itotoff am 3. Tl&xi 1918. 

9{. ti. f it;^Imann, 

Sufareft 7. 93Mrj 1918. 
b. $Kofenberg. 
Hoffmann, 
^orn. 

• (Sjernin, 

Sufareft 7. 9:i|ars 1918. 
Tlevet). 

21. Sofc^eff. 

Oberft % @antc^eix». 

©r. JI)eobor Slnaftaffoff. 

r. COKOJBHHKOB^. 

A. KapaxaHT.. 
r. laiepHHi. 

r. lleTpOBCKlB. 



Executed in quintuplicate at 
Brest-Litovsk, 3 March, 1918. 

R. T. KtiHLMANN, 

Bucharest, 7 March, 1918. 
V. Rosenberg. 
Hoffman. 
Horn. 

CZERNIN, 

Bucharest, 7 March, 1918. 
Merey. 

a. toscheff. 

Colonel P. Gantchew. 

Dr. Theodor Anastassoff. 

I. Hakky. 
Zeki. 

r. COKCILHAKOBT). 

A. KapaxaHT). 
r. laqepHHi. 
r. neipoBCKiB. 




PfTB S778 



Die imAriikel IH des Friedensvertrages mit Russland vereinbarte Linie. 
Die westlich derselben geh^enen Gebiete untenfehen der russischen St^hhoheif nicht , 



nkhfmehr 



5. RUSSIA— CENTRAL POWERS. 



APPENDIX I, PROVIDED FOR IN ARTICLE III OF THE TREATY 
OF PEACE BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE CENTRAL POWERS, 
OF 3 MARCH, 1918.^ 



[Description of the boundary line betiveen 
Germany and Russia established by Ap- 
pendix I to the Brest-Litovsk Treaty of 
Peace, as published in Vorwaerts, 5 
March, 1918.] 



Tik tm 2lrt. 3 be« grtebengbertrageS 
mtt JKufelanb ttorgefefiene ?inie, toclc^e 
bte rufftfc^e ©taatgober{)of)ett tm 2Bef= 
ten kgrenjt, Ittuft jlDtfc^en ben .^nfeln 
®ago3 unb SBormS, fotoie s^ifiien 
SWoon unb bent geftlanbe fitnburd) unb 
erretc^t in fladjent Sogen, bnrifi ben 
9?tgatfc^en 9JJeerbu[en gejogen, ettnai 
norbtoeftltdi ber ^OMnbung ber StOlan= 
bt[c^en Sla bag geftlanb, ge^t in ber 23ers 
(angemng beg §ogeng um'9tiga £)erunt, 
unb itberfcEireitet oftlici^ bon Oger ®alle 
bie !Diina. ©ie folgt je^t bem Saufe 
ber Siina bi§ oftlic^ JSiinaburg big ju 
ber ©tette, too bte bigfjerige furlitnbifdie 
©renje auff)orte unb gef)t bon f)ier in 
Siemlic^ geraber Sinie big jur ©libftjifee 
beg 3)rl:)gtoiatf)=©eeg, toobei ber Crt 
S)rt)gtoiatf) felbft bftlic^ biefer ?inte 
bleibt. 



35on t)ier biegt bie Sinte in ftib-fiib= 
roeftlic^er S^icEitung um unb freu^t bie 
S3a{)nlinie ispjtoentsianl) Stjntupt) ettoa 
in ber 9D?itte. 2)ie Orte SBibfl) unb 



[Translation with reconstruction. Parts in 
italics have been added from a dispatch lo 
the Department of State from Moscow, 
20 April, 1918. Some spellings have 
been corrected according to Andree's 
Handatlas.] 

The line prescribed in Article 
3 of the peace treaty with 
Russia, which in the west runs 
along Russian sovereignty, passes 
through the islands of Dago 
and Worms, between Mohn and 
the mainland, between the islands 
Runo and Kilno, and in seg- 
mental curve passing through the 
bay of Riga, reaches the main- 
land slighSiy to the northwest, 
[northeast] of the mouth of the 
Livonian Aa, then in continua- 
tion of the curve it passes around 
Riga and to the east [west] of 
Uxkiill (Oger Galle), crosses the 
Diina (Dvma). Then it follows 
the course of the Diina to the 
east of Dwinsk (Diinaberg) to 
the place where ended the for- 
mer Courland frontier, almost to 
Druja, and from this place it 
extends in a straight line south- 
west crossing Strusty LaJce to the 
southern part of Lake Driswjaty, 
leaving the locality Driswjaty 
itself to the east of the line. 

From here the line bends in a 
south-southwest direction close 
to Mjelengjany on the German 
side. The localities Widsy and 



1 The appendix consists of a map, official copies of which do not seem to have been made public. The 
accompanying reproduction, see opposite page, has been taken from Vorwaerts, 5 March, 1918. 



23 



24 



THE RUSSIAN " PEACE." 



Jmerftad) bleikn oftlid) ber Sinte liegen. 
31ti ben Orten 5D?id)aIifd)ft unb ®erlt)= 
jant) Oorbei, bie betbe ttieftlid) ber ?inie 
oerblet&en, erretd)t bie ?mie in met)r= 
fadien SBtnbungen bie Sal}nlinie SBitna= 
Sjmorgon, bie fie ettnag ttiefttid) beg 
OrtciS ©jlobobta iiber[d)reitet, unb I)alt 
je^t hjieberum fitbmeftlic^e 9iid)tung 
inne, toobei fie bem Saufe ber ©pita unb 
ber ®ah»ia biS gur ginmiinbung in ben 
S'Jiemen fofgt. Dfd)mjana unb T'ficnjs 
ienifcf)ti bleiben oftlid) ber ?inie, .^Jleroija 
unb ©jemon meftlicf) berfelben. 



3?ie Sinie folgt ie^t ftufeabmcirtg bem 
9Jiemen big oberf)aIb SlWoBtt) unb biegt 
l)ier birett nac^ ®iiben ah in ben %\u^' 
lauf ber ©jelrtjanfa, bent fie folgt biS 
jum Orte 3?uf|ant), rt)eW)er oftlic^ ber 
?inie Berbleibt. 25 on t)ier auS ge^t fie 
in flibtt)eftlid)er 3iid)tung bis jur ufrai= 
nif(f)en ©renje, nio 'iPruffiam) erreidit 
wirb. S)ie Orte ©smolicni^o unb 
S8obutfd)in bleiben oftti^ ber Sinie liegen. 



(Sine ganj genaue geftlegung ber 
?inie »irb burc^ eine beutfc^^ruffifdje 
^Jommiffion erfolgen. 



Tweretsch remain east of the 
line. It crosses the railway line 
from Swenziany to Lyntupy upon 
midway. The line then passes 
alorig a stream by the localities 
Michalisohki and Gerwjany, both 
of which are left to the west of 
the line, along the rivers Osch- 
mjanka and Loscha. The line 
itself in manifold windings 
reaches the railway from Wilna 
to Smorgon, which it crosses 
somewhat west of Slobodka. Hero 
the line lends, running straight to 
Klewisa on the German side, by 
Oschmjany and Dsewenischki on 
the east, and Geranony on the 
west, along the rivers Opita and 
Gawja to the Niemen. 

The line now follows the down- 
ward course of the Niemen to 
a point above Mosty, and here 
it bends directly to the south 
into the river course of the Sel- 
wianka, which it follows to Ros- 
hany, which remains to the east 
of the line. From here it passes 
in a southwest direction {along 
the Temra) to the Ukrainian bor- 
der where Prushany is reached. 
From here it passes between Boro- 
wiri {?) and Szolshentiza (?), be- 
tween Koslci ( ?) and Dohruschin ( ?) , 
and west of the road from Prushany 
to Vidond passes %n straight line 
the bends of the river Liesna, 
leaving Vidoml on the Russian 
side. The line ends on the river 
Liesna north of Brest -Litovsk, 
Szmolienitza ( ?) and Bobruschin 
( ?) remain to the east of the line, 
Riga, Jacobstadt, DwinsTc, Svenz- 
jany, Vilna, Lida, WolTcowyslc, 
and Konstantinow on the German 
side. 

An absolutely exact determina- 
tion of the line will be established 
through a Russo-German Com- 
mission. 



6. RUSSIA— GERMANY. 



APPENDIX II TO THE TREATY OF PEACE, SIGNED AT BREST- 
IITOVSK, 3 MARCH, 1918.' 



[German text as published in the Reichs- 
Gesetzblatt, Xo. 77, 11 June, 1918.] 

liber bie toirtfcfjaftltcfien i8estef)ungen 
jmifc^en 3)eutfc^Ianb unb JRufelanb 
toirb folgenbeg berembart: 

1.) 2)er beutfc^»ruffifc^e §anbelSt)er= 
trag oon 1894/1904 tritt nt(f)t toteber 
in ^raft. 

3)ie tjertragfc^Uefeenben Xetle Ber= 
pflic^ten fief), tunlidjft batb narf) 2tb= 
fdE)Iu6 be^ altgemeinen griebeng iloU 
j(f)en ^eutfc^Ianb emerfeitS unb ben jur 
3eit mtt ii)m in ^rieg befinblidjen 
europaifdjen ©taaten, ben 25ercinigten 
©taaten bon SImerifa unb Qa^pan 
anbererfeitg in iSerf)anbIungen iiber ben 
Slbfc^Iu^ eineg neuen §anbetet)crtrogeS 
einjutreten. 

2.) Sis 3U biefem ^fitpunfte, ieben= 
falte aber btS jum 31. SDejember 1919, 
foHen ben gegenfeitigen ^anbetebe= 
gief)ungen bie in ber Stnlage entf)altenen 
33eftimmungen p ©runbe gelegt ttier= 
ben, luelcbe einen wefentlicben 33eftanb= 
teil biefeS griebenSbertrageS bilben. 
3ebem ber beiben bertrogfc^Iiefeenben 
Sleile fott eg jeboc^ freiftefien, biefe 58e= 
ftimmungen bom 30. ^^uni 1919 an 
mit fec^gmonatiger grift ju tlinbigen. 
galfe bon biefem j?itnbigunggre(f)te biS 
jum 31. 3)e3ember 1922 ©ebraucfi ge= 
ma(^t h)irb, toerben biS jum 31. 
©ejember 1925, fallg bie .fiinbigung 
nadfi bem 31. 3)eaember 1922 erfolgt, 



[Translation.] 



In regard to the economic rela- 
tions between Germany and Rus- 
sia the following is agreed upon : 

1. The Russo-German com- 
mercial treaty of 1894/1904 does 
not again take effect.^ 

The contracting parties obU- 
gate themselves to begin nego- 
tiations regarding the conclusion 
of a new commercial treaty as 
soon as possible after the conclu- 
sion of a general peace between 
Germany on the one hand, and 
the European countries at pres- 
ent at war with her and the 
United States of America and 
Japan on the other hand. 

2. Until such time, and in 
any case up to 31 December, 
1919, the regulations contained 
in this appendix, and constitu- 
ting an integral part of the pre- 
sent peace treaty, shall be made 
the iDasis of their mutual com- 
mercial relations. Both contrac- 
ting parties, are, however, free 
to repudiate these regulations 
after 30 June, 1919, on condition 
of giving six months notice. In 
case this right of repudiation is 
utilized before the 31 December, 
1922, then, until 31 December, 
1925, in case the denunciation 
ensues after 31 December, 1922, 



1 Eatifications exchanged at Berlin, 29 March, 1918 (Neue Freie Presae, 6 July, morning edition; cj 
infra, v. 1S9). 

2 86 British and Foreign State Papers, pp. 442, 449, 482, 461, 473; 97 British and Foreign State Papers, 
p. 1040. 

25 



26 



THE EUSSIAN PEACE. 



fUr einen 3eitraum tton 3 3at)ren toon 
bem Xaqe be§ SlufeerlrafttretenS ber in 
ber SInloge entl)altenen SBeftimmungen 
an geredmet, bte 2tnget)brigen, bte 
§anbet§=, (Srh)erb6= unb gmanjges 
fellfd)aften mit (Sinfcftlufe ber SSerfi(^e=. 
rung§gefellfd)aften, bie 93oben= unb 
©etBerbeerjeugniffe unb bte ©djtffe 
iebeS ber betben toertragfc&tieijenben 
Jeite im C'^cfitete beg anberen JcilcS bie 
meiftbegiinftigte 58e{)anblung geniefeen. 
T^iefe SRegetung umfnfet inSbefonbere 
au($: 

a) ben (Srttierb unb 33efi^ toon be= 
tceglic^em unb unben)eglid)em 23er= 
mogen, bie 53erfiigung f)ieriiber, bie 
Slugiibung toon §anbel§unterne^mun= 
gen,®eh)erben unb 58erufen, fotosie bie in 
biefem 5"^^ 3^ entricfitenben Slbgaben, 

b) bie ginfubr, 2Iu8fut)r unb !©urd)= 
fuf)r, bie 3otte, bie „3oHformIi(^teiten, 
bie inneren S3erbraud)g= unb aJ)nIic^en 
©teuem unb bie 53erfef)rStoerbote, 



c) bie 23ebanblung, tt)el(f)e ftaotticbe 
ober unter ftaatlii^er .ft'ontroHe ftet)enbe 
5D?onopottoertt)altungen beg einen toer= 
tragfdiliei3enben Jetleg ben Slbneljmem 
ober ?ieferem beg anberen leileg in ber 
■iPreigftetlung ober ber fonftigen ®e= 
fdiaf tggebaning juteil merben laffen, 

d) bie Seforberung unb bie S8efor= 
berunggjjreife auf Sifenba^neu unb an= 
beren 93erfebrgft)egen, 

e) bie ^ulaffung unb SSetianblung ber 
®(^iffe, t{)rer 9)fannfdioften unb ?a= 
bungeu, {otoie bie ©d^iffabrtgabgaben, 

f) bie SSefiJrberung toon ^erfonen 
burc^ 2:rangportunterneJ)mer, einfd}tie6= 
lic^ ber auf bem ?anb= ober ©eetoeg er= 
folgenben 93eforberung toon 2Iugtt)an= 
berem unb einfdjlie^lic^ ber Jattgfett 
toon lugtoauberunggtoermittlern. 

3.) a!Ba{)renb ber S)auer ber 9Keiftbe= 
glinftigung toirb fein Jeil ju ?aften beg 
anberen Jeileg an einer ©renje [eineg 
©ebietg ^o{)ere @infuf)r= ober 2[ugfu{)r= 
jblle erl)eben alg an irgenbeiner anberen 
©renje. 



for a term of three years reckon- 
ing from the date of the cessation 
of the activity of the stipulations 
contained in the present appendix, 
the subjects, the commercial, in- 
dustrial, and financial companies, 
including insurance companies, 
the produce of agriculture and 
industries, and the vessels of each 
of the two contracting parties shall 
enjoy the most favored nation 
treatment in the territory of the 
other party. These regulations 
extend particularly: 

a) To acquisition and owner- 
ship of movable and immovable 
property, disposition of same, oc- 
cupations in commerce, trades, 
and professions, as well as to 
dues levied in these instances; 

i) To import, export, and tran- 
sit of goods, to customs dues 
■ and customs formalities, to in- 
ternal dues oh consumption and 
the like, and to traffic prohibi- 
tions ; 

c) To the treatment accorded 
by the governmental or state-con- 
trolled administrations of mo- 
nopolies of one of the contracting 
parties to buyers or sellers of the 
other party in the fixing of prices, 
or in other business conduct; 

d) To the transportation and 
transportation tariffs on railways 
and other ways of communica- 
tion; 

e) To the admission and status 
of ships, their crews and cargoes, 
as well as to ships' dues ; 

/) To the transportation of pas- 
sengers by forwarding agencies, 
including transportation of emi- 
grants by land and sea and other 
activities of emigration agents. 

3. During the entire time of 
the application of the principles 
of the most favored nation, 
neither of the parties shall estab- 
lish, to the detriment of the oppo- 
site party, on the frontiers of its 
territory, higher import or cxj^ort 
duties tliun on any other frontier. 



THE PEACE OP BBEST-LITOVSK : APPENDIX II. 



27 



Slufeerbem iutrb toiifjrenb biefer 3ett 
9?u6Ianb bie au8fuf)r bon roI)em unb 
bef)auenem ^olj, fotoett baffelbe in 9^r. 
6^ beS SSerseidjniffeS- ber 2(u«fuI)r3oIte 
nic^t befonberS benannt ift, fomie tiort 
(Srsen alter 3lrt Weber fterbieten nod) mit 
Slugfubraofkn belaften. 



4.) g^ufetanb ftiirb fetnen Slnfpruc^ 
erbeben auf bie SSegiinftigungen, tcel(^e 
3!)entfcfilanb an Oeftcrreid)=Ungarn ober 
an ein anbereS mit ibm burdi etn ^otf= 
blinbnis tierbunbeneg ?anb gewcibrt, ba§ 
, an 3)eutfd}Ianb unmittelbar ober burc^ 
ein anbereS mit if)m ober Oefterreid)= 
Ungarn soIberbiinbeteS ?anb mittelbar 
angrenjt. Solo men, au§tnar(tge 58e= 
ft^ungen unb ©dju^gebiete rterben in 
otefer SSejieliung bem 2)?utterlanb gteid)= 
geftertt. 



!DeutfdiIanb toirb feincn Slnfpruc^ er= 
' beben auf bie 33egunftigungen, h)eld)e 
9?u6tanb an ein anbere^ mit if)m burd) 
ein ^ollbiinbnig berbunbeneg ?anb, bo§ 
an ^Rufetanb unratttelbor ober burdi etn 
anbereg mit tbm jolberbilnbeteg ?anb 
mittelbar angrenjt, ober ben Solonten, 
auSrtartigen SBefi^ungen unb ®d)u^ge= 
bieten eineS ber mit ibm joHbertitnbeten 
?anber gertttl^rt. 

5.) ©oWeit in neutralen ©taatcn 
SBaren (agent, .tnelcbe aug 3)eutfcb(anb 
ober Siufelanb ftammen, bie aber mit 
ber S3erpfli(^tung bekgt finb, ba§ fie 
hjeber unmittelbar nod) mittelbar nadi 
ben ©ebteten beg anberen bertragfd)Iie= 
feenben Seileg auggefiibrt tcerben btirfen, 
follen -berartige 25erfiigung8befd^ron= 
tungen im 33erbaltnig ju ben t)ertrag= 
fc^Iiefeenben Jeilen aufgeboben Werben. 
Sie beiben bertragfd)Iiefeenben 3;eile 
berpflic^ten fic^ ba{)er, ben JRegierungen 
ber neutralen ©taaten bon ber borer= 
toafjnten Sluffiebung biefer S8erfligungS= 
befc^rttnfung unberjuglid) .f enntnig ju 
geben. 

6.) Seborjugungen, bie einer ber ber= 
tragfc^liefeenben Jcite Wabrenb beg 
86409—18 S 



Furthermore, in the course of 
this period, Russia shall neither 
prohibit the export of rough and 
hewn lumber, nor levy export 
duty on the same, iir so far as 
it is not especialljr mentioned in 
No. 6 of the Schedule of Export 
Duties; neither shall it prohibit 
the export of,, or levy export 
duty on ores of any kind. 

4. Russia shall not claim the 
advantages which Germany 
grants to Austria-Hungary or to 
any other country allied with her 
by a customs union, and adjoin- 
ing Germany either immediately 
or through an intervening coun- 
try allied with her or with 
Austria - Hungary by customs 
union. Colonies, outlying pos- 
sessions and territories under pro- 
tectorate, in this respect are^ 
placed on the same basis as the 
mother country. 

Germany shall not claim the 
advantages which Russia grants 
to another country connected 
with her by customs union, and 
adjoining Russia either imme- 
diately, or through an intervening 
country allied mth her by cus- 
toms union, or to the colonies, 
outlying posessions or territories 
under the protectorate of a country 
allied with her by customs union. 

5. In so far as in neutral coun- 
tries there are located goods 
originating in Germany or Russia 
and subject to prohibition of im- 
port into the territory of the other 
contracting party either directly 
or through the intermedium of 
another country, such limitations 
as to the disposition of such goods 
shall be cancelled as regards the 
contracting parties. Both con- 
tracting parties, therefore, obli- 
gate themselves immediately to 
advise the Governments of neu- 
tral countries of the above-stated 
cancellations of the limitations; 
mentioned. 

6. Privileges granted by one- 
of the contracting parties during: 



28 



THE RUSSIAN PEACE. 



SrtegeS anberen ?anbern bur(fi l?on= 
jefftonSevtcilungen ober anbere ftaat= 
licfje 9[)Jcrf3Tiat)men gertat)rt f)at, [otfen 
aufgef)cibeTi ober auf ben anberen Jeit 
burd} ©eraabrung glet(i)er 9?e(f)te auSge= 
bc£)nt toerben. 

7.) iro'oeit ntd)t in ber Jorifanlage 
A ober fonft anbere§ bcftimmt ift, foil 
fiir bie ganje Taucr biefcS "iprotiiforis 
um§ fomie ber nad) ^iffei^ 2 h)ecl)[e(= 
feittg ju getna^renben SKeiftbegiinftigung 
ber attgenieine rnfftfd)e i^otltarif oom 
13./26. 3amiav 1903 mafegebenb [em. 



8.) Tie am 31. 3u(i 1914 in 
©eltung getDe[enen 93ereint!arungen 5mi» 
fc^en bem reutMimS^etdic unb fl'Jufetanb 
iiber bie 33ef)anbtung rufj'ifdjen 3u<ii;i^'^ 
foHen tT)a{)renb ber T'oucr biefcS ^"Pro^ 
fii[ortum§ fofoic ber nad) „Siffer 2 lx)ed)= 
fe([eitig in gehiiifirenben Weiftbegunftt= 
gung in .<?roft bkiben. 

9.) T^ie oertragfd)[iefeenben Icile finb 
bariibcr cinig, bafe mit bem grieben^= 
[d)tu& bie Seenbigutig bcS .f ricgeg and) 
auf ttiirtfd)oftlid)em unb finansictCem 
e^ebiet erfolgt. 3ie oerpfUditcn fid), 
ineber bireft nod) inbirett an SKofenal}" 
men teitjunebmen, bie auf bie 3Seiter= 
filbrung ber geinbfeligfeiten ouf mirt= 
fd)aftlid)em ober finanjiettem ©ebiet 
abi^ielen, unb innei:t)alb if)re8 @taatS« 
gebieteS fo(d)e 2)Ja^na£)men mit atlen 
if)nen ,",u Webot ftebenben i)JHtteln ju 
Uerbinbern. 

On ber ilbergangSjeit, bie gur libera 
IBinburtg ber Tt'rieggfolgen unb 5^eu= 
orbnung ber iBerbcittniffe erforbcr(id) 
ift, tietpflicbten fid) bie t)ertragfd)Uefien= 
ben ^^artcien, mog(id)ft teine ©d)tcierig- 
feiten in ber SBefdiaffung ber notli3en= 
bigen Wtltcr burd) (Sinfti!)rung bo{)er 
(SingnngSjiilte ;;u bereiten, unb 'fprcd)en 
bie SSereitmilligteit aug, alsbalb in 
53erbanb(ungen einjutrcten, um, forteit 
alS tun lid), bie mitbrenb be§ .SriegeS 
feftgefeljten i^otlbefreiungen t)oriiber= 
gebenb nod) longer aufre(^t ju erl}alten 
unb Ineitcr auSjube^nen. 



the time of the war to other 
countries in the form of conces- 
sions or other state measures, 
must be revoked or extended to 
the opposite party by granting 
equal rights. 

7. In so far as in the tariff ap- 
pendix A, or elsewhere, there are 
no stipulations to the contrary, 
the general Russian Customs Tar- 
iff of the 13/26 January, 1903,* 
shall be applied for the whole pe- 
riod of life of the present proviso- 
rium as well as of the most-favored 
nation treatment granted both by 
Clause 2. 

8. The agreements which ex- 
isted between the German Empire 
and Eussia on 31 July, 1914, in 
regard to Russian sugar shall re- 
main in force during the life of the 
present provisorium and during 
the mutual application of the most 
favored nation principle in accord- 
ance with Clause 2. 

9. The contracting parties are 
agreed that, with the conclusion 
of peace, the war terminates also 
in the field of economy and 
finance. They engage not to 
participate either directly or 
indirectly in measures having for 
their aim the continuance of hos- 
tilities in economic or financial 
spheres, but to hinder such meas- 
ures within the boundaries of the 
territories of their State by all 
means in their power. 

In the course of the interme- 
diate period required for the re- 
moval of the consequences of war 
and for the organization of new 
relations, the coiitracting parties 
bind themselves not to put, in so 
far as it is possible, anj- difficul- 
ties in the way of the acquisition 
of necessary goods by introduc- 
ing high import duties, and they 
express their willingness to enter 
immediately into negotiations for 
the purpose of maintaining and 
enlarging as far as feasible the 
customs exemptions established 
during the time of the war. 



'<?/. General Customs Tariff for the European Frontiers of Russia, Britisli Parliamentary Papers, 1903. 



7. RUSSIA— GERMANY. 



SUB-APPENDIX 1 TO APPENDIX II OF THE TREATY OF PEACE 
BETWEEN ETJSSIA AND THE CENTRAL POWERS. SIGNED 
AT BREST-IITOVSK, 3 MARCH, 1918.^ 



[German text as published in the Reichs- 
Gesetzblatt, No. 77, 11 June, 1918.] 

§IrttfeI 1. 

!Dte Slngefiortgen etneS ber betbeti ber= 
tragfcfiltefeenben Jeile, ftietdje ftcfi in bem 
©ebiete beS anberen 2:etleg nteberge= 
loffen fiaben ober ficfi bort borllbergefjenb 
auffjalten, follen bort tm §anbefe= unb 
©emerbebetrtebc bte ncimlt(fien 5Ke(^te 
genie^en unb fetnen ^of)eren ober an= 
beren 2lbgaben untermorfen rterben olg 
bie ^ntenber. fcie fotfen in bem ®e» 
biete beg onberen SeiteS in ieber >^infic[)t 
biefetben 5Kec^te, 'iprioilegien, greibeiten, 
Segiinftigungen unb 58efreiungen £)aben 
toie bie 2lngef)origen beg metftbegilnftig= 
ten ganbeS. 

(Ss l^errfc^t jeboc^ bariiber Sinber= 
ftanbnig, bafe burc^ bie bor[tebenben 
SBeftimmungen bie befonberen ®efe^e, 
Sriaffe unb SSerorbnungen auf bem 
©ebiete beg $anbete, ber ©erterbe unb 
ber "iPoUjei nic^t beritf)rt rterben, toeld^e 
in iebem ber beiben bertragfc^tiefeenben 
Sanber gelten ober gelten rterben unb 
auf affe StuSlanber SInrtenbung finben. 

Slrtifel 2. 

!Die 3Inget)origen jebeg ber beiben 
bertragfi^Iiefeenben Xeik fotten in bem 
©ebtete beS anberen 2:eileg gleic^ ben 
3nlanbern berecfitigt fein, jebe 3lrt bon 
betoegtic^em ober unbetoegtid^em 2Ser= 
mogen p errterben, p befi^en unb 
3U berrtjalten foluie bariiber burc^ 33er= 
fauf, ZavL\<ii, ®({)enfung, (Sfjefc^Iiefeung, 



[Traiislation.] 

Article 1. 

The subjects of one of the con- 
tracting parties, who have settled 
on the territory of the opposite 
party or reside temporarily in the 
same, shall enjoy, in their com- 
mercial and industrial activities, 
the same rights as the native in- 
habitants, and shall not be sub- 
jected to higher or to other taxes. 
In the territory of the other 
party they, in all respects, shall 
enjoy the same rights, privileges, 
franchises, advantages, and ex- 
emptions as the subjects of the 
most favored nation. 

Both parties are, however, 
agreed that special laws, decrees, 
and orders, relating to trade, 
commerce, industry, and police, 
which govern or will govern in 
either of the contracting coun- 
tries, and which apply to all for- 
eigners, will not be affected by 
these considerations. 

AUTICLE 2. 

The subjects of both contract- 
ing parties shall have the right, 
on the territory of the other 
party, on a basis of equality with 
the native inhabitants, to acquire, 
to possess, and to manage mov- 
able and immovable property of 
every kind, as well as to dispose 



1 Batiflcations exchanged at Berlin, 29 March, 1918 (.Neue Freie Presse, 6 July, morning cdiLion; 
ef.infra, p. 1S9). 



30 



THE RUSSIAN 



" PEACE." 



let^ten SBilten ober auf anbere SBeil'e ju 
bevfiigen, and) (Srbfc^aften tiermbgc 
leljten 3BttIen8 ober fraft ©efefeeg su 
erloerben, ofinc in etnem ber genannten 
gaKe unter irgenbeiner SBejeidinung 
anberen ober p^eretx Slbgaben, ©teuern 
ober Stuflagen untertuorfen ju fein 
ate bte ^nlttnber. 

3eber ber bertragfc^Itefeenben 2:ette 
bepit [ic^ tjor, ?luSnai)men bon biefer 
JReget fiir Jetle feineS ©ebietS su mac^en, 
bie ate ©renjfc&u^besirfe ober geftungS^ 
rat)on8 erflctrt finb. 

3n fetnem ber Oorertt)af)nten giiKe 
fotten ithod) bte 2Inge£)origen beg etnen 
SeikS im ©ebiete be8 anberen ^etle« 
ungunfttger bel)anbelt merben ate bte 
2lnget)origen irgenbetneS brttten SanbeS. 

S)te Slnge^ortgen ctneS jeben .ber 
betbett tiertragfdfjltefeenben Jette fotten 
bett @rIo8 aug bem 33erfaufe t^re8 
gigentumg unb if)r 93ermBgen uber= 
f)aupt Enter S3eobarf)tung ber ?anbeg= 
gefe^e fret auSfUl^ren tontten, o{)ne ate 
llugianber jur gntrtdfttung anberer ober 
bbi)erer Slbgabert ber))flt(^tet gu fetn, ate 
bie 3inlattber unter gleic^en 33er^ttlt= 
ni[[en ju cntrictiten iiabtn ttJiirben. 

@te fotten unter S8eoba<i^tunfl ber 
ganbeSgefelje freien ^utrltt ju ben @e= 
rlc^ten baben, urn ate Slager ober i8e= 
Elagte aufjutreten, unb fotten in biefer 
§infi(^t atte JRedjte unb S3efreiungen 
ber Qiulonber geniefeen unb toie biefe 
befugt fein, fid) in jeber 9{ec^t8fa(^e ber 
burc^ bie SanbeSgefefee pgetaffenen 2In= 
iBtttte, ©adjnjatter unb 33ertreter jeber 
SIrt su bebienen. 

Slrtitel 3. 

"Die Hngeborigen jebeg ber Oertrag= 
fcfiliefeenben Xcile fotten in bem ®cbiete 
beg anberen ju @erid)t«=, 2lbminiftratiD= 
ober gjfunisipalbienften, mit 2iu6naf)me 
ber 3?ormunbfd)oft, nid)t oerpflidjtet 
fein; ebenfo bleiben fie frei Oon jebem 
perfonli(|cn J)ienfte im ?anbbeere, in 



of the same in the way of sale, 
exchange, gift, matrimony, legacy, 
or any other method, as well as 
to receive inheritances through 
will or on the basis of the law, 
without being subjected in any 
of the cases mentioned, in one 
way or another, to higher dues, 
taxes, or collection than native 
inhabitants. 

Each of the contracting parties 
reserves the right to make excep- 
tions to these stipulations for 
those parts of their respective 
territories which have been de- 
clared frontier districts or for- 
tress regions. 

However, in none of these cases 
above mentioned shall the sub- 
jects of one of the parties in 
the territory of the other party, 
be placed in a less favorable con- 
dition than the subjects of any 
third country. 

The subjects of both contract- 
ing parties may, provided they 
observe the laws of the country, 
takeout, unhindered, the proceeds 
of the sale of their property, and, 
in general, their belongings, with- 
out being obliged, in their capac- 
ity as foreigners, to pay special 
or higher dues than native inhab- 
itants in the same circumstances. 

Subject to the local laws, they 
shall have free admission to law 
courts, where they may appear as 
claimants or defendants, and shall 
enjoy in this respect all rights and 
immunities of native inhabitants, 
and also, like the latter, they shall 
have the right to employ in every 
law suit the attorneys and agents 
admitted under the local laws. 

Article 3. 

The subjects of each of the 
contracting parties, in the terri- 
tory of the opposite party, shall 
not be subject to juridical, ad- 
ministrative, or municipal duties, 
with the exception of guardian- 
ships. They are likewise exempt 



THE PEACE OP BEEST-LITOVSK : STJBAPP. 1 TO APP. II. 



31 



ber gOtorine, in ber 9Jefert)e ber ?onb- 
unb ®eemarf)t unb in ber g^attonalmtlij, 
fotoie bon alien ?aften, ^n3angganlei£)en, 
railitarifdKn 9?equifitionen unb ?ei= 
ftungen jeber 3[rt, toeMje im JJriegSfane 
ober tnfolge bon aufeergetrbfinlicfjen 
Umftcinben auferlegt (uerben; augge= 
nommen ftnb bte aug irgenbtoelcfiem 
$Re(f)tgtite( mit bem 58eft^e eine« 
©runbftiicfg berbunbenen ?aften, fortie 
bte 33erpfUcttung jur Qnartierteiftung 
unb 5U fonftigen be[onberen ?eiftungen 
fiir bie beftaffnete 5JJacf)t, bie ben 
3ntanbent unb ben 3lngef)origen ber 
meil'tbegiinftigten 9}atton alS (Sigen= 
tiimem, ^iPadjtern ober 2)Jtetern bon 
^^mmobiUen obliegen. 



Strtifel 4. 

2(ftiengefel[f(^aften unb anbere fom= 
merstelle, tnbuftrtette ober finanjielle 
®efel(f(f)aften einfcfilte^Iid) ber S3er= 
ftcf)erung8ge[etlfd)aften, bjeldie in einem 
ber beiben Sanber nadf ben beftefjenben 
©efe^en recE)t§giiItig erric^tet toorben 
finb unb bort i^ren irilj fiaben, fotlen 
in bem anberen ganbe olg gefe^fic^ 
befte^enb anerfannt rterben unb bort 
namentlic^ bag JRec^t fiahm, bor ®e= 
ricfit ate ft'Iciger ober aU 33eflagte 
"iProjeffe 5U fitfiren. 



@g fjerrfc^t jeboci) barliber (ginber= 
ftanbniS, bafe burd) bie borftebenbe.58e= 
ftimmung bie grage nid)t beriif)rt n)irb, 
ob berartige in einem ber beiben Scinber 
erric^tete ©efefifcfiaften in bem anberen 
?anbe jum §anbel€= unb ®eft)er&e= 
bctriebe jugelaffen ftierben follen ober 
ni($t. Tiiefe grage bleibt, hjie big= 
^er, ben in bem betreffenben ?anbe be= 
ftefjenben ober nod) einjufiil)renben S8e= 
ftimmungen borbe^alten. 

3n jebem galle foHen bie gebadjten 
®efer[fd)aften in bem anberen ?anbe 
biefelben 9?e(f)te geniefeen, toelc^e ben 
gleic^ortigen ©efellfc^aften irgenbeineS 
?onbeS 5u[tef)en ober jugeftanbcn ft)er= 
ben fottten. 



from any personal service in the 
army, fleet, reserve of the terri- 
torial army and of the navy, the 
national militia, as also from all 
duties, compulsory loans, military 
requisitions, and service of any 
kind, imposed, in case of war, or 
as a result of exceptional circum- 
stances ; duties connected by any 
title whatsoever with the owner- 
ship of a parcel of land, and also 
the military quartering duty and 
other special services to be ren- 
dered to the active army, to 
which are liable the native m- 
habitants and tlie subjects of tire 
most favored nation iii their 
capacity of proprietors and lessees 
of real estate are excepted. 

Article 4. 

Joint stock companies and any 
other commercial, industrial, or 
financial companies, including in- 
surance companies, which nave 
been lawfully formed in one of 
the two countries in accordance 
with existing laws, and have their 
abode there, must be recognized 
by the other country as exist- 
ing lawfully and shall, in particu- 
lar, enjoy in the same the right 
to conduct lawsuits in the courts 
in the capacity of claimants or 
defendants. 

Both parties,however, agree that 
the foregoing stipulation does not 
affect the question whether such 
companies, formed in one of the 
countries, shall be admitted, or 
not, to commercial or industrial 
activity in the other country. 
This question depends as hereto- 
fore, on the regulations already 
existing or to be introduced in 
the country in question. 

In any case, the aforesaid com- 
panies shall enjoy in the other 
country the same rights as have 
been granted or may be granted 
to similar companies of any other 
country. 



32 



THE BUSSIAN 



PEACE. 



3lrtifel 5. 

Xiic bertragfi^Itefeenben Jeile tier= 
pfli(^ten fid), ben gegenfeitigen 33erfeJ)r 
jn3i[cf)en beiben Siinbem burd) teinerlei 
(Smfiii)r=, 2Iu«fu£)r= ober 5)urc^fuf)rtier= 
bote ju {)eTnmen unb bic frete *3)urd)fu{)r 
ju geftatten. 

3Iu8naf)men ftnb nur fiir fotrfie (Sr= 
jeugniffe sufeffig, ttiddjt auf bem @e= 
biete eineS ber Bertragfcfjliefeenben Jeile 
ben ©egenftanb eineg istaatSmonopote 
bilben ober bilben H)erben, fott)ie and) 
fltr genjifi'e (Srjeugniffe, filr bte aug 
9?u(ffic^ten auf bte ®efunb{)eit, bie 
5setertnarpoIi5ei unb bte bffentlic^e 
2id)erl)eit ober aug anberen fd)n)er= 
hJtegenben poltttfc^en unb n)trtfcftaft= 
lichen ©riinben aufeerorbentltd)e 3Ser= 
botamaferegeln, ingbefonbere tm i^u= 
fammen|)ang mtt ber auf ben Srteg foI= 
genben ttberganggjeit, ergei)en tonnten. 

Qn ber auf ben .ftrteg fotgenben 
llberganggjett ^ur Uberrtinbung ber 
golgen beg fi'riegeS fbnnen 'i^erfef)rg= 
befcfiranfungen rtie Sinfu^roerbote, 
2Iugfubrberbote unb 1>urd)fuf)rBerbote 
eriaffen njcrben; fie ftnb fo ju £)anbbaben, 
ba(3 fie mogIid)ft toenig laftig cmpfunben 
merben unb ftnb, fobnib eg bie SSer= 
t)attniffe geftatten, aufeer Sraft ',u fe^en. 



gtrtttel 6. 

3)ie rufftfc^en i8oben= unb ®ett)erbe= 
erjeugniffe, ttieldje tm 3)eutf(|en 9?et{^e, 
unb bte beiitfc^en 58oben= unb ®eh)erbe= 
erjeugniffe, todd)t in JRufelanb etnge= 
fiitjrt rtjerben, follen bort, fie mogen junt 
SSerbraud) ober jur ?agerung, jur $ffiie» 
beraugfubr ober jur Surdifubr beftitnmt 
fein, ber namlidjen 33ef)anblung rtie bie 
(grjeugniffe beg meiftbegiinftigten ?an= 
beg unterliegen. ^n teinent gafle unb 
aug teinem ©runbe follen fie (joberen 
ober anberen ,3o(Ien, ®eblif)ren, ©teuem 
ober Hbgaben untertoorfcn fein, nod) 
mit 3itfd)Iagen ober einem @inful)rtier= 
bote belegt toerben, bon benen nidit oud) 
bie gkidiartigen (grseugniffe irgenbeineg 
anberen Sanbeg betroffen rterben. 3ng= 
befonbere lt)irb iebe JSeglinftigung unb 



Article 5. 

The contracting parties obli- 
gate themselves not to impede 
the mutual relations of the two 
countries by any prohibitions of 
import, export, or transit, and to 
permit free transit. 

Exceptions are only admissible 
for such articles as are or will 
be considered a State monopoly 
in the territory of one of the con- 
tracting parties, as also for cer- 
tain articles respecting which ex- 
ceptional prohibitional rules may 
be issued for reasons of hygiene, 
veterinary supervision, and public 
safety, or for other weighty 
political or economic reasons, 
especially in connection with the 
after-war transition period. 

During the after-war transition 
period, for the purpose of over- 
coming the consequences of the 
war, regulations may be issued 
limiting intercourse, as well as 
prohibiting import, export, and 
transit: they must be enforced 
in such manner as to be felt as 
slightly as possible, and as soon 
as circumstances permit, they 
must be rescinded. 

Article 6. 

The products of Russian agri- 
culture and industry imported 
into Germany, and the products 
of German agriculture and indus- 
try imported into Russia, shall 
in the country of their importa- 
tion be on the same footing as 
the products of the most favored 
nation, regardless of whether they 
be intended for consumption or 
for storage, for re-export, or for 
transit. In no case, and on no 
account, shall they be subjected 
to any higher or other duties, 
taxes, fees, or contributions, or to 
extra charges, or to import pro- 
hibitions, if the same does not 
apply to similar products of any 



THE PEACE OF BEEST-LITOVSK : STJBAPP. 1 TO APP. II. 



33 



@rlctc^terung, iebe 93efretung unb jebe 
(Stmii^igung ber in bem ©eneraltarif 
ober in ben ^BertragStarifen entf)altenen 
ginganggjbde, tt>etrf)e einer ber t)ertrag= 
fcfjliefeenben Jeile einer britten 'Sladjt 
bauernb obcr jcittueife, oftne ®egcnlei= 
ftung ober mit ^ompenfation 3uge[tet)t, 
o^ne toeitereS unb bebinguttgSs, ttorbe= 
^altgs ober fompenfationgloS auf bie 
^obcn= unb ©eloerfaeerjeugniffe beS 
anberen ouggebef)nt Inerben. 



3IrtifeI 7. 

3)ie in bem beiliegenben SJarlf A be= 
Seic^neten beutfc^en 33oben= unb ®e= 
toerbeerjeugniffe fotten bei ifirer (Sinfu^r 
in S^ufelanb unb bie in beni beiliegenben 
larif B bejeidjneten ruffifcfien S3oben= 
nnb ©etoerbecrjeugniffe follen bet iE)rer 
Sinfubr in 3)eutfcf)Ianb fetnen anberen 
ober bobci^cn @ingang«5bllen untecUe= 
gen, afe ben in biefen Stnlogen fe[tge» 
fe^ten. 

SSenn einer ber Sertragfc^Itefeenben 
■Jeile auf einen in ber Jlnlage A ober 
SInlage B beg gegenloartigen 23ertrag6 
angefiibrten ©egenftanb einf)eimifcf)er 
(Srjeugung ober gobrifation jum 53or= 
teil ber Staatgtaffe eine neue innere 
©teuer ober Jtfjife ober einen ,3ufcf)tafi 
ju einer folcben inneren i:;teuer ober 
2(fjife legen foltte, fo fann ber gletc£)ar= 
tige ©egenftanb bet ber Ginfu^r mit einer 
gleicben ober entfprecfienben 2tbgabe be» 
legt rterben, oorauSgefe^t, bag biefe 
SIbgabc fur bie 'iproDenienjen atler 
Sctnber gleicf) ift. 

3lrtifel 8. 

3nnere SIbgaben, tt)eld)e im ©ebiete 
beg einen ber Oertragfrbliefeenben leile 
fiir SKecbnung beg StaateS, ber @e-- 
meinben ober ber fl orporationen Pon 
ber §erPorbringung, ber ^ubereitung, 
ber SBefbrberung, bem 5i?ertrieb ober bem 
33erbrauc^ eineS (Srjeugitiffeg gegen= 
hsarttg ober fttnftig erboben merben, 



other country. In particular, 
every advantage and facility, 
every exemption from and re- 
duction of import duties of the 
general and conventional tariffs, 
which one of the contracting 
parties, permanently or tempo- 
rarily, without a corresponding 
benefit or against compensations, 
grants to a third country, shall be 
granted to the products of agri- 
culture and industry of the other 
country without further formality 
and without any conditions, reser- 
vations, or compensations. 

Article 7. 

The products of German agri- 
culture and industry mentioned 
in the appended Tariff A, on being 
imported into Kussia, and the 
products of Russian agriculture 
and industry, specified in the ap- 
pended Tariff B, when being im- 
ported into Germany, shall not 
be subjected to any special or 
higher import duty than that 
stipulated m the said appendix es. 

Should one of the contracting 
parties assess any of the articles 
of domestic production or manu- 
facture specified in appendices A 
or B, for the benefit of the State 
Exchequer by means of any new 
internal tax or excise, or addi- 
tion to such internal tax or excise, 
similar articles when being im- 
ported may be taxed with an 
equal or corresponding duty on 
condition that this duty shall be 
the same for the products of all 
countries. 

Article 8. 

Internal duties, wliich are now 
being levied or may be levied 
hereafter in the territory of one 
of the contracting parties for 
account of the State, of commit- 
tees, or of societies, for the pro- 
duction, preparation, forwarding, 
sale, or consumption of any article. 



34 



THE RUSSIAN PEACE. 



bttrfen aud) ben gletdjartigen (Srjeug^ 
niffen beS anberen JetJg aufertegt totv 
ben, btefe jebod) unter {etnem 33orh)anb 
I^ijfier ober in Itiftigerer 9Beife treffen ate 
ble grjeugntffe beS eigenen ?anbe6. 
®oh)ett tnnere SIbgaben auf 9?o£)ftoffe 
ober Salbmaren gelegt tnerben, fotl ble 
geftftellung eineS angemeffenen ®teuer= 
au§gleid)§ fiir bte (linfuf)r bon Srjeugs 
ntf[en, icelcfie aug foI(f)en 5Robftoffen 
ober §atbh)aren getoonnen merben, audj 
bann ftattfiaft fetn, toenn bte gleid)= 
arttgen inlanbi[d)en (Srjeugntffe ntd)t 
unmittelbar ben ©egenftanb ber 2Ibgabe 
Jilben. 

li'i^ bicibt jebem ber tcvtragfd)Ue6en= 
ben Xeile unbenommen, gecignete SBJa= 
rcn emem '2taati?monopoI ober etner 
jur ©etoinnung Bon StaatSetnnabmen 
bienenben monopolal)n(id!en 9?egelung 
jn unterroerfen. T^ic tiorftetienben 
^^runbfaljc ftnben in biefem i^alk ent= 
fpreii)enbe Slntnenbung. 



airtitet 9. 



may be levied on similar articles 
of the other party, but under no 
pretext at a higher rate or in a 
more oppressive fashion than on 
the produce of the home country. 
In so far as internal duties are 
levied on raw materials and half 
finished products, the making of 
a suitable tax agreement for the 
importation of such products 
made from such raw materials and 
half finished products shall be ad- 
missible, even in case simil ar home 
products are not taxed directly. 

Each of the contracting parties 
is at liberty, for the purpose of 
obtaining national income, to 
establish a monopoly on suitable 
articles, or to subject the same 
to regulations analogous to a 
monopoly. In this case the fore- 
going regulations are made corre- 
spondingly applicable. 

Article 9. 



33et ber §lugfu{)r bon SBaren qu§ 
«inem ber beiben Sanber nad) bem an= 
bcren biirfen feine anberen ober i)oi)evm 
SuggangSabgaben er^oben merben ate 
bei ber 3Iu§fubr nad) bem in biefer 93e= 
;;tef)ung meiftbegiinfligten ?anbc. 2lu(^ 
jebe fon[t oon etnem ber Bertragfd)fie= 
feenben ietle einer britten 9()?ad)t fur bte 
t[uSfubr ;ugeftnnbene Segitnfttgung 
toirb obne VneitereS unb bebingunggtog 
bem anbem juteil loerben., 

?lrtifel 10. 

Die SJoren oKer 3Irt, me (die burd) 
hai OSebict eineg ber beiben Tette 
burd)gefubrt loerben, folten tt)cd)fel|'eitig 
■Don jeber Titrcbganggabgabe frei fein, 
fet eg, bafi fie unmittetbar burdjgefutirt 
irerbcn, fei. cS, bafj fie loiibtenb ber 
3rmrd)fu()r abgeloben, eingelagert imb 
iBieber aufgclaben merben. 

Slrtifel 11. 



In exporting goods from either 
of the two countries into the 
other, no other nor higher export 
duties shall be levied than those 
levied on exports into the most 
favored country. Furthermore, 
any advantage granted on exports 
of one of the contracting parties to 
a third country is automatically 
and unconditionally extended to 
the other party. 

Article 10. 

Goods of any kind, passing 
through the territory of either 
of the parties, shall reciprocally 
be exempt from any transit 
dues, irrespective of whether they 
go through immediately or be 
unloaded Avhile iti transit, ware- 
housed, and then reloaded. 

Article 11. 



lie 53cfttmmungcn beg gegenlT)arti= 
gen ',Bertragg berlibren ntd)t: 



The stipulations of the present 
agreement do not affect: 



THE PEACE OP BEEST-LITOVSK : SUBAPP. 1 TO APP. 



II. 



35 



1. bie 58egunfttgungen, trnldjt an= 
"beren angrenjenben ©taaten jur (Sr= 
leicfiterung beS orttidjen SBerfef)re; 
innerf)alb einer ©renjjonc big ju 
15 km. i^rctte gegenlDiirtig gclBaf)rt 
finb ober in ^utimft gclrilbrt )Derben 
foltten, 

2. bie 53egunftigungen, loeldje einev 
ber beiben Bertragfc^Iiefeenben Idle 
einem anberen ©toat auf ©runb 
einer be[tetienben ober funftigen i^oH= 
eintgung getociljrt ober geh)af)ren 
ttitrb, 

3. bie 33egiinftigimgen, irelcfje fiir 
bie @infu£)r ober 2lu"§fuf)r ben ^e= 
iDofinent beS ©oubernements 3Ird)an= 
gel gegenroartig gemtthrt finb ober 
in Butunft geroaf)rt inerben [oHten. 
Vod) foil bie beutfdie (5infu{)r in 

■gleicfier Sfficife atk ber (ginfuf)r eineg 
curopaifdjen ober norbameritanifcf)en 
staateS in biefeS ®ebiet eingeraumten 
,-3otIer(eid)terungen ntitgeniefeen. 

artitel 12. 

ffaufleute, gabritanten unb anbere 
Oetoerbetreibenbe, metc^e fic^ burd) ben 
S3efi^ einer bon ben SBebbrben beg §ei= 
matlanbeg auSgefertigten ®eh)erbctegiti» 
mattonSfarte baruber auStneifen, bafe 
fie in bem ®taate, rt)o fie ibren 2Bot)nfi^ 
laben, jum ©elnerbebetrieb bere(f)tigt 
finb, folten befugt fein, perfonlid) ober 
burd) bie in it)ren !5)ienften fteftenben 
9tetfenben in bem ©ebtete beg anberen 
bertragfc^Iie^enben 2;eileg iffiarenein= 
faufe ju maiden ober SeftetCungen, audi 
unter 3!)2itful)rung oon 951uftern, ju fu= 
(j^en. 3)ie gebaditen .^aufleute, gabri= 
fanten unb anberen ©emerbetreibenben 
ober §onbIunggreifenben folien toed)fel= 
feitig in ben beiben ?anbern fiinfidjtlid) 
ber 'ipiiffe unb ber ben §anbelgbetrieb 
treffenben SIbgaben ft)ie bie Slngebbrigen 
ber meiftbegiinftigten Station bebanbelt 
rterben. 



Sie mit einer ®elt)erbeIegitimationg= 
forte »erfef)enen ©emerbetreibenben 
(§anblunggreifenben) biirfen h)of)I 2Ba= 
renmufter alter 2lrt, aber teine SRoren 



1. Advantages which are 
granted now, or may be granted 
in the future, to other adjacent 
countries for facihtating local 
intercourse, within a boundary- 
zone of fifteen kilometers in 
width. 

2. Advantages which either 
of the contracting parties 
grants or will grant in the 
future to another country in 
virtue of an existing or future 
customs union. 

3. Import or export advan- 
' tages which are granted now, 

or may be granted in the 
future, to the inhabitants of 
the province of Archangel. 
However, German imports into 
that territory shall enjoy, to an 
equal extent, all customs advan- 
tages granted to any European 
or North American country. 

AUTICLE 12. 

Merchants, manufacturers, and 
other persons engaged in indus- 
trial enterprises who prove by 
presentation of a legal certificate 
issued to them by the authorities 
of their home country that they 
have the right to engage in com- 
mercial dealings in the country 
where they reside permanently, 
may, either personally or through 
commercial travelers in their 
employ, purchase goods in the 
territory of the other contracting 
party, or solicit orders, bringing 
with them samples of goods. 
The said merchants, manufac- 
turers, or other persons engaged in 
industrial pursuits, as well as 
commercial travelers, shall recip- 
rocally enjoy in both countries 
the same rights as regards pass- 
ports and dues on commercial 
dealings as do the subjects of the 
most favored nation. 

Persons provided with a cer- 
tificate entitling them to engage 
in industrial pursuits (commercial 
travelers) may carry with them 



36 



illE RUSSIAN PEACE. 



mit fid) ftif)ren. gilr Jollpfltc^tige ®e= 
genftanbe, mld^t ate 9D?ufter toon ben 
t)orbejei($neten §onbIunggreifenben eln= 
gebradjt lt)erben, rtirb beiberfetts i8e= 
freiung Con (Singang8= unb 2ln8gangg= 
abgaben unter ber 58orauSfe^nng 3uge= 
ftanben, bafe biefe ©egenftiinbe, falls fie 
ni(^t tierfauft morben finb, binnen einer 
grift Don einem 3af)re n3ieber au8ge= 
fiiljrt ttierben, unb bie ^bentitiit ber eln= 
unb rtieber au§gefitE)rten ©egenftanbe 
aufeer ^n^eifet ift, tDobei e§ g(eid)giilttg 
fetn foff, ilber lt)etd)e§ ^oKiint bie 
©egenftctnbe auSgefiifjrt tcerben. 

5)ie SJBieberau§fu{)r ber 9)?ufter mufe 
in beiben Sanbem bei ber (SinfuE)r burc^ 
^tieberlegung be§ SSetrageS ber bejlig^ 
lichen 5oHgebiif)ren ober burc^ ©id}er= 
ftetlung gettjabrleiftet tnerben. 

S)ie bertragf($Iiefeenben Jeile rterben 
fi(5 gegenfeitig 9JJitteiIung baritbcr 
madjen, tt)eld)e S3el)brben jur (Srteitung 
Don ©elBerbelegitimationSfarten befugt 
fein follen, nad) iBelcbem 9}Jufter biefe 
Garten auSgefertigt rterben, unb toddle 
SSorfdjriften bie SReifenben bei Slugiibung 
beg @eh)erbebetriebc§ ju bead}ten fjaben. 



©ie Slnge^origen beg einen ber ber= 
tragfe^Iiejienben leile, h)el(|e fid) in bag 
©ebiet beg anberen . jum 58cfud)e ber 
SJJeffen unb SUorfte begeben, um bort 
§anbel ju tretben ober ibre (Srseugniffe 
feilju^alten, icerben tBed)feIfeitig mie bie 
Snlttnber bef)anbett unb feinen bbf)eren 
Sbgaben ate biefe untertoorfen tt)erben,- 



Strtifel 13. 

§infid)tli(^ beg gegenfeitigen ©dju^eg 
beg Ur^ebcrred)teg an SBerfen ber ?itcra= 
tur, i?unft unb "iPbotograpbie follen im 
23erf)altnig jmif(|en S)eutfd)Ianb unb 
ffjufelanb bie 93eftimmungen beg jh)i= 
fd)en bem ®eutfd)en 9teid}e unb 9iu6= 
knb gefd)Ioffenen 58ertrageg bom 28. 
gebruar 191.3 getten. 

§inftd)tlid) beg gegenfeitigen Gdjutjeg 
ber SBarenbejeidjuungen follen bie S8e= 



samples of any kind, but not 
goods. Articles, liable to duty, 
which are brought in by the 
above mentioned persons, are ex- 
empted, by both parties, from . 
both import and export duties, 
but on condition that, in case 
these articles are not sold, they 
be taken out again within a year's 
time, and that there be no doubt 
as to the identity of the articles 
brought in and taken out again. 
It is immaterial through which 
custom house the goods are taken 
out. 

The taking out of samples of 
merchandise must be guaranteed, 
when imported, by making a de- 
posit of the amount of the re- 
spective customs duty, or by some 
other guarantees. 

The contracting parties wiU 
inform each other as to what 
authorities are entitled to issue 
certificates for the privilege of 
engaging in industrial enterprises, 
of the foi-m which tliese. certifi- 
cates will take, and the rules 
which the travelers must re- 
serve during the time of tlicir in- 
dustrial activities. 

The subjects of either of the 
contracting parties, going into 
the territoi'y of the other to visit 
fairs and bazaars, to trade or to 
sell their products, are mutually 
placed, by both parties, in the 
same position as the native in- 
habitants and shall not be sub- 
jected to higher dues. 

Article 13. 

In regard to mutual safe- 
guarding of author's rights as re- 
gards literary, artistic, or photo- 
graphic products, the stipulations 
of the agreement concluded be- 
tween the German Empire and 
Russia under date of 28 February 
1913, shall apply in the relations 
between Germany and Russia. 

In regard to mutual safe- 
guarding of trade-marks, the stip- 



THE PEACE OP BEEST-LITOVSK : SUBAPP. 1 TO APP. II. 



37 



fttmmungen ber S)efIoratton bom 23./ ulationsof the declaration of 23/11 
11. 3fuli 1873 aucEi in ^utunft ma6= July, 1873/ shall govern also in 
gebenb fein. the future. 



2IrtifeI 14. 

®ie beutjdjen ©tijiffe unb tE)re 2a= 
bungen follen in SJufelanb, unb bie 
rufftf(f)en ©c^tffe unb il)re i'abungen 
foKen in Teutfcfilanb gonj. mie bie in= 
ianbifci}en erfjiffc unb ?abungen be= 
banbelt toerben, gleid)t)iel, bon hio bie 
©c^iffe auSgelaufen ober inohin fie be= 
ftintmt finb, unb tnot)er bie ?abingen 
ftammen ober tropin fie beftimmt finb. 

3ebe§ 3?orred)t unb jebe 93efreiung, 
ttieldje in biefer S3ejiel)ung Bon einem 
ber ticrtragfcfittefeenben Jeife einer brit= 
ten 3)Jncf)t eingerciumt toerben foHte, 
foil oI)ne toeitereS unb bebingungSlog 
aucf) bem anberen leik juftefien. 

SBon ben »orftef)cnben S8eftimmungen 
mirb jebod) eine 3lu§naf)nte gemacf)t: 

a) in betreff berjenigen befonberen 
SBegiinftigungen, ttelcfie bem inlanbi= 
fcben 5if5)fang unb beffen (Srjeugniffen 
in bem einen ober bem anberen ?anbe 
te^t ober in oufunft gemafjtt toerben 
foMten, 

b) in betreff ber je^t ober fiinftig ber 
nntionalen j?auffaE)rteif(otte getoitbrten 
5Begiinftigungen. 

3?ic 93eftimmungen beS gegentoarti^ 
gen 3]erirage8 ftnben teine ?Intt)enbung 
auf bie .fiiifteufcbiffabrt, mclcbe nncb 
Ujie Oor burrfi bie in jebem ber beiben 
?anber je^t ober fiinftig in .Sraft 
ftebenben ©efe^e geregelt toirb. om= 
merbin foil e§ ben beutfcf)en unb ruffi= 
fcben ©djiffen freiftcben, auS einem 
§afen be8 einen ber beiben tiertrag= 
fcbliefeenben ^iinber nod) einem ober 
mebreren §afen beSfelben ?anbeS ju 
fabren, fci eg, um bort bie quS bem 
JIuSlanbe mttgebrai^te Sabnng ganj 
ober teitoetfe ju Iofd)en, ober um eine 
nacb bem 3luglanbe beftimmte ?abung 
einjunebmen ober ju ergcinjen. 

Strtitel 15. 



Article 14. 

German vessels and their car- 
goes in Russia, as well as Russian 
vessels and their cargoes in Ger- 
many, shall be placed on the same 
footing as local ships and cargoes, 
regardless of where the vessel 
sailed from or whither bound, 
regardless also of the origin or 
destination of their cargoes. 

Every prerogative and every 
■immunity which may be granted 
by one of the contracting parties 
to a third country, shall be ex- 
tended automatically and uncon- 
ditionally to- the other party. 

However, exception is made 
from the foregoing stipulations : 

a) In regard to those special 
privileges which, in either coun- 
try, now exist, or may be granted 
in the future, to the home 
fisheries and their produce; 

&) In regard to the privileges 
granted now or in the future to 
the national merchant fleet. 

The stipulations of the present 
agreement do not apply to coast- 
wise shipping whicn, as hereto- 
fore, shall be regulated in both 
countries by existing or future 
laws. However, in any case 
German and Russian vessels shall 
be permitted to sail from a port 
of one of the contracting parties 
to one or more ports of the same 
country, whether for complete or 

Eartial discharge of the cargo 
rought from abroad, or for taking 
on or completing a cargo destined 
for abroad. 



Article 15. 



Xiie g^ationalitot ber ©d)iffe foil The nationality of vessels is 
beiberfeitS nacb ben jebem ?anbe eigen= recognized by both parties in 
tlimlic^en ©efeijen unb S3erorbmmgcn accordance with the laws and 



1 63 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 59. 



38 



THE EUSSIAN PEACE. 



auf @runb ber an 3iorb befmblic^en, 
burdi btc juftanbigen 53e^brben au8= 
gefteKten Urfunben unb "iPatente aner= 
tannt njerben. 

Tie Bon ben etnent ber bertrag[d)lie= 
feenben Jeile auggefteltten ©diiffgrnefe^ 
brtefe rterben nad) iKafegabe ber jtci= 
fcftcn ben beiben Bertragfdjltcfeenben 
letlen getroffenen ober ju treffenben 
be[onbercn 25ereinbarungen Bon bem 
anberen 3^eile anerfannt tterben. 

Slrttfel 16. 

T^ie beutf(^en ©cbtffe, tnelc()c naif) 
einem riifftfi^cn §afen, unb untgefe^rt 
bie ruffi[(f)en ©c^iffe, melc^e nac^ einent 
beutfcf)en ^a^n fommen, nur um bort 
tbrc ?abung ju BerBotlftanbtgen ober 
einen Zdl berfelben ju lofcfien, follen, 
Borau8ge[c^t/ bafj fie ficfi narb ben 
®efe^en unb 3?or|(^riften beS be« 
treffenben ©taateg rtcf)ten, ben nacb 
einem anberen §afen begfelben ober 
eineS anberen ?anbe§ beftintmten 2;eit 
it)rer ?abung an 93orb bebalten unb ibn 
ttiebcr augfitfjren tonnen, of)ne ge^atten 
3U fein, fiir biefen leit ibrer ?abung 
irgenbmclcfie ©eftttle ju bejablen, aufeer 
ben 2Iuffi(f)t«abgaben, metcbe iibrigenS 
nur nad) bem flir bie inlttnbifcbe ®rf)iff= 
fabrt beftimmten ©a^e ert)oben ttierben 
blirfen. 

Slrtitel 17. 

35on Jonnengetbern unb 2Ibferti= 
gungggebiibren follen in ben §afen eineS 
ieben ber beiben ?iinber BoIIig befreit 
fein: 

1. bie ©cf)iffe, n3e(tf}e Bon irgenb^ 

einem Drte mit SBallaft ein= 
unb bamit mieber auSlaufen; 

2. bie ©c^iffe, Inelcfie au§ einem 

§afen beg einen ber beiben 
?anber nad) einem ober meb= 
reren §afen begfelben 8an= 
beS (ommen unb fid) ilber 
bie in eirtem anberen §afen 
begfetben SanbeS bereitS er= 
folgte 5af)Iung jener 2(b= 
gaben ausmeifen fonnen; 
.3. bie ©d)iffe, )Betd)e freimiltig 
ober notgebrungen mit ?a= 



regulations of each country, on 
the basis of documents and letters 
patent issued by the proper au- 
thorities and found on the vessel. 
Certificates of tonnage meas- 
urement, issued by either of the 
contracting parties, shall be recog- 
nized by the other party in ac- 
cordance with special agreements 
concluded, or to be concluded 
between the contracting parties. 

Article 16. 

German vessels, arriving at a 
Kussian port, and on the other 
hand, Russian vessels arriving at 
a German port, merely for the 
purpose of completing their cargo 
there, or for partially discharging 
the same, may retain and bring 
out again a definite part of the 
cargo destined for another port 
of the same country or for an- 
other country on condition that 
they observe the laws and regu- 
lations of the country in question; 
in this case they are not obliged 
to pay any dues for this part 
of their cargo with the exception 
of the inspection fees, which 
shall, however, be levied only at 
the rate established for local 
vessels. 

Article 17. 

From tonnage dues and clear- 
ance fees are wholly exempt in 
the ports of either country: 

1. Vessels arriving from any 

place in ballast and 
leaving again in ballast; 

2. Vessels which, coming 

from a harbor of one of 
the two countries into 
one or more harbors of 
the same country, can 
prove that tliey paid the 
said fees in another har- 
bor of the same country; 

3. Vessels which voluntarily 

or of necessity arrive 



THE PEACE OP BEEST-LITOVSK : STJBAPP. I TO APP. II. 



39 



,bung nac^ einem §afen fom= 

men unb ii)n, ol^ne irgenbtoie 

§anbel faetrieben p ijabm, 

mleber berlaffen. 

Siefe iBefreiung luirb nic^t getcti^rt, 

fiir ?eu(fitturm=, ?otfen=, aiemorfte= 

ruTtgg= Cuarontane= unb fonftige auf 

bem ©djiffgforper laftenbe SIbgaben, 

melc^e fiir bem 95erfei)r btenenbe ?eiftim= 

gen unb 58orfebrungen in gktdfiem 

3}?afee bon ben tnlanbifc^en unb t)on ben 

©c^tffen ber metftbegiinftigten Elation 

ju entrtc^ten finb. 

3ft bag gintaufen burc^ ^JJot beran= 
lajjt morben, fo gelten nic^t alg 3lug= 
iibung beg CinbelSbetriebeS bag jur 
2lugbe[ferung beg ©c^iffeg erfolgte ?b= 
fcfien unb SBiebereinlaben ber SBaren, 
bag tiberlaben auf ein anbereg ©c^tff tm 
galle ber ©eeuntiic^tigfeit beg erften, 
bie jur 93erproBtantterung ber ©c^tffg= 
mannfc^aft nottoenbtgen Slufltienbungen 
unb ber SSerfauf ber befc^iibigten SBoren 
mit ®enef)migung ber 3ont>erh)aItung. 



Slrtifel 18. 

SEBenn ein ©($iff eineg ber bertrag= 
fdjliefeenben 2:eite an ben l?uften beg 
anberen Teileg ftranbet ober ©cEiiffbrucE) 
leibet, follen ©djiff unb ?abung biefelben 
iBegiinftigungen unb Sefreiungen ge= 
niefeen, hjeld^e bie ©efe^gebung beg be= 
treffenben Sanbeg ben etgenen @($iffen 
in glet(^er ?age betoilligt. Sg fott 
jeberlei §ilfe unb SBeiftanb bem giibrer 
unb ber gjjannfd^aft fotoobt fiir iijve 
■jPerfon toie fiir ©i^iff unb ?abung ge- 
leiftet rterben. 

J)te bertragfc&Iiefeenben Jeile fom= 
men aufeerbem iiberein, bafe bie gebor= 
genen SBaren teiner ^oltabgabe unter= 
liegen foHen, eg fei benn, ba| fie in ben 
inliinbifd^en iBerbrdudi iibergefjen. 

2IrtifeI 19. 

3)ie SBenufeung ber Sbauffeen unb 
fonftigen ©trafeen, j^aniile, ©c^Ieufen, 
ijai^ren, iSrllcfen unb SSriidenoffnungen, 
ber ^cifen unb Sanbunggpla^e, ber 58e= 
jeic^nung unb iBeleuti^tung beg ga^r= 



with cargo at a port and 
leave it without having 
effected any trade. 

This exemption shall not ex- 
tend to lighthouse, pilotage, tow- 
ing, quarantine, or other dues 
which are payable on the vessel 
for services rendered or apparatus 
used, and which are established 
in the interest of traffic, and 
which are equally payable by 
native ships, and by those belong- 
ing to the niost favored nation. 

If a vessel came to the port 
through necessity, the unloading 
and reloading of merchandise 
necessitated by repairs to the ship, 
the transferring of cargo into 
another vessel on account of the 
unworthiness of the former, the 
purchases of necessary provisions 
for the crew, the sale of deter- 
iorated goods with the consent 
of the customs authorities, shall 
not be considered as a commer- 
cial transaction. 

Article 18. 

In case a vessel of one of the 
contracting parties is stranded or 
wrecked on the coast of the other 
country, the vessel, as well as the 
cargo, shall enjoy the same ad- 
vantages and immunities which 
the laws of the respective coun- 
tries extend to its own vessels in 
similar circumstances. All aid 
and assistance shall be given to 
the master and to the crew, as 
regards their persons, the ship, and 
the cargo. 

The contracting parties are 
further agreed that salvaged goods 
shall not be subject to customs 
duties unless intended for local 
consumption. 

Aeticle 19. 

The use of highways and other 
thoroughfares, canals, locks, fer- 
ries, bridges, and bridge openings, 
harbors and quays, chaimel-marks 
and lights, pilots, lifting cranes 



40 



THE RUSSIAN PEACE. 



h)a[fer8, beg Sotfentoefeng, ber JJratte 
unb SBageanftalten, ber Stteberlagen, 
ber Slnftattcn sur 5Rettung unb 33ergung 
tton ©d)tffggiltem unb berglet($en mef)r 
follen, tnfotneit bte SIntagen ober 2In= 
ftalten fur ben offent(i(^en 33crfe^r unb 
ben CttTti^el tm allgemeinen beftimmt 
ftnb, gleicfioiel, ob fie bom ©taate ober 
mit ftaatlic^er @ehet)migung bon '>Prt= 
batperfonen berrtaltet bjerben, ben 2tn= 
ge^brigen beg anberen Bertragfc^lte6en= 
ben Seiteg unter gleid)en 58ebingungen 
unb gegen 3if)tun0 gleicfier ®ebuf)ren 
trie ben 2tngef)brigen beg eigenen ©taateS 
geftattet toerben. 

©olc^e ®e6uf)ren biirfen, borbef)aIt= 
iidl ber beim 5cebeleuc3jtungg= unb ®ee= 
lotfenlrefen jutaffigen abroeit^enben 
$^eftimmungen, nur bei h)irflicf)cr 58e« 
nu^ung folcter S[nlagen ober Hnftalten 
erf)obeti ttierben. 

Strtifel 20. 

33ie belben bertragf($tie§enben Jeile 
beljalten ficfi baS $Re(^t oor, ibre (Sifen= 
bn{)ntrang|3orttarifc nod) eigenem , (gr= 
meffen ju beftimmen. 

3eboc^ foil ineber f)infid)tlid) ber 
93eforberunggpretfe nod) ftinfiditlic^ ber 
^eit unb ber 2lrt ber ?I6fertigung stt)i= 
fd)en ben S8eh3of)nem ber ©ebiete ber 
bertragfdjiiefeenben Jeile ein Unter= 
fd)ieb gemad)t icerben. ^nSbefonbere 
foHen fiir bte bon JRufelanb nod) einer 
beutfd)en Station ober burc^ Deutfc^= 
lanb beforberten ©iitertranSOorte auf 
ben bcutfd)en 58af)ncn feine bbf)eren 
Jarife ongemenbct toerben, al§ fiir 
gleidjartige beutfdie ober auglttnbif^e 
grjeugniffe in berfelben 9?ic^tung unb 
auf berfelben 58erfef)r8ftrecle er£)oben 
fterben. Sag gteic^e foil auf ben 
ruffifcben 58af)nen fiir ©iiterfenbungen 
au8 T)eutfd}Ianb gelten, iuelc^e nacfi 
einer ruffifcf)en Station ober burd) 
SJufetanb befbrbert tuerben. 

2lugnaf)men bon borftef)enben S9e= 
ftimmungen foIIen nur juliiffig fein, fo= 
meit eg fid) um Jrangporte ju er= 
ma&igten ^reifen fiir bffentlidje ober 
milbe ^mecfe l)anbelt. 



and scales, warehouses, coast- 
guards and institutions for salvage 
and safe-keeping of ships' cargoes, 
and so forth, in so far as these 
constructions or institutions are 
intended for general communica-- 
tion and for pul)lic traffic and 
trade in general, irrespective of 
whether they are managed by the 
State, or by private persons with 
the consent of the State, shall be 
granted to the subjects of the 
other contracting party on the 
same conditions and against pay- 
ment of equal dues as to the sub- 
jects of the home country. 

With the exception of devia- 
tions permissible in regard to 
Ughthouses and pilots, these 'dues 
shall only be levied if the above 
mentioned constructions and in- 
stitutions have actually been 
utilized. 

Article 20. 

Both contracting parties re- 
serve the right to establish their 
own railway tariffs at their own 
discretion. 

However, neither in respect to 
freight rates nor in respect to the 
time and method of forwarding 
shall any difference be made 
between the subjects of either 
contracting party. Especially on 
consignments of goods coming 
from Russia and destined for a 
German station, or passing 
through Germany in transit, no 
higher rates shall be levied on 
German railways than on similar 
German or foreign products going 
in the same direction and on the 
same section of the road. The 
same shall apply on Russian rail- 
ways for coiisignments of goods 
from Germany destined for Rus- 
sian stations or passing through 
Russia in transit. 

Exceptions from the foregoing 
stipulations shall be admissible 
only in so far as consignments at 
reduced rates for public or chari- 
table purposes are concerned. 



8. RUSSIA— GERMANY. 



FINAL PEOTOCOL TO SUB-APPENDIX 1 OF APPENDIX II TO 
THE PEACE TEEATY BETWEEN EUSSIA AND THE CENTRAL 
POWEES. SIGNED 3 MAECH, 1918.i 



[German text as published in Reichs- 
Gesetzblatt, .Vo. 77, 11 June, 191S.] 



[Translation.] 



@ r ft e r 2 e 1 1. 
Sum SSertraggteft. 



,3u Slrtifel 1. 

.§augf)oItungggegenftafibe, bte fc^on 
gcbrau(f)t unb 58eftanbteile beS W}oU= 
Uar§ bon 3lugef)or{gen eincS ber t)er= 
tragfJiIicfeenben Jeite finb, bte im 
33egriffe finb, ficfi tm ®e6iete be§ 
anbcren JeileS ntebergulaffen. fotkn in 
bem (eljteren feinerlei SingangS^oK 
unterlBorfen fein. 

Tie beutfc^en Semf^Sfonfutate unb 
bie Seamten ber bipIomatifcf)en foroie 
ber gebadjten fonfularifcfien 33ertretun= 
gen, bie bon ber Tcutfdjen ?>iegierung 
nad) Siufjlanb entfanbt finb, foKen fo"= 
ft)ot)I fiir bie .S^itungen toir fiir bie 
(Srjeugniffe ber 9Biffenfdwften, ber 
JJiinfte unb ber Settctriftif gegenitber 
ber ruffifcf)en ,3enfur boife nnb gonje 
greitieit genie^en. 

Sic nad) Strtifel 2 beg iBcrtrageg 
jtBifrfjen 3)eutfd)Ianb unb ffJufelanb Oom 
8. 35e,5em6er/26. 5Jfotiember 1874 ben 
.^fonfulatgbeamten jufte^enben 3?or= 
recite unb fflefreiungen merben oud) 
ben ben beutfcftcn ,S?onfuIaten in $Kuf3= 
lanb beigegebencn Spejialbeamten fo= 
lt)ie ben 2[genten beg ruffifc^en ginanj' 
minifteriumg unb ifiren '<;cfretnren 
(ober 3(ttadieg) in Tcutfrfitanb suge= 
ftanbcn. 



Part Fiest 
eefbering to the text of the 

TEEATY 

To Article 1. 

Household effects which have 
already been in use and movable 
property of subjects of either con- 
tracting party who intend to set- 
tle on the territory of the other 
party, shall be exempt in the 
latter territory from any import 
duties. 

German official consulates and 
the employes of diplomatic and 
of said consular institutions dis- 
patched to Russia, shall have the 
right to receive newspapers and 
works of science, art, and litera- 
ture, entirely exempt from the 
Russian censorship. 



The privileges and immunities 
accorded, as per Article 2 of the 
Treaty between Germany and 
Russia of 8 December/26 Novem- 
ber, 1874,- to consular employees, 
are also extended to special offi- 
cials attached to German consu- 
lates in Russia and also to the 
agents of the Russian Ministry of 
Finance and to their secretaries 
(or attaches) in Germany. 



' Ratifications exchanged at Berlin, 29 March, 1918 (Neue Freie Presse, 6 July, morning edition; 
cf. infra, ■p. 139). 
2 65 British and Foreign State PaperSt p. 244, 

41 



42 



THE RUSSIAN 



PEACE. 



,3u artitet 1 unb 12. 

3m 'iPafemefen merben bie 2tn0e= 
{)ortgen betber 2;etle \vk bie ber meift= 
begiinftigten S^tation bebanbelt hjerben. 

T-ic ©iiltigfeitSbauer beg "iPaf^ttifa 
iDtrb in Sffu^Ianb auf einen ^eitraum 
don fcd)§ SKonaten crftrecft, 

1)iefe 58cftimmung erftrecft fiifi auc^ 
auf baS ^aJ3Di[n ber bentfd)en vt>fln^= 
lungSreifenben mofni[d)er ?)ie!igion. 

X'ie ®ebii{)r fiir bie (Srteilung ber 
3lug(anbSpaffe an bie in ^liufetanb lTiof)= 
nenben Seutfcfjen tnirb ben Setrag Don 
50 SoiDcfcn nicf)t liberfteigcn. Stufelanb 
tuirb and) fitnftig fltr bie ©ultigfeit ber 
?egitimation8frf)eine, )neld)e innerbalb 
einer ©rensjone bon 30 .$!iIometern 
©eltung baben, unb ben ^nbaber, )t)ie 
bieS gegentpartig ber ga(t ift, jum mebr= 
maligen tiberfcfirciten ber @renje an 
beliebigen ©renstibergangen berecbtigen, 
eine 3)auer Oon 28 Jagen bemittigen. 
®iefe ©iiltigfeitgbauer tnirb beiber[ei= 
tig bom Xage ber erften SBenutjung be6 
Sdjeineg sum ©rensiibertritt an mit 
ber SWaJigabe berec^net mcrben, bnfe bie 
gebac^ten ©c&eine ibre ©iiltigteit tier= 
lieren, hienn fie ni(^t jum erften 9)?ate 
fpateftenS am fUnfjebnten Jage, bont 
iage ber StuSfertigung on gerec^net, be= 
nuljtrterben. ®iefe®auerbon283:agen 
mirb in fcincm gafte burcf) ben toctbrenb 
ber ©illtigfeitgbauer ber ?egitimationg= 
fcEieine eintretcnben 3abreSttierf}feI be= 
xui)Tt merben. Tic in stnei ©prac^en, 
in Teutfd) imb in 9?uffifcb, abgefafeten 
Segitimationgfcbeine fotten beiberfeitS 
nur ben eigenen ©taat§angef)ortgen unb 
benjenigen SIngeborigen be§ nnbcren 
?anbe§ erteilt njerben, lt)eld)e in bem 
?anbe mobnen, mo bie ®d)eine au6gc= 
fteltt tnerben. 

DaS Datum beg ttbertrittS iiber bie 
©reuse mirb funftig bon ben beutfdien 
unb ruffifd)en 33ebbrben fortot)! nad) ber 
beutfcben Wic nad) ber ruffifcben ,3eit= 
red)nung auf ben ©d}einen bermerft 
hjerben. 

3)te ©d)eine merben and) fiinftig, hjie 
bieg gegeuiDttrtig ber gall ift, ebenfo tnk 
an (Sbriftcn auc^ an ^fraeliten berab= 
folgt luerben. 



To Articles 1 and 12. 

In regard to passports the 
subjects of both countries are 
placed on a footing with the most 
favored nation. 

The passport vise in Russia 
holds good for six months. 

The decision includes the vise 
of the passports of German com- 
mercial travelers of the Hebrew 
faith. 

The fee for issuing foreign pass- 
ports to Germans living in Russia 
is not to exceed 50 Copecks. Rus- 
sia will in the future also grant a 
term of 28 days for the validity of 
legitimation certificates available 
within the hmits of a frontier zone 
30 kilometers wide, allowing the 
bearers the right of repeatedly 
crossing the frontier at different 
points as at present. This term 
win be reckoned by both parties 
from the day on which the cer- 
tificate is first used for crossing 
the frontier, but the certificates 
expire if not used for the first 
time at the latest within fifteen 
days after the date of issue. This 
term of 28 days is in no way af- 
fected by the beginning of a new 
year durmg the time for which the 
certificate is available. These cer- 
tificates, which shall be issued in 
two languages, German and Rus- 
sian, are to be given by either 
country only to its own subjects 
and to such subjects of the other 
State who reside in the country 
in which the certificate is issued. 



The day on which the frontier 
is crossed will in future be 
marked on the certificate by 
both Russian and German au- 
thorities,- according to both the 
Russian and German calendar. 

Certificates will be given in fu- 
ture, as at present, both tO' 
Christians and Hebrews. 



BEEST-LITOVSK PEACE : FINAL PROTOCOL TO SITBAPPENDIX 1. 



43 



^ 3eber bertragfc^Iiefeeitbe Setl ftiirb 
ble ^etttoanberung fetner .2(ngeI)ortgen 
in bag ©ebtct beg anberen Jeileg jur 
Sefc^iiftigung in Ianbh)irt[d)aftlid}en 
unb geh)erbltcf)ert Setrieben geftatten 
unb [ie in feiner 2Bei[e, ingbefonbere 
au($ nic^t burd) iI3af5erfd)n3erungen, £)tn= 
bem. ®ie iBertreter toon ftaatlt(^ 
beaufftd}tigten Organifationen, bie im 
®ebtete beS einen JcxieS jur iScrmit* 
telung ber Stnrtcrbung [otdiec 2[rbeiter 
gegnlnbet ftnb imb bie bon ber 9?egie= 
rung biefeg Sleiteg ber 9iegierung beS 
anberen Jeiteg be5eid}net iDerben, follen 
tnt ©ebiete be§ le^teren oI)ne toeitereg 
jugela[fen irerben unb ifjre 23ermitte= 
lungStcitigteit ungef)inbert auSiiben biir= 
fen. 



©ie ruffifd^n Slrbeiter, metdje nac^ 
3)eutfd)tanb fomnten, um bafelbft in 
tanbh)irtfd}aftlid)en Setrieben ober 9^e= 
benbetrieben ju arbeiten, follen toie bi8= 
tier foftenfrei mit ?egitimation§pa):ie= 
ren, giiltig bom 1. gebruar big 20. 
©esember neuen ©tilg, berfeben h3erben. 

, Sludi biefe "ipapiere folten in beutfcfier 
unb in ruffifd)er ©pradie abgefafet fein. 



Su Slrtifel 3. 

©orteit bie 2lnge{)origen eineg britten 
©tuateg auf @runb ber in ^raft fte^en* 
ben SSertriige unb Ubereinfontmen bon 
ber SSormunbfc^aft in 9?u6Ianb befrett 
finb, fotlen bie beutfc^en 5Reic^§ange= 
bbrigen in SJufelanb t^infic^tlic^ ber 33Dr= 
munbfc^aft iiber nic^tbeutft^e aKinber= 
itiJirige biefelbe 93ergunftigung geniefeen. 

3u STrtifel 5. 

S)ie bon ber beutfc^en 9?egierung 
gegcniiber ber ruffifc^en SinfuJir ge= 
troffenen beterinaren SJfa^nai^men fon= 
nen nic^t in ftrengerer gornt eingefitf)rt 
Icerben ate biejenigen gegenliber bon 
©taaten, toeld^e fid^ I)in[i(|tlt($ ber 
Sierfeuc^en unb ber beterinaren @in= 
rid^tungen in bemfelben ^uftanbe be= 
finben lute JRufelanb. 

86409—18- — 4 



Each contracting parties will 
allow its subjects to pass tempo- 
rarily to the territory of the other 
party for agricultural and indus- 
trial purposes and wiE raise no 
obstacles particularly as regards 
passport regulations. The rep- 
resentatives of organizations under 
state inspection which are estab- 
Ushed in the territory of one 
party to act as agencies for en- 
listing such workmen, and re- 
garding which the government of 
this party will notify the govern- 
ment of the other party, are 
without further formalities ad- 
mitted witliin the territory of the 
latter and may exercise without 
hindrance ■ their functions as 
agents. 

Russian workmen entering Ger- 
many for agricultural or other 
kindred occupations, shall be 
provided as heretofore, free of 
charge, with legitimation papers 
valid from 1 February to 20 De- 
cember, new style. 

These papers also shall be writ- 
ten in the Russian and German 
languages. 

To Article 3. 

In so far as the subjects of a 
third State, on the strength of 
existing treaties and agreements, 
are exempt in Russia from guard- 
ianship, German subjects in 
Russia shall enjoy the same 
privilege in respect to guardian- 
ship of non-German minors. 

To Article 5. 

Veterinary measures intro- 
duced by the German Govern- 
ment with regard to Russian im- 
port may not be apphed more 
strictly than with regard to 
States which, in respect to con- 
tagious diseases of animals and 
in respect to veterinary institu- 
tions, are in the same condition 
as Russia. 



44 



THE RUSSIAN 



PEACE. 



Tiicfe SSeftimmung finbet feine 2In= 
ttienbung auf bte Betermciren 9Ibmac^= 
ungen jmtfd)en 3)eutfcfilanb unb Ofter= 
rei^=Ungara. 

Ste ,-3a]^I ber lebenben ©djtteine, 
bercn ginfufir nac^ Oberfdjtefien auf 
®runb ber beftef)enbcn 33eftimmungen 
jugelaffen tft, mirb auf 2500 ©tilcE 
)t»od)entItd) erf)of)t. 

gleifd), rtelc^eS im ©tune beS beut= 
fc^en gleifdjbefc^augefefeeS bom 3. 3um 
1900 alg jubereitet anayfelien tft, rtirb 
jur Stnfubr uad^ 5)eutfc^Ianb nac^ 
3Wa^gabc ber SBefttmntungen beS er= 
JBcifjuten ®efe^e§ jugelaffen hierben. 

2)ie in ben Slbfa^en 3 unb 4 ber 
gegenttiartigen iBeftimmung eiitf)altenen 
^ugcftanbniffe fonnen jeittreife n)tber= 
rufen ober aufge^oben Herbert, rtenn 
au6erge>Bof)nU(^e ©riinbe betermarpoIt= 
jeilic^er S'latur bteg notrtenbig mac^en. 

. 3u ben Slrtiteln 5, 6, 7, 9 unb 10. 

3m ^inbltcE barauf, bafe jur ^eit in 
Sfu^Ianb gewiffe 2Baren bei ber (Sin= 
fubr iiber bie ganbgrenje f)of)eren 3oII= 
fci^en unterliegen aU bei ber @infuJ)r 
liber bie Oftfee, befte{)t (ginoerftanbniS 
baritber, bafe tiom Sage beS 3nfraft= 
tretenS beS gegentoiirtigen 93ertrageS 
bie 3otte bei ber @infuf)r iiber bie 
^anbgrenje auf bie ^H^e ber ^oKe ^ei 
ber (|infuf)r liber bie Oftfee ermiifeigt 
toerben follen, unb bag fein neuer, bie 
@inful}r liber bie ©eegrenje beglinftigen= 
ber Unterfc^eibunggjotl eingefUl^rt h)er= 
ben barf. 

®ie 3)eutfd^e 9?egierung berpflic^tet 
fid) ii)rerfeit«, an feiner ©renje beg 
®eutfd)en 9?ei(^e8 anbere ober glinftigere 
S'ilk einjufUiiren alS an ber Oftgrenje. 



SvL Slrtifel 6. 

S)er ©eutfd^e 33unbe8rat mirb Mi)-- 
renb ber ganjen S)auer beg gegen= 
mSrtigen SBertrageS bon feiuem SRe^ite, 
bie ®ehef)migung jur grriditung bon 
gemifditen ©etreibetranfitlagern in ^e= 
niggberg, 3)anjtg, Slltona, arjonnf)eim 



This regulation does not apply 
to agreements relative to veteri- 
nary measures between Germany 
and Austria-Hungary. 

The number of live pigs, which 
according to existing regulations 
may be imported into upper Si- 
lesia is increased to twenty-five 
hundred per week. 

Meat, which by the German 
Meat Inspection Law of 3 June, 
1900, is considered as dressed, 
is allowed to be imported into 
Germany in accordance with reg- 
ulations of the law referred to. 

The concessions stipulated in 
paragraphs 3 and 4 preceding, 
may be temporarily suspended or 
revoked, if this is necessitated by 
extraordinary considerations aris- 
ing from veterinary supervision. 

To Articles 5, 6, 7, 9, and 10. 

Whereas in Russia at the present 
time certain goods are subject to 
higher customs duty, when im- 
ported across the land frontier, 
than when imported by the Baltic 
Sea, the parties are agreed that 
from the day of the coming into 
force of the present treaty, the 
duties on imports across the land 
frontier shall be reduced to con- 
form with the rates of duty on 
imports by the Baltic Sea and that 
no new tariff be introduced dis- 
criminating in favor of imports by 
sea. 

The German Government on 
its part binds itseK not to intro- 
duce on any frontier of the Ger- 
man Empire different or more 
favorable customs duties than on 
its eastern frontier. 

To Article 6. 

The German Federal Council 
will not avail itself at any time 
during the life of the present 
treaty of its prerogative to re- 
voke the permission given for 
establishing mixed warehouses 



BREST-LITOVSK PEACE : FINAL PEOTOCOL TO SUBAPPENDIX 1. 



45 



unb ?ublt)tggi)afen ju miberrufen, feinen - 
®ebrauc^ mac^en. 



3u 3lrtifel 6, 7 unb 11. 

Tic 93obcn= unb ©emerbecrjcuGniffe 
einer britten Wad)t, melcfte burcf) baS 
©ebiet eineg ber bertragfiijUefeenben 
Seile burcf)gefuf)rt toerben, follcn bei 
tf)rem (Singang in bag ©ebiet beS an= 
beren JeileS feinen anberen ober f)ohcren 
pollen untcrmorfcn tuerben, aU luenn 
fie birett aue! bem UrfpnmgStanbe ein= 
9eflii)rt tttorben tociren. 



3u ben 2(rtifeln 6 bi§ 9. 

Tic Sfufftfcfte 9?egierung erflart fid) 
bereit, bet ,3o(l3af)lnngen beutfc^c ®oIb= 
miinjen burcb bie SoMmtev annebmen 
?u laffen, nnb ?,mt 1000 'Maxt ®olb 
al8 ©egenftert Oon 462 5)?ubel (1 9?ubel 
= iV imperial). 3n bem gletc^en 
S?erf)altniffc inerben bie ruffifc^en 3on= 
(imter bie beutfc^en 9?ei(^Sbanfnoten bei 
3olt5af)tungen nnnebmen. 



^u 2{rtifel 6 unb 7. 

Tie Bertragfcbliefeenben Jeile bef)al= 
ten fi(^ bag JRecbt Oor, bet ber (Sinfubr 
t)on SBaren, menn biefe je nncf) iJ)rem 
^erfunftSlanb einer unterf(f)ieb(t(fien 
,3oH6ef)anbIung unterliegen, jum Wtad)' 
hieife ber einl)eimif(^en Srseugung ober 
Searbeitung bie 5SorIegitug Don llr= 
fprunggjeugniffen gu forbem. @§ mirb 
feitenS ber beiben 2;etle gltrforge getrof^ 
fen merben, bafe bie Berlangten ^eugniffe 
ben ^anbet mog(icf)ft loentg beengen- 

,3u STrtifcI 12. 

Urn in JRufelanb bag in 2lbf. 1 Don 
Slrtitel 12 t)orgefeE)ene Sfecbt auSltben 
gu fonnen, ntiiffen bie bafelbft benannten 
■iPerfonen mit befonberen ®e>Berbef^ei» 
nen berfefien fetn, beren jugunften be8 
©taateg erI)obene ©ebtitir 150 SJubel 
fiir ba6 gange Sai)v unb 75 9?ubel fiir 
bie jtoeite §alfte beS 3af)reS nic^t iiber= 
fteigen foil. 



for grain in transit at Konigs- 
berg, Danzig, Altona, Mannheim, 
and Ludwigshafen. 

To Articles 6, 7, and 11. 

When the agricultural and in- 
dustrial products of a third Pow- 
er which are transported through 
the territory of one of the con- 
tracting parties, are imported 
into the other country, they 
shall not be subject to payment 
of other or higher duties than 
if they had been imported di- 
rectly from the country of their 
origin. 

To Articles 6 to 9. 

The Russian Government de- 
clares itself prepared to accept 
German gold coins in payment of 
customs duties, at the exchange 
rate of 1,000 Marks gold for 462 
Roubles (1 Rouble = -^ Imperial) . 
The Russian custom houses will 
accept German Imperial Bank 
Notes at the same rate of exchange 
in payment of customs duties. 

To Articles 6 and 7. 

In respect to the importation of 
goods, which are subject accord- 
ing to their country of origin to 
different customs duties, the con- 
tracting parties reserve the right 
to demand certificates of origin 
as evidence of domestic produc- 
tion or manufacture. Both par- 
ties will take care that the above 
certificates shall restrict trade as 
little as possible. 

To Article 12. 

In order to exercise in Russia 
the right provided for by Para- 
graph 1 of Article 12, the persons 
there mentioned shall be pro- 
vided with special trade certi- 
ficates, government fee for which 
shall not exceed 150 Roubles for 
a whole year and 75 Roubles for 
the second haK of the year. 



46 



THE BUSSIA.N PEACE. 



SBenn bie mit ben borftefeenb erh)alf)n= 
ten ®elt)erbefd)einen berfel^enen ^^er= 
fonen bag in Slbf. 1 bon Slrtifel 12 
t)orge[ebcne 9ted)t burc^ in if)rem S)ienfte 
ftel^enbe ^anblunggreifenbe auMben 
rtollen, fo milffen biefe §anblun0«= 
reifenben aufeerbem mit einem pex' 
fonlic^en ®eft)erbefd)cin berfef)en fein, 
beffen ®ebii{)r 50 JRubel fiir bag ganje 
^ai)x unb 25 JRubel fiir bie stteite 
^citfte be§ 3af)re§ nid)t liberfc[}reiten 
loirb. 

3)ie in 2lbf. 1 ber gegenmartigen 58e= 
ftimmung t)orgefef)enen ©emerbefc^eine 
tbnnen auf ben Sffamen ber 'iperfonen 
felbft, bie fid) nad) 9tu^(anb begeben, 
ouggefteltt toerben, unb bann fotten 
biefe "iperfonen nic^t mel^r gebalten fein, 
fid) aufeerbem mit bem perfbnlidien ®c= 
tt)erbefd)ein ju berfeben. 

§infid)tlid) ber grteilung ber ®e= 
tterbefdieine unb beg 33etragg ber ®e= 
biifjren bafiir rtirb ein Unterfc^ieb jtt)i= 
fd^en ben ^erfonen ber c^riftlic^en 
9?eIigion unb benjenigen ber mofaifd)en 
Steligion nidit gemac^t ttierben. 

3nfoh)eit bie @infut)r Bon geuer= 
moffen au§ bem 3Iu§Ianb in JRufelanb 
nidit unterfagt ift, fbnnen bie beutfd)en 
reifenben .ii'aufleute 50Jufter Don foldien 
SBaffen unter ber augbritdlii^en S8e= 
bingung mit ficb fiibren, bag fie fic^, 
alien atlgemeinen unb orttic^en 25or= 
f(^riften, toelc^e bejtlglidi ber geuer= 
rtaffen in ^raft finb ober fein merben, 
unterftjerfen. 

Sn Slrtifel 14. 

S)te tiertragfditiefeenben 2;eite be= 
I)alten fidi eine befonbere 33ereinbarung 
liber bie Stuglibung ber ©c^iffabrt unb 
ber glijfeerei auf ben beibe Sanber un= 
mittelbar ober mittelbar toerbinbenben 
SBinnentnaffcrftrafjcn tior. 33ig jum 
Slbfdjlufe biefer 33ereinbarung barf bon 
beutfc^en ©d}iffen, ibrer Sefafeung unb 
beutf(^en gibfeem auf ruffifc^en 58innen= 
toafferftrafeen unb bon ruffifd)en ®(^if= 
fen, ifjrer Sefa^ung unb ruffifc^en 
glb^em auf beutfc^en 58innenh)affer= 
ftrafeen bfe ®c^le|)p= unb §anbelg= 
fd)iffaf)rt, einfc^liefelic^ ber 59ef5rberung 



If persons provided with thesaid 
trade certificates desire to exer- 
cise the riglrt stipulated in Par- 
agraph 1 of Article 12, through 
commercial travelers in their em- 
ploy, tlie latter shall be provided 
with special personal trade cer- 
tificates, the fee for wliich must 
not exceed 50 Roubles for a whole 
year or I2v5 Roubles for the sec- 
ond half of a year. 

Trade certificates, provided for 
by i^aragraph 1 of the present 
regulation, may be issued in tlie 
names of persons going to Russia, 
and in this case such persons do 
not need to provide themselves 
with personal trade certificates. 

With the issuing trade certifi- 
cates and the collecting of fees for 
same, no distinction wiU be made 
between those professing the 
Christian and the Hebrew relig- 
ions. 

In so far as the importation of 
firearms into Russia is not ])ro- 
hibited, German merchants may 
bring with them samples of such 
weapons, but only under the ex- 
press condition that these mer- 
chants submit to all general and 
local regulations which are or will 
be in force regarding firearms. 



To Article 14. 

The contracting parties reserve 
to themselves the right of con- 
cluding a special agreement re- 
garding navigation and rafting 
on inland waters which directly 
or indireclly connect both coun- 
tries. Until the conclusion of 
this agreement German vessels, 
their crews, and German raftsmen 
on Russian inland waterways, 
and Russian vessels, their crews, 
and Russian raftsmen on German 
inland waterways may engage in 
towing and commercial naviga- 
tion, including the transportation 



BREST-LITOVSK PEACE : FINAL PKOTOCOL TO SXJBAPPENDIX 1. 



47 



t)on gaf)rga|'ten, fotote bte giofeeret 
unter ben gleic&en SBebtngungett ttiie 
t)on 3nlanbertt. auggeiibt Itjerben. 

Sic beutfcf)en ©cijiffe, rtield^e auf ben 
bte betberfetttgen SanbeSgrensen t5er= 
binbenben 33mnenfc^iffaf)rt8h)egen naii) 
SRufelanb faf)ren, urn fpctter nad) 
S)eutf(f)Ianb jurildjufeliren, merben of)ne 
, 3<iWung ober ©idierfteHung beS (gm= 
fuf)rgo[I§ nad) JRufelonb etngelaffen 
toerbett. 

©ie grift, innerf)a(b trelc^er fotc^e 
©c^tffe tt)teber trad) Seutfc^tatib auS= 
gefu{)rt inerben miiffen, rtirb auf stoet 
3at)re tton bent Sage ibreg StngangS 
nacb Stufelanb an feftgefe^t. SBenn baS 
©c^tff in JRufelanb Oerfauft tnirb ober 
longer aU jtoei 3al)re bafetbft tier= 
bleibt, ift ber betreffenbe (gingangSsoIt 
bafiir ju entriditen. 3)ie gebacbte grift 
foil berlangert tnerben, tnenn baS 
©($iff burc^ Bortt Sffiillen beg ©(^iffS= 
fitbrerg nidit abbangige Umftcinbe, toie 
niebriger SBafferftanb, betraditlio^e 
JReparaturen erforbembe ^ttiarie ober 
anbere ctfinlic^e Urfadjen, 5urlicfge= 
balten h)irb. 3)er SingangSjoH mirb 
nid)t erboben, toenn bag ©diiff burc^ 
geuer ober ©diiffbrucb sugrunbe gebt. 

®ie ©c^eine, todd)e bte S3erpfli(fitung 
jur 3Bieberaugfuf)r ber '^diiffe ober jur 
3af)Iung beg (ginganggsollg entbolten, 
foHen Don jeber ©ebiibr befreit fein. 

3Baf)renb beg 2lufentf)altg beg ©c^iffeg 
in JRufelanb Jnirb ber ©(^iffgeicfifcbein 
bon ben ruffifcfien 3oIIbet)orben in 33er= 
Wabning genontmen. 

Su STrtitel 20. 

3)ie bertragfcblie^enben Jeik tnerben 
einanber int Sifenbabntarifftefen, ing= 
befonbere burc^ §erfteltung birefter 
5rad)ttarife, tunUcbft unterftii^en. 5yta= 
ntent(i($ foKen folc^e birefte gra(|t= 
tarife nat^ ben beutfdien §afen Sanjig 
(5yteufa!)rmaffer), JJbniggberg CifJiHau) 
unb SRemel jur 23erntitte(ung fotoobi 
ber Slugfu^r aug alg ber Ginfubr nac^ 
S^ufelanb ben SSeblirfniffen beg .ganbeig 
entfprec^enb eingefiif)rt merben. 



of passengers as well as rafting 
under the same conditions as the 
natives themselves. 

German vessels bouttd for Rus- 
sia on inland vvalerways which 
connect botii countries, intending 
to return to Germany, arc admit- 
ted into Russia without having to 
pa}" import duty or making a 
deposit as security for same. 

Tlte time within which such 
vessels must return to Germany 
is two 3^ears from the day of their 
arrival in Russia. Should a ves- 
sel be sold in Russia or remain 
therc^ more than two years, the 
corresponding import duty, luust 
be paid. Should the vessel be de- 
tained, owing to circumstances 
beyond the captain's control, such 
aslowwater level, average demand- 
ing considerable repairs, and other 
similar reasons, the above-men- 
tioned period must be extended. 
Import duties are not levied 
should the vess'.il be lost through 
tire or "WTeck. 

No fees shall be paid for cer- 
tificates stiprdating the re-exit of 
vessels or payment of import du- 
ties. 

The certificate of the ship's 
gauge will be deposited with the 
Russian customs authorities for 
the term of the vessel's stay in 
Russia. 

To Article 20. 

The contracting parties will 
support each other, as far as pos- 
sible, in the question of railroad 
tariffs, in particular by means of 
establishing through freight tar-. 
iffs. Such through freight tariffs 
should be established to f aciUtate 
the export from Russia, as well as 
the import to Russia, in accord- 
ance with the demands of trade, 
particularly regarding the Gorman 
ports, Danzig (Neufahrwasser), 
Konigsberg (PiUau), and Memel. 



48 



THE BtrSSIAN PEACE. 



3ug{etcfi folten bie gradjtfcilje fiir bie 
im ruffifdjen (Sifenbaf)ntarif sum ©e= 
treibe gered)neten 3lrtttel folcie filr 
glacf)S, §anf unb §ols Don ben rufft= 
fd)cn Sibgabeftattonen bi§ su ben obener^ 
lualjnten §afen nac^ benjenigen 33eftim= 
ntungen gebtlbet unb uutcr bie om 
2;ran«port bctetligten beut[d}en unb 
ruffi[d}en i8af)nen bertcilt merben, iiielcfee 
fiir bie nad) ben .^3dfen ?ibau unb 5Riga 
fiil)renben ruffifd)en Sifenbabnen je^t 
in Sraft finb ober in .firaft treten tDer= 
ben. T}k<i gilt aud) fitr ben gall einer 
5ReefjDebition. 3)ie oufeer ben %xad]t' 
fa^en erbobenen ^uWtise (?Jebenge= 
biit)ren) follen in gleidier S5ei[e gebilbet 
uri ber SJetrag berfelben nad) ben rufft= 
fd^en SJorfdiriften unter bie beteitigten 
?inien berteilt tterben, hjobei man bar= 
iiber einberjtanben ift, bafe nur eine 
einjige ®ren5gebiif)r, bie ben beut[d}en 
unb ruffifcben jur ©renje filbrenben 
S3abnen ju gleidien J^eilen jufallt, er= 
boben Itierben barf. 



3)ie jur .geit beftefjenben befonberen 
S3eftimmungen pr 9tegelung beg SBett= 
betcerbS sftjifc^en l?oniggbcrg unb ©angig 
bleiben in .f roft. 

2;arift)ergltnftigungen, lneld)e auf ben 
©ifenbabnen SeutfdjIanbS ober JRufe^ 
lanbg fttr eine beftimmte SBare im Salle 
ifjrer @inful)r liber einen ©eefiafen ge= 
mabrt toerben, finb auf S3erlangen ber 
betreffenben $Regierung fiir bie 53efor= 
berung entfprecbenber ©rjeugniffe beS 
anberen ?anbeS auf ben Don ber Sonb= 
grenje auggebenben (Sifenbabnen t)on 
ber ©rensftation big jur (Smpfonggfta= 
tion pr 33erfitgung ju fte(len. 3n 
biefem galte mirb bag SRafe ber S8er= 
giinftigungen, auf ben .ftttometer bjn). 
auf bie SBerft berecbnet, im SSerfeijr iiber 
bie trodene ®renje bag gleid)e fein ftiie 
im 58erfel)r iiber ben ©eebafeu. 

SBei ber Sinfubr iiber einen Scc^ 
f)afcn ftirb ein Unterid)ieb nocb ber 
5tationa(itat ber ©d)iffe ber bcrtrag^ 



In respect to the articles whii h 
ill the Russian railroad tariff are 
classified under grain, also in re- 
o;ard to flax, hemp, and wood, 
freight tariffs from Russian sta- 
tions of departure to the above- 
named ports shall be drawn up 
and distributed among German 
and Russian railways participat- 
ing in the transportation, in ac- 
cordance with the present regu- 
lations regarding Russian rail- 
ways leading: to the ports of 
Libau and Riga, or sucli regula- 
tions as may be subsequently in- 
troduced. The same holds good 
in the case of re-forwarding. 
Extra charges which may be col- 
lected in addition to the freight 
tariff rates shall be drawn up in the 
same manner and the total, in 
agreement witli Russian regula- 
tions, shall be divided among the 
railroads concerned ; in this connec- 
tion, an agreement has been ar- 
rived at, to the effect that oidy 
one frontier tax shall be collected, 
divided equally between tlie Rus- 
sian and German lines leading to 
the frontier. 

The special provisions for regu- 
lating competition between Ko- 
nigsberg and Danzig wliicli are 
now in force shall remain so. 

Tariff favors granted on Ger- 
man or Russian railways to goods 
imported b}^ sea, must, at the de- 
mand of the interested Govern- 
ment, be granted by railways 
leading from the frontier to simi- 
lar products over the rail stretch 
trom the frontier station to the 
receiving station. In this case the 
extent of tlie favors granted per 
kilometei or per verst m traffic 
across the inland frontier, should 
be the same as in traffic through 
sea ports. 



No distinction, especially in 
respect to tariff rates, is to be made 
in regard to the nationality of the 



BREST-LITOVSK PEACE : EINAL PKOTOCOL TO SUBAPPENDIX 1. 



49 



fc^Iieftenben Jeitc flir bie 3Beiterbe= 
fbrbcrimg ber etnflcfiilirten 9Bareit auf 
ben (?ifenbaf)nen ober S3mncntt)affev= 
ftrajien in feiner SSeife, in«5e[onbere 
and) nidjt f)infid)tlid) ber Xariffci^e, 
ftattfinben. 

®te 9vufflfd)e SKegierung iinrb baflir 
©orge tragen, bafe bie gifenbal)n= 
fracf)ttarife, tvddje fiir ben SSer[anb Bon 
■iPboSpfioriten unb anberen 'i^f)o3pf)atcn 
foiDte t»on Srgen au§ 3iu|lanb nad) 
S)eutfc^Ianb bis jiim 1, 2Iuguft 1914 
beftanben {)aben, nid)t in ftclrferem 
9}Jafee erf)bf)t toerben, ate ber burd)= 
fcf)nittli(^en allgemeinen Srbbbung ber 
ruffi[d)en (Sifenbabnfradittarife auf 6nt= 
femungen entfprid}t, h)ie fie ben frag= 
Iid)en lEarifen oor bem 1. SIugu[t/19. 
3iuli 1914 jugrunbe gelegen baben. 
2Iuf 23crlangen ber Sentfdjen 5Ke= 
flierung mirb fie bie Slufnafime neuer 
35erfanb= unb (SmpfangSftationen in 
iene Jarife ^erbetfii^ren. 

Tie Oertrogfdjliefeenben Xci(e ftim= 
men iiberein, ba^ auf bem ®ebiete beS 
@ifenba{)nn)efen§ bie gegenfeitigen 23er= 
fefirSbejiebungen, Tok fie »or bem 
Sriege sttiifcben Seutfd}Ionb unb 9?ufe= 
lanb beftanben f)aben, geforbert nierben 
unb iebe SSerfrfifet^terung gegeniiber 
bem frliberen ^ufta^i^e, bie bur(^ bie 
^erlegung beg ruffifdjen ©ifenbabnne^cg 
in eingelne felbftcinbige @ifenba{)nne^e 
entftef)en fonntc, nad) 5KogIid)feit t)er= 
mieben h)irb. ©ie finb bereit, ju 
biefem 3>Tede einem bie (gifenba^nen 
©eutfd^ianbg, 9?u6Ianb§ unb ber ou« 
bem 3{uffifrf)en 9ffeicb augfdieibcnben 
©taaten ober S3erh)altung8gebiete bin= 
benben ttbereinfommen beijntreten, bag 
nomentlicb bie in Strtifel 20 ber l)or= 
ftefjenben 5Bereinbarung unb in ber bor= 
liegenben ®d)[u§protofotIbeftimmung 
entbaltenen Stbmac^ungen im obigen 
©inne regein unb inSbefonbere and) bag 
©pannunggoer^altnig ber Bor bem 
^riege giiltig gemefenen (5ifenbafin= 
tarife im 23erfel)r mit ben Oftfee^afen 
unb ben §iifen beg ©(^marjen unb 
Slfoftjfc^en §Jeereg aufrec&t I)alten rtirb. 



importing vessels of the contract- 
ing parties, in case the imported 
goods are furtlier transported by 
rail or by inland waterways. 



The Russian Government will 
see to it that railway freight tariffs, 
for transportation from Russia to 
Germany of phosphorites and 
other phosphates, as well as ores, 
in force until 1 August, 1914, 
should not be increased to a 
greater extent than corresponds 
to the general average increase of 
the Russian railway tariffs in 
proportion to distances in the 
same way as these were used as 
a basis of the tariffs in question 
prior to 1 August /19 July, 1914. 
At the request of the German 
Government, the sea tariffs will 
be applied to new stations of 
departure and destination. 

Tlie contracting parties agree, 
that in regard to railway matters, 
mutual traffic relations between 
Germany and Russia shall be the 
same as before the war, and that 
disadvantages, which might result 
from the subdivision of the Rus- 
sian railway system into independ- 
ent railway systems, will be as far 
as possible removed. To this end 
both parties are prepared to con- 
cur in a convention, binding on 
the railways of Germany, Russia, 
and the States and administered 
territories which have detached 
themselves from the Russian Em- 
pire, to regulate in this sense the 
stipidations contained in Article 
20 of the present treaty and in 
this concluding protocol, and es- 
pecially to reestablish the con- 
tinuity of railway tariffs, existing 
before the war, for communica- 
tion with the ports of the Baltic 
Sea, the Black and the Azoff 
Seas. 



50 



THE RUSSIAN 



PEACE. 



3 tt) e 1 1 c r 3: e i I. 

,3 u ben -3 " I" 2 9 I s iTi e Tt t S- 

§1. 

T'ie i^cfugiuS .^ur U6erftiei[ung Don 
SBarcn unter 3ottfontroI(e an anbcre 
Sumter toirb bciberfeits quf atle ^otl= 
amter erfter Jllaffe, mcldie feme @tfen= 
ba[)nt)erbtnbung mit ben ?ageramtern 
fjaben, auggebef)nt tnerben. ^ Tocfi ift 
babei igcbmgung, bafe folcfie icenbungen 
ben emfdjlilgigen ©efeljen unb SBor= 
fc^riften nntertoorfen bleiben. 

§2. 

Sg beftef)t betber[etttgeg (iinberftanb= 
nig, ha^ bie „3oItaTnter ber beiben ?anber 
an atten Jagen be§ 3af)reg geoffnet 
bkiben, mit Slugnabme ber ©onntage 
unb ber gefefelid)en geiertage. 

§3. 

!J)ie Sienftftunben folten in ben 5oH= 
amtern ber beiben Siinber angefd^Iagen 
Werben. 

3)ie jDienftftunben filr bie 9?ebifion 
ber 9?eifepaffe unb ber ?egitimationS= 
farten folien fUr jeben SSejirf unb jeben 
©renspuntt nacf) befonberer S3erein= 
barung jmifc^en ben betreffenben 33e= 
bbrben ber beiben Sttnber feftgefe^t 
rterben. @§ follen bierbei auf beiben 
©eiten bie gleicfien ©tunben eingefitfjrt, 
ben iirtlicEien 33ebiirfniffen 5Red)nung 
getragen unb bei ben ^ottamtern britter 
%la\\t, ben StebenjoIIamtern unb ben 
liberganggpunften eine Unterbrec^ung 
beS JSienfteg filr bie 9}Ja!)l3eiten ber 
Seamten genjii^rt rterben. 

§4. 

^oHpflic^tige SBaren, voddje Don ^;i3er= 
fonen eingeftlf)rt mcrben, bie fid) int 
SSefi^e einer __orbnung8m(ifeigen Segiti= 
mation jur Uberfdjreitung ber ©renje 
befinben, foIIen auf beiben ©eiten miinb= 
ridi beflariert toerben fbnnen, unb jWar 
auf otten ,3oIlamtern innerf)alb ibrer 
^uftiinbigfcit, Boraus^gefe^t, ba§ biefe 



Part Second, 
to the customs regulations. 

§ 1. 

Authorization to consign goods 
under customs control to other 
custom houses is extended by both 
parties to all custom houses of the 
first class, which have no railroad 
communications with the of&ces 
having warehouses. It is stipu- 
lated, however, that such con- 
signments remain subject to perti- 
nent laws and regulations. 

§2. 

Both parties agree that the 
custom houses of both countries 
shaU remain open every day of 
the year, except Sund.ays and 
legal holidays. 



The time tables of office hours 
shall be posted in the custom 
houses of both countries. 

Office hours for examination of 
passports and legitimation cards 
shall be fixed for each district and 
for each f rontier'crossing, by special 
agreement between the respective 
departments of the two coun- 
tries. Both parties shall appoint 
the same liours, taking into 
account local needs, and in cus- 
tom houses of the thii-d class, in 
supplementary custom houses, 
and at frontier crossings, a recess 
shall be granted for the em- 
ployees' meals. 

§4. 

Merchandise liable to customs 
duty, imported by persons having 
a duly executed permit to cross 
the frontier, may be declared 
orally in both countries and at all 
custom houses within the limits 
of their competency, provided the 
merchandise is not imported for 



BEEST-LITOVSK PEACE: FIJSrAL PEOTOCOL TO SUBAPPENDIX 1. 51 



9Baren nic^t ju §anbel8sh)ecfen emge= 
filfirt rterben, unb bafe bie ®efamtl)eit 
ber ju erf)ebenben 3oIIgebuf)ren ni($t 
iiberfteigt: 

fiinfge{)n 9xubel fllr bie (ginful^r mi) 
9?ufelanb, unb 

fiinfunbbretBig 9}Jarf fiir bie @in= 
fu£)r nad) t)eutf(^(anb. 
Sluf ®runb biefer @rmacf)tiguttg foHen 
bie tiberganggpunfte bag 9?ecE)t iiahm, 
2)tanbBorrate (mit 2tu8nal)me bon 
i8rannth)ein unb anbercn geiftigen ®e= 
triinfen) fotnie and) CSrjeugniffe, bie 
augfcfiliefelic^ jum §au8gebrauc^ be= 
ftimmt finb, sollamtlic^ abjufertigen. 

§5. 

Unbefc^abet ber befonberen 33eftim= 
mungen ]^in[ic^tli(^ ber glufeft^iffe ttters 
ben 5af)raeuge aller 2Irt einfrfiliejjiicfi ber 
juge^ortgen Slugriiftungggegenftanbe, 
meic^e jur ^eit ber (ginfubr jur S8efbr= 
berung Don ^^erfonen ober SBaren bienen 
unb nur auS biefer 25eranlaffung bor= 
iiberge{)enb nad) 9iu§Ianb bon ^erfonen 
eingefiibrt rterben, bie ben ruffifc^en ober 
beutfc^en^ollbeborben befannt finb, bon 
ben ruffif^en -SSefjorben of)ne Srlegung 
beS SinganggjoIIg ober ®id)erbeitg= 
fteltung fiir btefen Soil eingelaffen 
merben, fofem fi(^ ber glibrer be§ gufir= 
ttjerfeg berpfiic^tet baSfelbe binnen einer 
beftimmten jji^ift rtiieber au6jufiif)ren. 
3Die fc^riftlidje 2iu§fertigung ber 33er= 
pfK(^tunggfc6eine foK unentgeltlicfi unb 
ofjne jebe ®ebttf)rener{)ebung erfolgen. 



the purpose of trade and that the 
sum due as customs duty does not 
exceed : 

Fifteen Roubles for imports 

to Russia; and 
Thirty-five Marks for imports 
to Germany. 
Transfer offices are hereby em- 
powered to clear foodstuffs (with 
the exception of brandy and other 
spirituous liquors) as well as 
articles exclusively intended for 
household use. 



§5. 

Without derogating from spe- 
cial regulations regarding river 
craft, vehicles of every kind to- 
gether with their accessories, 
which during their importation 
serve to carry passengers or 
goods, and which are only for this 
purpose temporarily brought into 
Russia by persons known to the 
Russian or German customs au- 
thorities, are admitted by Rus- 
sian authorities free of dues and 
without depositing security for 
such duty, if the carrier obligates 
himself to reexport the same 
within a specified time. The ob- 
Ugation to this effect, which must 
be in writing, shall be made out 
free of charge. 



6. 



6. 



^ei ber @infuf)r bon SBaren auf bem 
Sanbtoege nacfi ^Rufefanb ftjirb feine 
befonbere 3)enaratton geforbert, fofem 
bie SBaren bon gracfitbriefen begleitet 
finb. Ss geniigt in biefem galle bie 
SBorjeigung ber grac^tbriefe bei bem 
(Singanggamte. Sie 3af)' "J^r ^iPferbe 
unb ber gafirjeuge, auS benen fid} ber 
Strangport pfammenfe^t, fortie bie 
©efamtja^I ber ^rac^tbriefe unb ber 
^olfi finb algbann auf einem ber 
grac^tbriefe jufammenguftetlen, unb eg 
ift biefe Slngabe bon bem leitenbeu 
giibrer p unterjeicfjnen. 



No special declaration of goods 
imported into Russia by land is 
necessary, if the goods are accom- 
panied by a way biQ. In such in- 
stances it is sufficient to present 
the way bill to the Customs 
Officer at the time of entry. The 
number of horses and vehicles in 
a transport as well as the total of 
way bills and packages are en- 
tered on one of the way bills, 
which entry is then signed by the 
head driver. 



52 



THE RUSSIAN PEACE. 



§7. 

SSIumen unb lebenbe "iPflaTijen, frtfcfte 
grlli^te unb frtfd)e gtfc^e, [otrie alle 
einem rafcften S5erberben auggefe^ten 
SBaren follen betberfeitg, borbeJialtlid) 
^alk ^i)f)erer ©elualt, binnen 24 
©tunben, ttom (Sinbringen ber SBaren 
in bte Cottager an gerei^net, Derjotlt 
nierben. 



!Dte filr bie Slnbringnng ber 3bentifi= 
jierunggjeid^en ju entri(^tenben @e= 
bilf)ren tterben 5 b. ^. beg ®efamtbe= 
trageS beS ^oWeS ntc^t ilberftetgen. 

S)te fiir bie 2lnbringung ber 3bentifi= 
jierung§5ei(^en bei IJnopfen, 58anbem, 
©pi^en, ©tidereien unb getten ju 
entric^tenben ®ebiif)ren rterben 1 fi'opete 
flir iebe 'ipiombe nic^t ilberfteigen. i)er 
ganje ©ebii^renbetrag flir bie 'iI3Iom= 
bierung mirb 5 b. §. beS ®efamtbe= 
trageg beg (SinganggjoIIS in jebent ein= 
jetnen galle nid}t ilberfteigen. 

gallg inbeffen ber ^ntereffent felbft 
tBlinfc^t, bafe bie Sffiare in einer SBeife 
^jlombiert toirb, bie liber hai SSebiirfnig 
ber 3bentifijierung i)inauSgebt, fo ift er 
bcrpflic^tet, ben baburc^ entftef)enben 
9}?ei)rbetrog on ®ebu£)ren ju entricfiten. 

©ie 'iPunjierung beutfcEier ®otb= unb 
©ilfaermaren toirb leinen anberen ober 
^BI)eren ©ebltfiren unterhjorfen merben 
alS bie "ipunjierung ber gieid)artigen 
ein^eimifc^en 2(rbeiten. 

§9.' 

SBon eingefUl)rten SBaren foil ?ager= 
gelb burc^ bie ruffifd)en ^otlctmter nur 
fUr bie Jage ber mirfli^en Sagerung 
in ben ^oHagem, bom bierten Sage 
nad) bent S3eginn ber ^ottrebifion an 
gerec^net, erf)oben rterben. 



3ebo(^ foH bie ^eit, JnSbrenb ioeldjer 
bie Sagerung geblibrenfrei ift, begrenjt 
fein burc^ bie an bem betreffenben 
,3oI(amt flir bie ©eflaration bon ein= 
gefiifirten SBaren gemabrte grift, b. i). 



§7. 

Flowers and living plants, fresh 
fruit, and fresh fish, as well as all 
rapidly perishable goods, shall 
except when prevented by force 
majeure, be cleared by both parties 
inside of 24 hours after arrival of 
the goods at the customs ware- 
houses. 

§8. 

Tlie charges for affixing identi- 
fication marks to the goods are 
not to exceed 5% of the customs 
duty. 

Tlie charges for afiixing identi- 
fication seals in the case of but- 
tons, ribbons, lace, embroideries, 
and furs are not to exceed 1 Co- 
peck for each seal. The total 
charge in each individual case for 
sealing is not to exceed 5% of 
the amount of the import duty. 

But if the interested person 
wishes that the merchandise 
should be sealed in a manner ex- 
ceeding the needs of identifica- 
tion, tlie said person is bound to 
pay the additional charge thereby 
incurred. 

The stamping of German gold 
and silver ware is not liable to 
higher or special charges than the 
stamping of similar articles of 
home production. 

§9. 

Storage on imported goods shall 
be collected by the Russian cus- 
toms authorities only for the 
exact time tlie goods were in 
storage in the customs warehouses 
beginning from the fourth day 
after the customs examination 
began. 

However, the period for which 
no storage charges are made 
shall be limited by the time 
allowed in each custom house for 
declaring imported goods, that 



BKEST-LITOVSK PEACE : FINAL PROTOCOL TO SUBAPPENDIX 1. 



53 



5 bis 14 Jage, er6o{)t um bie in Slbfa^ 1 
torgefelKne grift fton 3 lagen. 



§ 10. 

3)ie :;ltnffifd)e JRegienmg Oerpfltdjtet 
fic^, bie Sgeftimmungen ber Strtifel 15 
uitb 16 ber 93emer Sottticntion tiom 14. 
Oftober 1890, toelcfie bag 3?,erfugimgg= 
recEit beS 3lb[enber8 iiber feine 2cnbun= 
gen regein, toabrenb ber S^auer beggegen= 
njttrtigen 33ertrageg in feiner 93Jeife ju 
(inbem. 

§11. 

2)ie in bent Slrtitel 292 beg ruffi[dien 
D?egIementS bom 15. 9Kai 1901, be= 
treffenb bie SBareneinfubr, entbaltene 
25orfd)rift, voonad) ber Unterfdiieb 3h)i= 
ft^en bem angegebenen ©etoicbt Hon 
<Segenj'tanben obcr SBoren unb bem bei 
ber 5Kebifion ermittelten ©emicfjt ftraf= 
frei bleibt, [ofern er 5 0. §. beg ®efamt= 
geftic^tg ber ©egenftiinbe ober SBaren 
nic^t iiberfteigt, toirb abgecinbert unb 
bie ©ulbungggrenje anf 10 t). §. beg 
©efamtgetoic^tg erf)bf)t. 



§ 12. 

Sag 3?ed}t ber 9?enamotion gcgen 
■©ntfdjeibungen ber ruffifc^en Solibi' 
£)orben, bie fic^ folnot)! auf 2trafcn 
toegen einer unsutreffenben ober fatfdjen 
SDetlaration alg auf bie 2;arif=.f?toffifi= 
jiemng ber SBaren bejiefjen, foil bem 
?lbfenber ber Sffiore in gleid)er 2Beife rtie 
bem jDeflaranten juftefien. 

gingaben biefer 2lrt biirfen Bon bem 
?(bfenber in beutfdjer ©pradie abgefnfet 
toerben. 

§13. 

©ie 9?efIamationgfrift in ben in § 12 
bejeid^neten 2lnge(egen{)eiten toirb filr 
ben 3lbfenber ft)ie filr ben 35ef(aranten 
ouf jtoei SWonate feftgefe^t ttierben, tton 
bem Jage an geredjnet, tno bie ©nt= 
fd^eibung bem Seflaranten mitgeteilt 
toorben ift. 



is, 5 to 14 days, with the addition 
of the 3 days provided for in 
paragraph 1 preceding. 

§ 10. 

As long as this Treaty remains 
in force, the Russian Government 
binds itself not to alter in any 
way the stipulations of Articles 15 
and 16 of the Berne Convention 
of 14 October, 1890, ^ which reg- 
ulate the sender's right to dispose 
of the goods. 

§ 11- 

The stipulation contained in 
Article 292 of the Russian Regu- 
lations of 15 May, 1901, concern- 
ing the importation of goods, 
according to which the difference 
between the weight declared and 
the actual weight of the goods as 
revealed at the examination, if 
not exceeding 5% of the total 
weight of the goods, is modified, 
and the Hmit of permissible dif- 
ference increased to 10% of the 
total weight. 

§ 12. 

The right of complaint against 
decisions of Russian custom 
house authorities regarding fines 
for incorrect or fraudulent dec- 
laration, or regarding the tariff 
classifications of merchandise, be- 
longs to the sender of the goods, 
as weU as to the declarant. 

Such complaints may be drawn 
up in the German language by 
the sender of the goods. 

§ 13. 

The time limit for presenting 
complaints in cases mentioned, in 
§ 12, both for the sender and the 
declarant, is fixed at two months 
from the date when the decision 
of the custom house is made 
known to the declarant. 



1 82 British and Foreign State Papers, pp. 771, 796. 



54 



THE RUSSIAN- " PEACE." 



3SSai bic (Sntfcteibung liber bie JarU 
fierung tioti 9Baren anlangt, \o icerben 
innerl}al6 biefer Ji'ift 35orfteHungcn be8 
3lbfenber8 nur bann jugelaffen ftierben, 
tnenn bic [trettigen 933arcu bie ^oltoger 
nod) nid)t berlnffen Ijaben. 

§ 14. 

X'ie beut[rf)cn .fi'onfiiln in Siu^tanb 
unb bic ruffifc^en .fonfuht in T'eutfc^= 
Innb fotlen bcrecf)tigt fein, bie erfteren 
mit bem ruffifd)cn ^oKbepartement, bie 
leijteven mit ben SSorftrinben ber bent= 
fd)en 3oltbe{)orben (^l^rooinjid'Stcuers 
bireftor ufnj.) tocgen ber oor biefen 58e= 
l)flrben fc^njcbenben ^offrettamationen 
nnmittelbar ju t)erfe£)ren. 



§ 15. 

gallg ©diaffner, $Dfafi$iniften unb 
fonftige Sifenbaljnbebicnftete eine§ ber 
beiben bertragfi^Iicfeenben leile iiber= 
filfjrt tterben, in ben ^ligen @c^mug= 
getoaren in bag ©ebiet beg anberen 
STeileS eingefiil()rt ju baben, fo follen 
fie auf SinfucEien ber suftanbigen 3on= 
befjorben beS 9^ccbteS, SSabnjlige nad^ 
ber ©renje ju begleiten, bertuftig gef)en. 



§ 16. 

Sllle Quarantanes unb oeterinar= 
poIi^eilicEien SWaferegeln, namlid) bie 58e= 
fc^liiffe tocgen ©cbliefeung ober Offnung 
ber ©renje fiir irgenbeine SBarengat= 
tnng ober iregen Sibanberungen ber 
einfc^togigen ortlic^en S3erorbnungen 
uftt). follen, fobalb fie crlaffen finb, 
rtecf)fe(feitig pon jebem ber beiben oer= 
tragWIiefeenben Jeite bcm anberen 
mitgeteilt merben. 

©ie brtlic^en 9J?afena{)men, bie— au§ 
eigener (Sntfc^Iiefjung— Don bem «or= 
ftanbe eineS Sesirfg (?anbrat in 
2)entfrf)Ianb, 9btfd)aMf UicSba, 3g= 
pramnif in Slufelanb) getroffcn tocrben, 
foHen unmittelbar ben betreffenben 25or= 
ftiinbcn ber Sgejirfe beg anberen ?anbc8 
mitgeteilt merben. 3)iefe gjiitteitung 



As regards the tariff classifica- 
tion of goods, the sender has the 
right to lodge complaint during 
the above-mentioned term only if 
the goods in question are still in 
the customs warehouses. 

§ 14. 

German consuls in Russia and 
Russian consuls in Germany shall 
have the right to communicate 
directly, the former with the 
Russian customs department and 
the latter with the representa- 
tives of German custom house au- 
thorities (and provincial custonas 
director, etc.), in regard to cus- 
toms complaints pending before 
such authorities. 

§ 15. 

Conductors, engine drivers, and 
other railway employees of either 
of the two contracting parties, 
who are detected conveying con- 
traband goods on trains going 
into the territory of the other 
party, shall, on application of the 
competent custom house author- 
ities, lose the right to accompany 
trains to the frontier. 

§ 16. 

All quarantine and veterinary 
pohce measures, to wit: orders to 
close or open the frontiers for any 
kind of merchandise, or altera- 
tions in the respective local regu- 
ktions and so forth, shall imme- 
diately, on publication, be com- 
mmiicatcd to each other by the 
two contracting parties. 

All local nieasiircs undertaken 
at the initiative of the circuit 
repr( tentative (Landrat in Ger- 
many, Nachalnic Ujesda, Isprav- 
nik in Russia) shall be directly 
communicated to the respective 
heads of the districts of the other 
country. Such communication 



BEEST-LITOVSK PEACE: FINAL PROTOCOL TO SUBAPPENDIX 1. 55 



foil jugleicft bte ©riinbe ber gjJaferegel 
entf)alten, folreit ntd^t bie 58efd)affen= 
f)ett berfelben i^n SWitteHung iiber= 
fliiffig mad)t. 

S)te gjJafenafjmen, bte in SDeutfc^Ianb 
boit einem Oberprafibenten ober bon 
einem 5Kegtenmg§prafibenten unb in 
SJufelanb bon einem ©eneralgouoerneur 
ober bon einem (^^ouberneur getroffen 
trerben, follen gegenfeitig bem tm 
grange entfpredienben 53enmten mitge= 
teilt trerben. S)ie 2)atteilung ber 
©riinbe biefer SWaferegeIn foil auf 
biplomatifcbem SSege erfotgen. 



©ie 9[)la^regeln, rtelcfie bon ben 
^entralbel)brben ber beiben Siinber ge= 
troffen toerben, fotten einfcfiliefelid) ibrer 
©riinbe gegenfeitig auf biplomatifrfien 
SBege mitgeteilt tterben. 

SWan ift barliber einig, ba^ bie 
3Wittei(ungen iiber beterincire Wa^' 
regein beiberfeitg tunlidjft bor 2tng= 
fu^rung berfelben unb fpatefteng gleic^= 
jeitig mit i£)rem griaffe erfolgen follen. 



3)ie beiben 9Jegierungen inerben Stften 
augtaufd^en, in • toelc^em bie beiber= 
feitigen Seborben bejeicfinet finb, 5toi= 
fc^en benen ber gegenfeitige Slugtanf^ in 
©cmafefjeit beS eben angegebenen 33er» 
faf)reng ftattfinben foil. 

§17. 

3)ie Guarantcinemaferegeln gegen 
bie (gtnfc^Ieppung epibemifdjer J?ranf= 
beiten follen beiberfeitg auf alte bie 
©renje iiberfcbreitenben 9Jeifenben, je 
nacb ber gro^eren ober geringeren ?ln= 
ftedungSgefabr, obne Unterfc^ieb ber 
^Jationatititt angetoanbt toerben. 

§18. 

@3 mirb beiberfcitg ber SSieberauf= 
na^me bon 9?eifenben, bie ttegen mongeI= 
bafter SJeifebctffe ober hjegen 9Ji(f)t3ab= 
lung bon .3oIIgebuI)ren juritdgemiefen 
hjerben, fein §inbemig entgegengeftellt 
hjerben; unter ben bejeicbneten Um= 



must contain the motives of the 
measures unless these are self 
evident. 

Measures taken in Germany by 
the administrative head of a 
province (Oberprasident), or by 
the president of a government - 
board, and those talven in Russia 
by the Governor General or Gov- 
ernor, shall mutually be commu- 
nicated to officials of correspond- 
ing rank. Communications giv- 
mg the reasons for such measures 
shall be conveyed thi-ough diplo- 
matic channels. 

Pleasures adopted by the cen- 
tral authorities of the two coun- 
tries shall, together with the 
reasons for same, be communi- 
cated to each other through 
diplomatic channels. 

Both parties agree that infor- 
mation regarding veterinary 
measures shall be mutually com- 
municated if possible before they 
are made public and, in any case, 
not later than simultaneously 
with their publication. 

Both Governments will ex- 
change lists indicating the au- 
thorities on both sides who are 
to exchange communications ac- 
cording to the above described 
procedure. 



§17. 

Quarantine regulations against 
epidemic diseases shall be applied 
by both parties to aU travelers 
crossing the frontier, regardless 
of their nationality, in accordance 
with the danger of infection. 



§ 18. 

Neither party will hijider the 
return of travelers sent back for 
lack of a passport or for non- 
payment of customs duties; in 
circumstances mentioned above, 
both parties shall readmit even 



56 



THE EUSSIAN 



PEACE. 



ftaitbcn folten beiberfeits fctb[t frembe 
StantSaiisjefjortge raieber aufgcnommen 
tterbcn, sitmnt in ben gilllen, mo fie noc^ 
nidjt in baS 3nnere beS ?anbeS Gi^Iangt 
finb. Tiie auf beiben ©eiten jnftanbi= 
gen 23eb()rbcn tnerben fid) itber bie ju er= 
greifenbcn ^JJaferegeln tievftcinbigen. 

SD^it einem mffifd}en 3[ugtt)anberungg= 
fd)eine berfet)ene jiibifdie SluSmanberer 
rufftfd)er Slbhmft unb anberc, rtielc^e 
toon ben bentfc^en SBe^brben nad) 9?u6= 
lanb jurudgcfanbt iBerben, miiffen toon 
ben ruffifd)en ©ren^bebbrben jugelaffen 
ttjerben, Bornu6gefe^t, bafe fic^ btefe 'iPet= 
fonen in :Deutfd)(anb nidit langer ate 
einen 9)^onat aufgebalten baben, toon bent 
2age nn geredjnet, mo fie liber bie 
beutfdj'rufftfc^e ®renje gegangen finb. 

§ 19. 

Sic ©rensbeborben jebeg ber beiben 
toertragfc^Iiefeenben Jeile fotten gebalten 
fein, pafelofe ?anbftreicber unb anbere 
'iPerfonen biefer Slrt, toDeldje in baS.®e» 
biet beg anberen leileS, beffen 2t'nge= 
bbrige fie finb, rtieber aufgenommen 
Itoerben foUen, augfdiliefelic^ nad^ ben= 
ienigen ©renspunften fiibren 5U laffen, 
too etne SIbfertignng fiir 9?eifenbe ftatt= 
finbet. 



foreign subjects, especially if the 
latter have not yet reached the 
interior. The respective authori- 
ties on both sides shall agree as to 
the necessary measures. 



Jewish emigrants of Eussian 
origin bearing Russian emigra- 
tion certificates and other parties 
sent back to Russia by German 
authorities must be readmitted 
by the Russian frontier authori- 
ties, provided these persons have 
not stayed in Germany more than 
one month, counting from the day 
when they crossed the Russo- 
German frontier. 

§ 19. 

The frontier authorities of both 
contracting parties shall be in- 
structed to have all vagabonds 
and other such persons possessing 
no passport, who are to be read- 
mitted to the territory of the 
other party, whose subjects they 
are, conveyed exclusively to such 
points on the frontier as have 
facilities for sending off travelers. 



9. RUSSIA— GERMANY. 



STJBAPPENDIX 2 TO APPENDIX II OF THE TREATY OF PEACE 
BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE CENTRAL POWERS. SIGNED 
AT BREST-LITOVSK, 3 MARCH, 1918.^ 



Tariff Schedules A and B.^ 



[German text as published in the Reichs-Gesetzblatt, No. 77, 11 June, 1918.] 



'Ratifications exchanged at Berlin, 29 March, 1918 (Neue Freie Presse, 6 July, morning edition; 
cf. infra, p. 139). 

2 Cf. General Customs Tariff for the European Frontiers of Russia, British Parliamentary Papers, 
1903, Cd. 1625. 

57 



58 



THE EUSSIAN PEACE. 

Sarif A. 



9himmern i)e8 
cuffi[d)en aH= 

gemcincn 

SatifS (Bom 

13./26.3anuar 

1903). 



SBcjci^nuns ber SBaren. 



Bofffol) in 



(Sinfeeit. 



beln. 



Sope. 
ten. 



au8 2 



BUS 4 



S8erjei(f)ni« ber ginfu^rjollc. 
9Jei«: 

1. karbettct 



iEortoffelmel)! . 



ouS 5 



0U8 26 
au« 28 



2tu8 ber anmertuna. ©tSrte jebec Srt, in 
^afeten, ©djQdjtcln unb anberen lleincn, in bie ^onb 
beS 3Serbraud)et8 ilbetfleftenben SerpacFungcn cin= 
eefUijrt, njirb cinfdjIiefeUd) beS ©cnjid^ts ber tnneren 
Um[d)Ite6uns mit 2 iRubel 10 ffopcEcn fUr ba6 <|3ub 
berjollt. 

©etniifc: 

aua 1. ©emufe, gett)tit)nlt($e«, nidjt gubercitetcS, 
frif(i)e3: 
Srokbtln unb ^noblaui^ in ber ©cfiale . . 



1. §o()fen. 



au8 32 



nii6 37 



2rauben», S8eeren« unb grud)t»eine. 

anmerfung. Erletdjtetunsen, bie einem britten 
©taat btn(id)tlid) ber ^Stte ober ber ^ollbe^anblung 
ber unter einen ber 3Ibfnl3c ober Untcrabfafje ber 
^iummer 28 fatlenben 2Beine beroiHigt roerben fottten, 
nserben im glcidjen Umfang auf bie SSeine beutfdjer 
©ertaft au«Bebebnt roerben, bie unter biefelben ab> 
ffitje unb Unterabfotje bie[er glimmer fatten. 

5Kinero(wnffer, natiirlicfie ober fiinftlidjc. 

9tnmer!ung 1. jDic natUrlidjen ober fUnft= 
lidjen mebijinifdjcn 9J!incraItD£i[fcr, n)eld]e in be* 
ionbern, bom 9)lcbi3inalrot beS 9)?inifteriumS bcS 
3unern im (Sinbernebmcn mit bem 9)?imftcrium ber 
^inanjcn unb bem iuiiniftcrium ber ?anbn)irtfc&aft 
unb 35omiinen aufgefteHten 3Scracid)nif[en aufgefllbrt 
[inb, merben ein[d)Iie6Iid) bee @mi<iiti ber un> 
mittelbnren Umfcbliefeungcn mit 1 iRubcI fUr bo« 
<15ub berjottt. 

StnmerEung 2. ®em in ber Slnmcrtung 1 fcft» 
gefcljten 3on unterliegen bie nad}[tebenb oufgefUbrteu 
beutfdjen, mebtsini(d)en SBaffer: 

Slndten, 2llefanberbab, Slleriebab, 3t6mannS= 
6ou(en, 18aben=iaaben, iSertticb, iBodlet, 83rU[te« 
nau, Efiarlottcnbrunn, Euboiua, Sriburg, ffilfter, 
em«, ®m8 SBiEtoria, godjingen, SriebridjSbott, 
®rie«ba(b, ficilbtonn, abelbeibeQuetle, Oirj- 
burger (Sroboquelle, .£)omburg, itiffingen, ildnig6= 
borf"3oftrejenib, flisfener Soljannisbrunncn, 
.Sreu8nad)er Slifobetf), Samtcfeib, ©itroolbad), 
SibUfpringe, Sffiergcntbeim, SBab 91auf)eim, 91enn> 
borf, 9huenabr, 'iJormont, 9iaopoU8H)eiler, 
9teiner3, 9?ippolbSau, Oberbrunncn ©aljbrunnen, 
JlronenqucUe ©aljbrunncn, ©aljfdilitf, ©d)Ian< 
genbgb, (^iioben i. 2;aunuS, ®teben, ©uljbrunn, 
Ibljsfirantenbetl, Seilbad), ffliesbaben, SBil. 
bungen. 

aii8 1. giMe, frifdj; 

b) onberc a(3 bie unter lit. a gcnannten . . 



^ub. 
?ub. 



05 
90 



■iPub brutto. 
■pub 



10 
25 



^ub brutto. 



18 



BEEST-LITOVSK PEACE: SUBAPPENDIX 2 TO APPENDIX II. 59 

Tariff A. 



Numbers of 

the Russian 

General 

Tarift (of 

13/26 Jau. 

1903). 



from 2 



from 4 



from 5 

from 26 
from 28 



from 32 



from 37 



Classification of Articles. 



Unit. 



SCHEDULE OF IMPORT DUTIES. 

Rice: 

Husked 



Pood. 



Potato flour Pood 



From Nole. Stuiih of all kinds imported in 
package.^, Itoxo-, and smalf rcceptaefes wfiiclr 
reach the consumer are taxed 2 Rouble.s, 10 Co- 
jiecks prepaid per Pood, including the weif^lit 
of the under wrapper. 



Vegetables: 

from 1. A'egetables, common, not prepared, 
fresh: 

Onions and garlic in the skin 



1. Hops 

Grape, berry and fruit wines, 

Note. -Vlleviations granted to a third coinilrv 
in ref,^"ird to customs duty, to cu-^toiiis treatment 
of wines fallmg under one of the dn'L.jon - 'jr sub- I 
divisions of Numlier 28, shall in t ]v' same way 1 ic 
extended to wdnes of German ojifjin v.iileli fail 
under the same par.igraphs and s'ili-pnr:ii;Tap]v i 
of that nunihcr. 

Mineral waters, natural or artificial: 

Note 1. Natural or artificial medicinal mineral 
waters, which are listed in special classifications by 
the Board of Health of the Ministry of the Interior 
in agreement with the Ministry of Finance and the 
Ministry of Agricultm-c and T)omains, pay a duty 
of 1 Rouble per Pood prepaid including the weight 
of the inner wn-apper. 

Note 2. The following German mineral waters 
are subject to the tariff duty fixed in Note 1: 

Aachen, Alexanderbad, Alexisbad, Assmans- 
hausen, Baden-Baden, Bertrich, Bocklet, Brticlt- 
enau, t'harlottenbrunn_, Cudowa, Briburg, El- 
ster, Ems, Ems Viktona, Fachingen, Friedrichs- 
hall, Griesbach, Heilbronn, .\delheidsauellc, 
Harzburger Crodoquelle, Homburg, Kissingen, 
Kbnigsdorf-Jastrezenib, Kosener Johannisbrun- 
nen, Kreuznacher Elisabeth, Lamscheid, 
Schwalbach, Lippspringe, Mergenlheim, Bad 
Nauheim, Nenndorf, Neuenahr, Pyrmont, Rap- 
poltsweiler, Reiuerz, Rippoldsau, Oberbrumien 
Salzbrunnen, Ivronenquelle Palzbrunnen, Salz- 
schlirf, Schlangenbad, 'Sodeni. Taunus Steben, 
Sulzbrunn, Tolz-Krankenheil, Weilbach, Wies- 
baden, Wildungen. 



from 1. 



Fish, fresh: 

b. other than those named under let- 
ter a. 



Pood, gross. 
Pood 



Rate of 
Duty in— 



05 
90 



10 
25 



Pood, gross. 



18 



86409—18- 



60 



THE RUSSIAN " PEACE. 

Xarif A— ^■ortfcfemifl. 



tu(fi[d)cn all" 

gemeincn 

Sarif^ (Uo'm 

13./26. 3anuat 

1903). 



nu^ 4.5 



auS 46 

au« .52 
au8 5.3 

au8 55 



^ollfafc in 



SeflCid)nunQ bcr SBoren. 



(Sintjcit. 



3iu. 
bcln. 



ou« 2. 9ioi3l)aar, gefvaufelt, gcfottcn, Sffaif't, in | ^ub . 
?orfenfovm gcfponnen, ou(^ gemifcfit mit 
anbcren Sicrf)oarcii ober ))flanjlt(f)en 
g-afcrffoffen. 



aua 56 



(au8 56) 



au« 2. (gegcnftanbe auc ©cfjlDcin^borfteii mit gaffung 
auS gcmeinem §olj ofinc gurnierung; 
^infet au8 ®cf)rDein8borften unb SDJafers 
pinfcl jebcr SIrt. 

aug 2. 58ienen)racftS 



9facljt(ici)te, mit obcv o()tic ©cf)H)immer QU8 '^Papier, 
i^olj, ®la«, .riorf ober 'JJorjeltan, aurf) in 95er6in= 
bung mit SBIedj ober 3)ral)t aiiS uneblen (aud) 
laiierten) SJIetalleii, audj mit ^injetten Don Sled) 
au3 foW)cn SO?eta[(en. 

^iiute, gegerfat: 

2. ®affian=, W!ace=, El)eureau=, St)agrinleber; 
§nute icbcr ?lrt mit cinge^jrefeten fflhiftern; 
fieinc Inrficrtc Siiute. 



a\xi .3. grofie: Od)fen», .Siub--, @ticr=, S8iiffe(«, 
ipfetbe=, @fel«= unb ©dimeinglcber, — in 
ganjen unb OalOen §auten, otmc eingc= 
prcfite SJfufter, mit ober Dt)ne Warbung, 
aud) mit tiinftlid) cingeprefeter SJcirbung, 
and) gefarbt. 

4. grojie Indierte .Spiiute . .'. 



3lnmerEun0. StbftiUe unb ©tilcfe bon bear= 
beiteten '.'pciuten luerben, faltfi [tc'ntcf)t fUr bie 
."perfteUung bon ©djubroerf ober bon fictnen Seber= 
iwaren jugefdmittcn [inb, ju ben^clben ^ofifStjen 
,5U9elQffen, luie bie ©ante, Bon benen biefe ©tllcCc 
unb ?lbfailc berrUf)rcn. 

9taud)tt)aren: 

auS 3. ^itft'fcHf/ cnt()aOTt, nid)t gcgcrbt 



au8 5. 9iaud)«)aren jcbcv i'lvt, nid)t bcfonber« gc= 
nnnnte ; 
•J.) 5ugcrid)tet ober gefttrbt 



Slnmcrtuns 1. (sicfiirbte SBifains, S'anindjen", 
Obo[(um= unb 'JlSiijilibiirjnlle tticcben mit 25 Mubcl 
flit bo« <;jub ocruillf. 

3Inmerfuno 2. Tic in ^l^unft 5 a unb in bcr 
Ootttcbenbcn Slnmctfunfl bcsciduiotcii Scdc iinterUe« 
gen ben bort fcftflefcliteu .SLitlcn, nud) tt3enu bie ,3"^ 
ridjtunp ober i^drbung borflenomnien Inorben ift, 
um jvcfle mid ^lUniFt 1 biefcr ^iJnmincr nad)jua£)men, 

auS 57 , Sebermarcn: 

QUc! 3. ,t(cinc C'V'gcHilaiibc au* Vcocv jeber i'lrt im 
(^)cuiid)lc Bon i ^funb unb liienigcr bnS 
Stiirf, loic; 'Xiainentnfd)en, iiijrfen, ^orte» 



^ub 

$ub brutto . 
^ub 



Sobe. 
Een, 



60 



75 



31i 
4 20 



■iPub. 



^ub. 



«Pub. 



,18 



10 



10 



20 



■iPub. 



75 



■"Cub. 



50 



^funb . 



2 70 



BREST-LITOVSK PEACE: SUBAPPENDIX 2 TO APPENDIX H. 

Tariff A — Continued. 



61 



Numbers of 

the Russian 

General 

Tariff (of 

13/26 Jan. 

1903). 



Classification of Articles. 



Unit. 



Rate of 
Duty in— 



from 45 

from 46 

from 52 
from 53 

from 55 



from 56 



(from 56) 



from 57 



from 2. Horse-hair, curled, boiled, dyed, woven 
into curls, also mixed with hair of 
other animals or with vegetable fiber. 



from 2. Articles made of hog's bristle, with 
mounting of common wood without 
veneer, brushes made of hog's bristle 
and artists' brushes of all kinds. 



from 2. Beeswax. 



Night-lamps, with or without paper floaters, 
wood, glass, cork or porcelain, also combined 
with base metal (also varnished) sheet or wire, 
with or without pincers made out of sheet of 
such metals. 

Skins, tanned: 

2. Morocco, glazed, kid, Shagi'een leather, 
skins (leathers) of every kind with 
stamped patterns, small lacquered 
skins. 

from 3. Large: ox, cow, bull, buffalo, horse, ass, 
and pig skins, (leather) — ^in whole or 
half skins, without stamped patterns, 
grained or not grained, with artificially 
stamped grain, dyed. 



4. Large lacquered skins. 



Note. Pelts and particles of prepared skins, if 
not prepared for manufacture of foot-wear, or small 
leather articles, pay the same duty at the same 
rates as the skins to which these particles and pelts 
belonged. 



Peltries: 

from 3. Goat skins, 
tanned : 



with hair removed, not 



from 5. Peltries of all kinds, not separately men- 
tioned : 
a. Wrought or dyed 



Note 1. Dyed sMns of muskrat, rabbit, opossum, 
and raccoon pay 25 Roubles per pood prepaid. 

Note 2. Pelts named in subdivision 5a and in 
foregoing note pay the duties therem specified, 
even when finished or dyed to imitate the skins 
of subdivision 1 of this number. 



Leather goods: 

from 3. Small articles of leather weighing i 
pound or less per piece, such as reti- 
cules, purses, wallets, portfolios, cigar 



Pood. 



Pood. 



Pood, gross 
Pood 



Pood. 



Pood. 



Pood. 



18 



10 



10 



60 



75 



31i 

20 



20 



Pood. 



75 



Pood. 



50 



Pound . 



70 



62 



THE RUSSIAN PEACE.' 

Jartf A — gortfe^ung. 



Slummern beS 
tuffifien att« 

Qemclncn 

Sarifa (»om 

13./26. 3onuor 

1903). 



Scjcidjnunfl ber SBaren. 



monnaieS, ^ortefeitUtea, ^ioarrentafdjeti, 
SBrieftnfdjcn, audj rttit SScftanbteilen au« 
uneblen 'Sftttallm (einfd^Iielittc^ ber 93e= 
ft^Icige unb 33erfcf)(uffe auS sergolbeten ober 
Berftlbcrten unebten DJJetaKen) obcr au§ 
anberen ©toffcn (einfc^Hefelic^ 2tu«))ui5 
ober gutter au8 ©eibc unb au8 ^albfetbc). 

au« 6. SJotijbiiitier unb ^ortefeuttleg, int @elDict)te 
Don mefir al8 J ^funb bag ©tlicf, au8 
?eber, auc^ auS @anttf(5=, ®Iac^», ©afftan= 
leber ober ^ergament. 

Hnmerfung ju ^unFt 5. X)cr in bie[em ^unEte 
oorgefetienc ^oH^afe ift auf alle barin erlDcilinten 
3Baren, bcren &tmd}t i "iPfiinb Uberftetgt, an3U= 
raenben, audj menn bicfe 35aren mit 59efd)IiiQen 
obcr SBerfiJIUffen aue octgotbcten obet oetfilbctten 
uneblen SKctallen berfeben ober mit ©eibe ober 
Jpalbfeibe auSecpufet ober gefUttert finb. 

au« 6. 5!KafcEiinen=2:reibriemcn, ungenttfjt; leberne 
Jreiber (^etferS) fiir SffiebftUfjIe; runbe 
IreibriciTKfien. 



ou« 59 



au«61 



3. SBottdjerlDarcTt, ferttge 
unb gef)obe[t). 



gafebauben (gcfaljt 



SInmertung ju <13untt 3. gertige ®efii6e roerben 
mit 25 Sotjeten ftlr ba« 'Cub aerjollt, aui) hjcnn 
8te mit eifernen 5Reifen Ocrfeben finb. 

.^oljltiaren, nic^t befonbcrs genonnt: 

1. 2;if(5ler» unb ©recfiflerltiaren auS ben in 

Slummer 58 'ipuntt 1 genannten ^oljarten, 
unladtert, unpoliert, ofine oufgeleimtc 
SIrbeit ober gurniere; {joljerne ^luecfen 
ober S^ittgel fltr ©djumacber. 

2. Sifd)Ier» unb ®recb[Iern)aren au« ben nac^ 

Sflumtner 58 'ipunft 2 ju oerjoKenben §oIa= 
orten, unb furnierte SIBaren (einfcfitiefeKc^ 
ber jufarmnengcfetmten gurnierc), ou(f) 
unlacftert unb un()oIiert; Srift^Ier* unb 
Srec^ftertonren aua fiolg jeber Irt, 
ladiert, )3oUcrt, cin» ober meftrfarbig ange= 
ftrid)en (icbo($ oljne ffiunftmalerei), mit 
aufgclcimter SIrbeit ober gurnieren, ober 
mit ^atJier betlebt; 2)2obeI au6 gebogenem 
S8u(f)ent)otj o[)ne 9Jolfirgefte(f)t unb Sejug, 
jufammengefeijt ober nirfjt. 



3. .ipoljhjaren mit ©cfimljarbeit (anbere al« bie 
in ^un!t 4 biefcr 9tummcr [61] genannten) ; 
2ifcfiler= unb ®red)fIertDaren mit itunft= 
malerei ober bergolbet, uerfitbert obcr 
bronjiert obcr mit gemalten, Bergolbcten, 
berfilberten ober bronjierten SScrjierungen. 



.SoHfois in 



einjeit. 



iKu- 
beln. 



fiot)c« 
ten. 



iPfunb . 



05 



^ub. 



15ub. 



10 



50 



iPub. 



^ub. 



90 



'iPub. 



BREST-LITOVSK PEACE : STJBAPPENDIX 2 TO APPENDIX H. 63 

Tariff A — Continued. 



Numbers of 
1 the Russian 
. General 
I I Tarifl (of 
■• 13/26 Jan. 
1903). 



from 59 



from 61 



Classification of -Vrticles. 



cases, pocketbooks, with or without 
parts made of base metals (including 
mountings and clasps made of gilded 
or Telvin plated base metals), or of 
other materials (including garniture or 
lining made of silk or half silk). 



from 5. Notebooks and portfolios weighing more 
than \ pound per article, and made of 
leather, even of chamois, glazed or 
morocco leathers, or parchment. 

Note to subdivision 5. The rate of duty pro- 
vided for in this subdivision is to be applied to all 
goods therein enumerated, whose weight does not 
exceed \ pound, even when such wares are fitted 
vrith mountings or clasps made of gilded or silver- 
plated base metals or are ornamented or lined with 
silk or half siLk. 

from 6. Belting for machinery, not sewn, leather 
driver (pickers) for looms, small round 
transmission belts. 

3. Coopers' wares, staves, finished (notched 
and planed). 

Note to subdivision 3. Finished vessels pay 50 
copecks per pood, even when provided with iron 
hoops. 

Woodenware, not otherwise designated. 

1. Joiners' and cabinetmakers' products 

made of the kinds of wood admitted 
under subdivision 1 of N o. 58, wares not 
lacquered or polished (without veneers, 
wooden clasps, or nails for shoemakers). 

2. Joiners' and cabinetmakers' products 

made of wood and veneered products 
which, according to No. 58, subdivision 
, 2, are subject to duty (including glued 
veneers), also unlacquered and un- 
polished; joiners' and cabinetmakers' 
products of wood of all kinds, lacquered, 
polished, painted in one or more colors 
(exclusive of artistic painting), with 
glued veneers, or with paper glued 
thereon; furniture oE bent beechwood, 
without cane seats or upholstery, as- 
sembled or knocked down. 

3. Carved wooden products other than 

those specified in subdivision 4 of this 
number [61]; joiners' and cabinet- 
makers' products with artistic painting 
or gilded, silvered or bronzed, or em- 
bellished with gold, silver, or bronze. 



Unit. 



Rate of 
Duty tn— 



Pound . 



Pood. 



Pood. 



Pood. 



Pood. 



Pood. 



10 



05 



50 



90 



64 



THE EXJSSIAiSr PEACE. 



2:avif A — gortfetjung. 



9!umTnttn bee 
ruffiWcn ott. 

gonelmn 

EarifS (oom 

13./26.3onuar 

1903). 



SScjtic^nuna bcr Sffiartn. 



3onrai5 in 



einieit. 



iRu- 
betn. 



ftope. 
ten. 



4. 2:if(^let=, ®re(fifler» unb ©cfmi^toaren mit 
SCerjieruTiflen au« ^m3fer, feupfcrlcflie= 
rungen obet anberen ©toffen, mit etn= 
Bclegter SIrbelt ober ginlogen ou« .giolj 
(aufeer 'JSartettafeln), iJupfer, ®ta£)t, 'ipert= 
mutter, gifentiein, ©(fitlbtJott unb berfilct^ 
c^en, mit SluSnal^me ber ©egenftanbe, 
loelile meniBer aI8 3 'ipfunb bag ©tlid 
micflen unb nac^ 9tummer 215 tierjoHt 
merben. 



■iPub. 



15 



5. ^olgttiarcn mit 3tot)rBefIed}t, mit Seber ober 
©emeben iibcrjogen ober bebedt. 



■iPub. 



15 



auS 65 au8 4. ^ement alter Slrt Ciportlanbjement, tlinft= 
(ic^er ober natiirttc^er, 9{omon«, gemifdl^ 
ter, ©djiacfens unb atter anbere 3cTnent) ; 
^emcntrofiren. 

au« 66 ©teinc, rot) ober abgeric^tet: 

au« 6. ©($iefert3latten, gefcigt, aud) gef(^tiffen. 

Slnmertung. ®e(l)altene ©djiefetplatten, mi) 
an ben Stanbetn befc^nitten, ober nicjt njetter sc- 
fotmt, merben mit 15 ftopeten fUr ba8 <I3ub betjodt. 

0U8 70 ©teine jcber art— anbere al8 §albebel= unb ®bel= 
fteine— aud) Oipg unb aiabaftcr: 

au« 2. BelBoI)n(tdie ©teinme^arbeiten of)ne S8erjic» 
rung unb 53ilbf)auerarbeit, auii^ mit ge= 
trilmmtcn gliic^en— au« aKarmor, ©ert)en= 
tinftein, Sllabafter ober anberen tiarten ))o= 
Herboren ©teinarten loie: 3afi3t«, Dnijj 
Sabrabor, Orantt, ®nei«, ^orpbiir ober 
SBafalt: 

b) mit forgfaltig bearbeiteten gliic^en 
unb gugen, aber ni($t poliert. 

o«8 3. getobblidjc ©teinmcljarbeiten obne ©i^ni^^ 
unb 5!3i(b^auerarbeit, mit frummen ober 
nic^ttrummen gWdien, au« nidjt befonbers 
genannten ©teinarten: 

b) mit forgfaltig bearbeiteten gladjen 
unb guQciif ober nidit potiert. 

anmettune iu <Pun(t 3. Sie unter bie(en 
vuntt fallenben ©teinmcliarbclten luerben noii 
bem ^otlfafee bit lit. b oetjotlt, oucf) toenn fie 
oeicbliffen finb. 

au8 71 au8 5. Soblen, fiir bie (*(ettroted)nit geformt, toie 
©tifte, 'ipiatten, .Stjiinber uflo., baS ©tdtf 
im ®ett)id)te don 

a) lueniger al8 10 ^funb 



«Pub. 



12 



7, ©c^micrc jcber STrt fiir ad)fen, JRSber, 
SRicmcn unb berglcid}en, ferner Wifdiungcn 



^ub. 



^ub. 



30 



15 



<Pub. 
^ub. 



BEEST-LITOVSK PEACE : SUB APPENDIX 2 TO APPENDIX 11. 65 

Tariff A- Continued. 



Numbers of 

the Russian 

General 

Tariff (of 

13/26 Jan. 

1903). 



from 65 



from 66 



from 70 



from 71 



Classification of Articles. 



Joiners, cabinetmakers', and carved prod- 
ucts with ornaments of copper, alloys 
of copper, or other materials, with in- 
laid work or inlays of wood (except 
parquet pieces), copper, steel, mother- 
of-pearl, ivory, tortoise-shell, etc., with 
the exception of articles weighing less 
than 3 poods each and dutiable under 
No. 215. 



5. Wooden products (furnitm'e) with cane- 
work, upholstered with leather or with 
cloth. 




Pood. 



from 4. Cement of every sort (Portland cement, i Pood, 
artificial or natural, Roman, mixed, j 
slag, and all others): cement pipes. 



Stones, rough or dressed: 
from 6 SlalDS of slate, sav.'n or ground. 

Note. Split slate slabs, also with the ed^a'^ cut, 
but not otherwise shaped, pay duty at the i-ate of 
1.5 Copecks per pood. 



-other than semiprecious 
-also plaster of Paris and 



Stones of every kind- 
and precious stones- 
alabaster, 
from 2. Ordinary stone-cutters' work without 
embellishments or carving, even with 
rounded surfaces — in marble, serpen- 
tine stone, alabaster, or other hard rock 
susceptible of taking a polish, such- as 
jasper, anyx Labrador, granite, gneis, 
porphyry and basalt: 
b. y\'ith carefully finished surfaces Pood, 
and joints, but not polished. 

from 3. Ordinary stone-cutters' work without 
carvings or sculpture, with surfaces 
rounded or not, in kinds of stone not 
separately enumerated: 
b. with carefully finished surfaces ; Pood, 
and joints, but not polished. 

Note to Subdivision 3. S) one-masons' wnrl- com- 
ing under this subdivision pays dulv accorrlin^ to 
the tarifT rn(e of letter b: even thoiiLh (hi'\- be 
ground. 

from 5. Carbons, moulded for elect vo-technical 
purposes, such as candles, plates, cyl- 
inders etc., 
a. less than 10 pounds each ; Pood. 

Pood. 



1.5 



12 



30 



15 



7 . Greases of all kinds for lubricating belting 
and the like; moreover, compositions 



66 



THE RUSSIAN" " PEACE." 

Jartf A— Jortfcbimg. 



Slummern beS 

Sru(fifd)en 011= 

gemeinen 

[arotife (oom 

13./26.3amtat 
1903). 



ffleacidjnuns bet SBorcn. 



jum ^uijen Bon 3)!etal[eii, junt Jfitten don 
•iPorjetlan, ®Ia« unb bergleic()en, jubereitet 
mit aSacl)^, gctt, OI unb ?cim. 



auS 72 I au« 1. SBaujieget, nicijt feiierfcft, auei gen)o(jnItc^cnt 
lone: 

b) faffonniertc, [jo^Ie, ungtafterte . 



(auSj2) 



au8 2. ^ifgc' uni) 'flatten aug Snunt . 



ou« 73 



auS 3. Erjcugniffe au« fcucrfeften 2)Jateria(ien: 

a) ^icgct unb '$lattm jeber ©rofec unb 
gorm au« feiierfcflem Ion, jum 
Ofcnbau: auS ©djamotte, fanb= 
fjaltigem Ion, Quarj, S)ina«; 
'^flafter= unb anbere SHnter auS 
getoofinlid)em, gang obcr f)a[b ge^ 
fintertem Ion. 

anmecfuiiB ju ISunW 3 a. Sdjamottemortel 
(Sugenmortel ober feuerfcftec .Semetit), ba« 6ct6t 
cine 5Ki(c6una oon oermaWcncm tofiem unb 9c= 
branntem fcuerfcftem SCon, luirb nad <|3uti[t 3 a 
OersoIIt. 

1. SRotjren au« ))or6fer SDiaffe unb SRotaenform= 
ftiicfe: 
a) unglafiert 



b) glafiert. 



am 74 



gufebobenfilatten nu« gcfdjmoljener, niif)t 
toafferfaugenber (®tcni=) SJIaffe, unglafiert, 
auc^ mit anberer alg glatter Oberf[ad)e: 
a) cinfarbig, mefir al« 15 mm bid 



b) cinfarbig, 15 mm unb liieniger bid . 

c) mebrfarbig (uberjogen mit anberg* 

artigen SKaffen) Don jeber ®tcfc. 



au6 4. Iont)(otten fiir SBaubbcfleibung, glafiert, Don 
jeber garbe, glatt ober mit SRcliefBerjie^ 
rungen: 

a) cinfarbig 



b) mef)rfarbig . 



au8 1. 35ad)jicgel jeber 2(rt: 

a) unglafiert, and) cinfarbig, ofiue 58er= 
jicrung mit SSilbfiauerarbeit obcr 
Walmi. 

au« 2. Ofenfact)eIn jeber Srt au« lopfermaffe, gtatt 
ober mit ateiicfBerjieruugcn: 
a) einfavbifl, nuri) glafiert 



3oEfa)i in 



Stnjeit. 



■iPub. 

?ub. 



ipub. 



$ub. 
iPub. 

■iPub. 
?ub. 
■ilBub. 



<!3ub. 
^ub. 

■•Pub. 



beta. 



fen. 



05 
12 

09 



«Pub. 



10 
15 

30 

45 

75 



45 
90 

10 
30 



BBEST-LITOVSK PEACE: STJBAPPENDIX 2 TO APPENDIX II. 67 

Tariff A — Continued. 



Numbers of 
the Eussian 




Unit. 


Sate of 
Duty in— 


Tarw'fof 1 Classificalion of Articles. 
13/26 Jan. 
1903). 1 


O 


1 

P 




for cleaning metals, piecing porcelain, 
glass, etc., prepared with wax, fat, oil 
or glue. 




from 72 


from ] . Building bricks, non-fireproof, made of 
common brick clay: 
b. moulded, hollow, unglazed 

from 2 Bricks and tiles formed of cement 


Pood 




05 




Pood .... 




1' 


from 72 


from 3. Wares made of fire proof materials 

a. Bricks and tiles of any size for 
stove construction and made of 
chamotte, sandy clay, quartz, 
dinas; paving and other clinker- 
bricks made of common, wholly 
or half stagsed clay. 


Pood 




m 










Note to Subdivision.3a; Chamotte morlar (Mor- 
tise paste or Are proof cement), i. e., a mixtare of 
ground unbumt and burnt clay, pays duty ac- 
cordini: to subdivision 3a. 








from^73 1. Pipes of porous paste and moulded parts 
: of pipes; 

a iirio-lazed 


Pood 




10 




Pood 




15 


3. Floor tiles made of molten, non-porous 
(stone) paste, unglazed, whether with 
smooth surface or not: 
a. of one color, and having a thick- 
ness of 15 mm. or less. 


Pood 




30 








b. Of one color, and having a thick- 
1 ness of 15 mm. or less. 


Pood . ... 




45 








, e. Of various colors (overlaid with 
' other sorts of paste) irrespective 
1 of thickness. 


Pood 




75 








from 4. Clay tiles for wall-facing, glazed, of any 
color, smooth, or ornamented with 
relief: 


Pood 




45 




b. Of more than one color 

from 1. Roof tiles of all kinds: 

a. Unglazed, including unicolored, 
without plastic decorations. 


Pood 




qo 


from 74 


Pood 




in 












from 2. Stove tiles of all kinds, of clay, smooth, 
or embossed, 
a. Unicolored, including glazed 


Pood 




30 



68 



THE RUSSIAN PEACE. 

Xarif A — ^ortfeijung. 



Sfiummecn bcs 
cuffifd^en oK> 

gemeinen 

SatifS (uom 

13./26. 3onuar 

1903). 



3olIf«(3 in 



Scjeidjnung iiec SBaren. 



®m5cit. 



beln. 



ten. 



b) mcfitfarbtg, au^ gtaficrt . 



c) mit 9HaIerei,33cr8oIbun8 unb an» 
betcn SBcrgierunBen. 

anmerfunB ju <puntt 2. 5rfad) abfafe 2a, b unb 
c Irctben outj cotfptinaenbe Erile Bon Satbeloftn 
(bjie SSefrbnuneen, SJ^cbQittonS ufro.) berjofft. 

au8 4. (gefdjirr unb nid)t 6efonber8 genannte SS)3fer= 
toaren au« gelBofitilic^em Ion, auc^ glafiert: 
a) ofine 2Kufter ober iBcrjterungen. 



SlnmcttunB' ju <PunJt 4a. 35o8 Stuffprifeen bon 
garbe, moburd; [cin naelmBSigcS SRufter erjtelt 
irttb, mirb ni(f)t ol6 SBerjierung angcfcfien. 



galjenceioaren: 

1. tDctfe ober einfatbig, 
otine 33erjterungen, 
SKuftern. 



ber SKaffe gefarbt, 
rfi .mit geformten 



■au« 76 



aus 77 



2. bergleidjen, mit einfarbigen gSJuftern, Son= 
ten ober gtiinbcrn; gatjcncehjaren, anbers 
aU in ber 2l?affe gefttrbt. 

3. bergleicfien, mit iOJalerei, SJergoIbung ober 
me^rfarbigen 5Kuftern. 

■JJorjeltantoaren: 

1. ^orjeHantoaren (ntiiit befonber« genannte), 

meife ober einfarbig, audi mit farbigen ober 
Oergolbeteu ^anten unb 3tiinbern (25or= 
bilren), jeboc^ obne anbere SBerjierungen; 
StJajoiifa jeber ?trt, aui^ mit geformten 
58erjierungen. 

2. ^orje(tangefd)irr mit aijalerei, ober mit 

farbigen ober bergolbeten SJJuftern, Slra- 
beSFen, Slumen ober anberen iif)nli(^en 
S5erjtcrungen; Oegenftiinbe au« ^orjellnn 
ober S8i«tuit jur SIuSfc^mUcEung »on 
^immern, meife ober einfarbig, jebod) 
obne SKaierei, SBergoIbung ober SSerjie^ 
rungen au« .Supfer ober Sfuijfertegierungen. 

5. SBaren, nic^t befonberS genannte, aus ®Ia« 
jeber SIrt mit 95erjierungen mie geiiljten 
ober grabierten 9[>fuflern, iDJaleret, ©mail, 
58ergoIbung, SBerftlberung, mit S?erjierun= 
gen aua .Kupfer, fupferlegierungen ober 
anberen ©toffen, folnie bie in ben ipunltcn 
2, 3 unb 4 btefer 5Rummer (77) genannten 
SBaren, in 35erbinbung mit anberen 
©toffen, and) irenn biefe ju iljrer S3erjies 
rung biencn; ©laShjatte, ©laSgelnebe irab 
barau« ocrfcrtigte Oegcnftttnbe. 



■iPub. 
«Pub, 



75 
25 



<Pub. 



<Pub. 



<Pub. 



<13ub. 



■iPub. 



■iPub. 



37i 



65 



87J 



95 



17 



50 



fub. 



16 



50 



BEESr-LITOVSK PEACE : SUBAPPENDIX 2 TO APPENDIX II. 69 

Tariff A — Continued. 



Numbers of 

the Russian 

General 

Tarifl (of 

13/26 Jan. 

1903). 



Classification of Articles. 



Unit. 



Kate o£ 
Duty in — 



b. Multicolored, including glazed . . 

c. Painted, gilded, and otherwise 

decorated. 



Note to 2. Projecting parts of tile stoves (as caps, 
medallions, etc.) arc taxed according to Section 2a, 
b, and c. 

from 4. Crockery and wares of pottery, not spec- 
ified elsewhere and made of common 
clays, glazed or not: 
a. Without patterns or ornaments. 

Note to 4a. The application of paint without 
thereby producing any regular pattern, is not con- 
sidered as ornamentation. 



75 



from 76 



from 77 



Faience ware: 

1. White or of one color, dyed in the paste, 

without ornaments, with or without 
moulded patterns. 

2. The same with patterns, edges or borders 

of one color: faience wares dyed other- 
wise than in the paste. 

3. The same, artistically painted, gilded and 

with patterns of different colors. 

Porcelain wares: 

1. Porcelain wares (not separately desig- 

nated) white or of one color, with col- 
ored or gilded rims or borders but not 
otherwise ornamented, majolica of any 
kind, also with moulded ornamenta- 
tion. 

2. Porcelain table ware with artistic paint- 

ing, or with colored or gilded patterns, 
arabesques, flowers or other similar em- 
bellishments: articles of porcelain or 
biscuit ware for the decoration of rooms, 
white or uncolored, but without artistic 
painting, gilding or embellishments of 
copper or alloys of copper. 

5. Articles, not separately designated, of any 
kind of glass with ornaments such as 
etched or engraved patterns, pictorial 
painting, enamelling, gilding, silvering, 
or ornamentation with copper, copper 
alloys or other materials, as well as the 
articles specified in subdivisions 2, 3, 
and 4 of this Number 77, with attach- 
ments composed of other materials, 
even when intended as ornaments: 
glass silk, tissues of glass and articles 
made therefrom. 



Pood. 
Pood. 



Pood. 



75 
25 



37i 



Pood. 



Pood. 



Pood. 



65 



87J 



95 



Pood. 



Pood. 



17 



50 



Pood. 



16 



50 



70 



THE EUSSIAN PEACE. 



tarif A — Jortfe^ung. 



S^ummcrn beS 
ru(fif(ien oH" 

gcmeinen 

iEorifS (Bom 

13./26. 3amiiir 

1903). 



au« 108 



au8 109 



iSejeidjnung ber SBaten. 




au« 112 



Sliriftbaumfc^mucf au8 ®Iaa, aud) mef)r= 
farbig, Bergolbet, fterfilbert, aucfi in 58er» 
binbuiig tnit anberen ©toffen. 

au« 6, ©erbfiiurc (Janntn) 

7. ©aKjljIfttuve 

8. ®aKug= unb ipijrogattu^fiiuve 

SBitrioIe: 

2. ^u)jferBitrtoI, aufeer iDafferfreiem, ©aljburger 

SBttrioI (cine SKifc^ung fd^mefelfaurer (gifen» 
unb ®ut)ferfalje), 3tnt« ober meifeer 
SBitrioI; Eijiorjinf. 

TOi^t befonberg genannte t^emifdje unb pt)arma» 

geutifc^e Srjeugniffe: 
au« 2. ^offein, ©ftinin, ©trljc^ntn fotoie bercn ©alje 

3. Dtganifc^c iobijaltige 95erbinbuneen otter Srt, 

aiifecr ben unter JJummer 135 fattenben. 

ou« 4. i8rom=, 3fob« unb (Jljanfalje: 

a) Srontsffatiuff! unb =5>tatrium 

b) 3ob=fia'Iium unb =9Jotrium 

aua 5. SlBi8mut=, 9lttfel« unb OuecEfitberbgbin» 
bungen: 

b) Quedfilbertterbinbungen; 'CluecEfi(» 
ber(f|Iorib (©ubiimat), OuecEfiI» 
ber(^lDrltr (MalomtV), ^innober, 
Que(fft(beroj>)b unb Quectfilber= 
farje: 
^tnnaber 

bie anberen unter biefen ^untt 
fattenben (Srjeugniffe. 

au« c) bafifd) falbeterfaureS iffiismutojijb . . . 

6. ^aijiijtijolt unb ©ulfonatc: 

a) ^Kartt^ofe 

b) atte nicbt befonber« genannten ©ul= 

fonate, aufeer ben unter Iflummtr 
135 fattenben. 

7. ^Ritros unb Slmiboberibate ber nromatifdjcn 

afeifie: 
a) 5Ritroben3oI unb SfJittonapfitljaKn, 
Slnilin unb 9ta))t|t]()>)Iantin fomie 
beren ©atje. 



^ub. 

^ub. 
$ub. 
?ub. 

^ub. 



■iPubbrutto. 
■iPubbrutto. 

■iPub brutto . 
^ub brutto . 



■iPub brutto. 
^ub brutto.. 

^ub brutto . 

iPub brutto.. 
■iPub brutto. 



■iPub brutto. 



BREST-LITOVSK PEACE : SUBAPPENDIX 2 TO APPENDIX II. 

Tariff A — Continued. 



71 



Numbers of 

the Russian 

General 

Tariff (of 

13/26 Jan. 

1903). 



from 108 



from 109 



from 112 



Classification of Articles. 



Glass ornaments -for Christmas trees, 
multicolored, gilded, silvered whether 
combined with other materials or not. 

from 6. Tannic acid (tannin) 

7. Salicilic acid 

5. Gallic and pyrogallic acid 

"Vitriols: 

2. Copper vitriol, except Salzburg vitriol (a 

mixture of sulphate of iron and copper 
salts), zinc or white A-itriol, chloride of 
zinc. 

Chemical and pharmaceutical preparations not 

separately classified; 
from 2. Cafein, quinine, strychnine; also salts 
of .same. 

3. All organic combinations containing io- 

dine, except those referred to under 
Number 135. 

from 4. Salts of bromide, iodine, and cyanide; 

a. Bromides of potassium and sodiiun 

b. Iodine of potassium and sodium 

from 5. Combinations of bismuth, nickel, and 
mercury: 
b. Combinations of mercury; 

Chloride of mercury (sublimate), calo- 
mel, cinnabar, oxide of mercury, 
and salts of mercury; 

Cinnobar 

The other preparations falling into 
this subdi^dsion. 

from c. Basic nitrate of bismuth trioxide... 

6. Naphthols and sulphonates: 

a. Xa]>hthols 

b. Sulphonates not separately desig- 

nated, except those which fall 
under Number 13-5. 

7. Nitro and amidoderivatives of the aro- 

matic series: 

a. Nitrobenzol and nitronaphthaline, 
aniline and naphthylamine as 
well as the salts thereof. 



Unit. 

Pood.... 

Pood.... 
Pood.... 
Pood--.. 

Pood.-.- 



Pood, gross. 
Pood, gross. 



Pood. ..•--. - 
Pood, gross. 



Pood, grosB- 
Pood, gross- 

Pood, gross - 

Pood, gross - 
Pood, gross. 



Pood, gross . 



Kate of 
Duty in— 



I 


1 


3 


a< 






M 


o 



20 



72 



THE EUSSIAN PEACE. 

Jnrif A — Jvortfeljung. 



^Tiummern beS 
ru(fi(iSen at[= 

ocmcinen 

larifs (Dom 

13./26.3anuar 

1903). 



Sejeidjnuns bcr SSJnrcn. 



am 113 



nu8 124 



au« 12.5 



128 



131 
133 



b) ®imet^t)(aritUii unb SttttfitilaniUn 
unb i^re StitrofoBetbtnbungen; 
33enjibin, Jolutbm, ^aranitrani= 
tin foroie beren ©nljc. 



au« 8. organifdjc "iCrttparate fiir pf)tti*majeutif(f)e 
3ttiecfe: 

b) 3(ntipt)rin, ©aUpljrin, 'ipfjenacetin, 
'iPf)enQceto[iTi, ©ulfonal, ©alol, 
©uaiacol; ©imjacol unb ^reofot, 
fofilcnfaureg; ^epfiti, 'ipepton. 



9. c^emifcOc unb pfiarmajeuttfd^e grjcugniffe, 
nidjt befonber« genaimt. 

Slnmerfung su <)3un(t 9. Untec ber S8ejeicS= 
nutiB nirfjt befonbetS genanntc djemifi^e unb tiI)orma> 
jeutifdic grjeuBniffe finb bic im ru(fi((tien allec> 
meinen Sarife bom 13./26. Sanuar 1903 nit^t 
befonbetS (jcnamiten grjeugniffe biefcr art 3U 
berfte^en. 

^ufammengefe^te Sfrpcien unb bofierte ^rttparnte. 



Stnmerhina ju Jlummcr 113. Unter ijemitiien 
unb pfiacmojeutifcim (Scjeuaniffen in bofiertem 
JBuftanb finb Strjneifotmen ju Becftcbeu, loerdje in 
mebttamentellen ®ofen arjneiftoffe in 8ebraud)8> 
fcttiaer S8efi)affenl)eit nad) ®ctt)id)t obcr Wai 
eIritbmil6iB abgeteilt entbattcn, roie <PilIcn, tom= 
brimterte labletten, SBrner, ©tudljapfdjcn unb 
bergleic^en. 

3. ®cr6ftoffau«3ug jeber art, aufecr ®atra)Dfe(= 
unb ©umadjauSjug. 

9tcttutli(f)e gortftoffe: 
ou« 2. mincroUfc()e: 

b) .ftcibe, gefc^Iemmt ober gemof(^en; 
JJreibe unb Salt, gemat)Icn. 

Snbigo, natiirlidjer ober Wnftlidjcr in jeber Jorm 
(mit 3tugna[)me »on 3nbigoau«3ug unb 3fnbigottn). 

anmettuno. ffUnftlidjet unb natUtlidjet 3nbi8Ci 
foKen bem glctdjcn So^M unterliegcn. 

Sikv- unb 3iiifli3«ii3 



Jfupferfarlicn (baruuter and) ©rilnfpan) unb Strfcuit- 
farben: 
JJupferfarbcn, au^genonimen (Srllnffian, unb 
3[rfenitfarbcn, 

(yriinfpan (baftfdje« tupferncctat) 



Sin^eit. 



^ubbrutto. 



^ub brutto. . 



■iPubbrutto. 



SoKfofe in 



betn. 



ten. 



1$ub, 



?ub brutto . 

^ub 



«Pub. 
■iPub. 

?;ub. 



75 

18 
44i 

30 
40 



BREST-LITOVSK PEACE: SXJBAPPENDIX 2 TO APPENDIX II. 73 

Tariff A — Continued. 




from 113 



fromJ124 
from 125 

128 



131 
133 



b. Dimethylaniline and diethylani- 
line and their nitro combina- 
tions: benzidine, toluidine, pa- 
ranithraniline, abo salts nf tlK^ 
same. 

from S. Organic preparations for pharmaceutic 
purposes: 

b. Antipyi'ine, salipyrine, phenace- 
tine, phenacetoline sulphonal, 
salol, guaiacol, carbonates of 
guaiacol and creosote: pepsin, 
pepton. 

9. Chemical and pharmaceutical products 
not separately classified. 

Note to subdivision 9. tJnder the designation of 
chemical and pharmaceutical products not sepa- 
rately classified are to be understood products of 
ttiis sort not separately specified in the Russian 
General Tariff of 13/26 January 1903. 

Compounded medicines and preparations put up 
in doses 



Note to Number 113. Under chemical and 
pharmaceutical products p.ut up in doses are to 
be understood medicines which contain medica- 
mental doses, medicinal substances ready for use 
by weight or measure into equal portions, such 
as pills, compressed tablets, grains and supposi- 
tories. 



3. Tanning extracts, of every kind, except 
gallotannic and sumac extracts. 

Dyeing substances, natural: 
from 2. Mineral: 

b. Chalk, purified and washed; chalk 
and talc, ground. 

Indigo, natural or artificial, in every form (ex- 
cept indigo extract and indigotiu) . 

Note. Artificial and natural indigo shall pay 
the same rate of duty. 



White lead and zinc white - 

Colors with copper basis (including verdigris) or 
with a basis of arsenic-colors: 
With copper basis, except verdigris, and 
colors with arsenic basis. 

Verdigris (basis acetate of copper) 



Pood, gross. 



Pood, gross. 



Pood, gross . 



Pood. 



75 



Pood, gross. 
Pood 



Pood 

Pood 
Pood 



18 
44i 

1 30 

4 i 50 

I 

5 I 40 



THE RUSSIAN PEACE. 

laiif A — Jortfctjung. 



^^iummetn bcS 
ruffifdjen alls 

gemeinen 

2^Qrif£( (uom 

13./26.3anuar; 

1903). 



SJcjeti^nung bcr SSarcn. 



135 ; Sltijarin, Sllijarinlact unb organtfcfie fl)nt^etifd^e 
garbftoffc (''Ptgmentc) alter 2(rt, beren a3afen unb 
; 93er6inbungen, foioie iWifd^ungert unb S5erMnbun= 
gen Bon ^igntenten mit anorgamfc^en 5Safen unb 
©aljen (^igmentlacfe ufm.) ; Qnbigotin (3nbi90= 
au^sug in troctener gorm). 

SInmerhins. Sorbftoffe, 9cmtfc()t mit nidjt 
far&enbcn ©toffen, lute 3. Sj. Son unb OI, IDcrben 
nad) Ulummer 137 BetjoHt, menn bic SUtfcfiunfl an 
garbftoffen nt^t mif)v ale 10% be« ®efcimteen)i#tS 
ent^alt. 

5U 136 geine iffiintaturfarben in 9Wt)fdjen unb ©cfialen au« 
gat)ence ober iporjellan, in Suben unb SinU' 
biilfen; ftiiffige c^ineftfdjc STuff^c in gtafc6(i)cn. 

137 ! garben unb garbftoffe, m<i)t befonbcrt genannt; 
; gorben jeber 2Irt mit SSeimifcfiung einer unbe= 
I beutenben Wenge organifdjen ,. pigments ober 

angerieben in Sffiaffer, 8eim, fit ufto.; garben 
I ntit SBeimifcbung bon ©toffen, bie bo8 Jroifnen 
I bcfc^teunigen, menn biefe ©toffe nic^t einem 

bobercn ^otlfalj untertiegen; SBicbfe; S:inte teber 

art, trodfen unb ftliffig. 

anmertims. Untcr SBcimifcfiuns einet unbe= 
beutenben Mcngc otaanifiScn IgiBmctitS i(t cm 
^ula(3 an oraanifcScn $igmcnten bt8 ju 3% 
eintdjliegltcf) ju oerftcben. 



aus 140 



6ifen: 

au8 1, ©tab» unb ©orteneifen jeber 2Irt, mit 2IuS= 
nal)me be« unteh genannten; ®ifen in 
Sup))en, ^ubblingsftilcfen ober aifaffeln, 
SBruc^cifen, awtlbarg, gifenftaub. 

3. gifenbled) jeber 2(rt, J mm. unb barllber 

ftort; 'flatten, iiber 46 cm breit; ©Drten= 
eifen jeber 3Irt, in einer fflreite ober ^iitie 
Bon mebr al§ 46 cm folnie in einer ©tttrte 
ober mit einem ©urrfjmeffer Bon 18 cm unb 
bartiber; gormeifen (T.gifcn, SotJpe(«T= 
(Sifen, SBuIfteifen, Z=@tfen unb gifcn bon 
anbers geformten Querfcbnitten, aufeer 
SBinteleifen, inelc^es nac§ ^un!t 1 biefer 
9fummer [140] Berjotlt mirb) ; SBanbeifen, 
in einer SBreite ober mit einem ©urdjmeffer 
Bon mct)r al8 6^ mm abcr nid)t ilber 12J 
mm. 

4. @ifenblc(5, hjcniger n((J i mm ftart 



Stnmettima ju ben STiummern 140 unb 142. 
Sen in ben <Uuntten 3 unb 4 ber ^Uummern 140 
unb 142 fcftgcfelstcn ^ollfaijcn unterliesen bic bott 
ermilbntcn Slccfic unb <BIatten au« ffiifcn unb ©tobt 
obnc SRilifficbt auf bie Sorm, in bie fie jnecfcjnittcn 
finb. 



cSotlfois in 



(Sinbeit, 



^Ub. 



iRu. 
bein 



21 



ten. 



^Ub. 



iPub. 



50 



<Pub. 



fub. 



75 



05 



■iPub. 



50 



BBEST-LITOVSK PEACE: SUBAPPENDIX 2 TO APPENDIX 11. 75 

Tariff A — Continued. 



Numbers or j 

the Russian 

General 

Tariff (of 

13/26 Jan. 

1903). 



Classification of .Vrticlos. 



I'nit. 



135 



to 136 



137 



from 140 



Alizarin, alizarin and organic synthetic dye sub- 
stances (pigments) of every kind, their bases 
and combinations of the same, as well as mix- 
tures and combinations of pigments with in- 
organic bases and salts (pigment lacs etc.): 
indigotin (indigo extract, dried). 

Note: Dyeing substances, mixed with non- 
coloring materials, as, for example clay and oil, 
pay duty according to No. 137, if the admi.Kture 
of dyeing substances does not exceed 10% of the 
total weight. 

Fine colors for miniatiu'e painting in little bowls 
and shells of faience or porcelain, in tubes and 
tinfoil: liquid China ink in small bottles. 

Colors and coloring materials not separately 
designated: all kinds of colors tinged with a 
very small quantity of organic pigment, or 
ground and mixed with water, glue, oil, etc. : 
Colors with an admixture of drying materials, 
if these materials are not subject to a higher 
rate of duty; blacking inks of every kind, 
liquid or solid . 

Note: Under admixture of very small quantity 
of organic pigment must be understood an addi- 
tion of organic pigment up to 3%, Inclusive. 



Iron (manufactured): 

from 1. Bar and assorted ii'on of every kind, 
except that named below; ingots, 
puddled, billets, pigs, scrap and 
mill bars, iron in powder. 

3. Sheet iron of all kinds having a thickness 
of J mm and over; iron slabs of width 
exceeding 46 cm; assorted iron of all 
kinds, of a width or height exceeding 
46 cm, or of a thickness or diameter of 
18 cm, or a, thickness or diameter of 18 
cm and over; shaped iron (T h'on, T T 
iron, beams, Z iron and ii'on of other 
forms of cross-section, except angle iron 
which pays duty according to sub- 
division 1 of this X umber [140], hoop 
iron, of a width or diameter of more 
than 6 1 mm. but not over 12 j. 



4. Sheet iron, of a thickness of les, 
J mm. 



than 



Note to Numbers 110 and 142. Under the rates 
of duty established in subdivisions 3 and 4 of num- 
bers 140 and 142 fall all sheets and slabs of iron and 
steel therein specified, irrespective of the .shape 
into which they are cut. 



Pood. 



Pood. 



Ra( 


f of 


I'uly in— 


v> 


Vj 


O 


o 

Q. 
O 


. TL 


- 


21 




7 


50 



Pood. 



Pood. 



Pood. 



Pood. 



75 



05 



50 



86409—18- 



-6 



76 



THE llUriSIAN " L'KACE.' 



Lorif A — J-ortfe^ung. 



^Jiummcrn bci 
ruffifdjen all= 

semcincn 

SartfS (uom 

13. '26. Sanmr 

1903). 



sBcjcirfjnung bcr SBaren. 




^oKfafe in 



9iu. 
beln. 



fiope. 



au« 141 



au« 142 



SBeijjblecf) (»cjinnte6 Sifenbledj), auc^ tacfiert, mtt 
5Wuftern bebrudt obcr moirtcrt; gifenbled), bt- 
malt, lacficrt, ftcrjititt, oertapfert, Bcrnirfelt ober 
mtt anbercn 8ertiot)nHcf)en SJJctallcn ilfierjogcn. 

Slnmerfung. 2)ie im cuffifdjen „SoKtanfn cr= 
lociftiitcn geiDbljnUdien obev niitt Eoftbaren SJJetatlc 
OcQreifcn nllc 9)fctaIIe mit SluSnabmc bon ®o(b, 
i:?ilber iinb ^latina in fidj. Sllumimum gilt ale 
ScnjijljnlidjcS SJictall, fomeit c8 nidit in Sirtitcin 
iei TUffifdjen lorifS oiifgcfllflrt ift, flit bic l)81jere 
SoIIfalje feftgctclit I'inb. 

9Inmerfung an ben ^]Nmmern 141, 147, 1.54, 
15.5, 156 nnb 163. 2)ie in ben ^Tlummetn 141, 
147, 1.54, 1.55, 168 unb 163 genannten aiiclalle 
unb S^Jctalterjeugnific nnterliegen ben 3olIfal5cn 
tiiefer 9Iummern, aud) ioenn fie bnrd) irgcnbein 
2^ecfnl)ren (anf gaiDanifdjem Jficge, burd) Umgufj, 
burcii cin SGalsDcrfahrcn ober fonftluie) cinen tiber^ug 
Don Beroi)i)nlid)em SJfelaii erljaltcn fjobcn, folia ber 
iWetaltUberjug 2.5% be« ©efamtgemidjte ber in ben 
9iummern 141, 147, 154, 155 unb 156 genannten 
SOietolle unb fflietallcrjeugniffe unb 10% be8 ®c= 
famtgeroid)tg bee in 9iummer 163 genannten SBaren 
nicl)t llberfteigt. 3)er in ber Slnmerfung ^u ^unft 2 
ber ^Tiummer 147 borgcfebene .3ufd)lag mirb nicbt 
crljoben, tnenn ber bort gcnannte ^J^etatlUberjufl 
25% bee ©efamtgeiDidjts ber Sled)c ni(4t llberfteigt. 
Salle ber SlfetnllUberjug biefe ©renjen Don 25% 
unb 10% llberfteigt, unterliegen bie in ben genannten 
^IJuininern be;ieid)netcn !ir}ctallc unb Srgeugniffe ben 
Sollfdl,^en ober SLtfd)lQgen, nieldje flir bie ben Uberjug 
bilbcnben 9J?etallc im Xarif feflflefeljt finb. 



5ta()(: 
au« ]. 



2ta!)( in ©ttiben unb ©ortenftaM jeber ?(vl, 
Ttiit Slusnaljme bc« imten genannten; Stalil 
in SBtoilen, S8nic()|tot)l. 



3. 'i;tiU)ll)(ccIi iLbcr 3lrt, J mm unb barilbcv 

ffaii ; ill '^Inttcii, iitier 46 cm brcit; iortcn- 
ftalil joi5cr art in eincrSBvcitc obcr .sMihc Bon 
meftr alg 46 cm fomic in ciner cctrivfc ober 
iTtit eincm I)urd)tneffer Bon IS cm unb bar» 
liber; gormfta()( (T=@ta[il, S)oppe(»T= 
©ta()[, Sffiutftftai)!, Z^gtabl unb ©taljl 
Bon anbers gcformten Querfcfjnittcn, aujjer 
aSintclftabl, iwliiier uad) 'ii3untt 1 biefer 
9tummcr [142] Bcrjollt luirb); Sganbftaljl, 
in ciner !6reite ober mit cincni S)urd)= 
meffcr Bon mefir a(« 6J mm, nbcr nidjt 
liber 12 V mm. 

4. ©taf)(b(ec^, Isenigcr ali i mm ftarf 



147 



8inf: 



3tnmcrEung ficlic ^}htiumcr I lo. 



1. in SBIBden, S8rut§ ober ^].?>ili!cv, aurf) ,3inE= 

afc^c unb 3itttftaub. 

2. in S8lcd)en, aud) poiicvt, obcr in ©tnuBcn . . . 

2tnmerEung ficljc ?lhiinmcr 141. 



■iPub. 



■iPub. 



75 



05 



■iPub. 

<Pub. 
<!3ub. 



50 



70 



BEEST-LITOVSK PEACE : SUBAPPENDIX 2 TO APPENDIX II. 

Tariff A — Continued. 



77 



NumlDers of 

the Russian 

General 

Tariff (of 

13/26 Jan. 

1903). 



Classification of Articles. 



Unit. 



Rate of 
Duty in— 



from 141 



from 142 



Tinplate (tinned sheet-iron), lacquered or not, 
stamped with designs and crystallized; Sheet 
iron, painted, varnished, coated with zinc, 
copper, nickel or other common metals. 

Note. The common or non-precious metals men- 
tioned the Russian customs tariff include all metals 
except gold, silver and platinum. Aluminum 
ranks as a common metal in so far as it is noo listed 
in articles of the Russian tariff for which a tiigher 
rate of duty is fixed. 

Note to Numbers 141, 147, 154, 155, 156 and 163. 
Metals and metal products specified in Numbers 
141, 147, 154, 155, 156 and 163 are subject to the rates 
of duty of those numbers, even if by any process 
whatever, (galvanizing, recasting, rolling or any 
other way) they have received a coat of common 
metal, in case the coat does not exceed 25% of the 
total weight of the metals or metal products speci- 
fied in Numbers 141, 147, 164, 155 and 156 and 10% 
of the total weight of the articles designated in 
Number 163. The surtax provided for in Note to 
subdivision 2 of Number 147 is not collected if the 
metal coating therein specified does not exceed 25 
per cent of the total weight of the sheets. In case 
the metal coating exceeds these limits of 25 and 
10 per cent, the metals and manufactures desig- 
nated in the aforesaid numbers are liable to the 
rates of duty or to the surtaxes prescribed in the 
tariff for the metals constituting the coating. 



Steel: 
froml. 



Steel in bars and assorted steel of all 
kinds, except that mentioned below; 
steel in billets, steel scrap. 



3. Sheet steel of every kind, of a thickness 
of 4 mm .and over. Steel in slabs of a 
width exceeding 46 cm. assorted steel 
of all kinds, of a width or height of more 
than 46 cm. or of a thickness of 18 cm. 
and over; T steel and T T steel, steel 
in beams, Z steel and steel of other 
cross section forms except angle steel, 
which pays duty according to subdivi- 
sion 1 of this Number [142], steel in 
hoops, of a width or diameter of more 
than 6} mm., but not over 12 J mm. 



4. Sheet steel, of a thickness of less than 
J mm. 



147 



Zinc 



Note: See Number 140. 



1. In pigs, scrap or powder, also zinc slag 
and zinc dust. 



2. In sheets, polished or not, or in rods. 
Note: See Number 141. 



Pood. 



Pood. 



Pood. 

Pood. 
Pood. 



75 



05 



50 

70 
25 



78 



THE EUSSIAN " PEACE." 

larif A — Jortfe^ung. 



9Iummcrn bcS 
niffi((4en olt- 


SBcjeiiimuna bet SffiaTen. 


ein?)eit. 


3oI(fai} in 


gemeinen 

SEarifS (torn 

13./26.3onuat 

1903). 


beln. 


if one. 
(en. 


au« 148 


2. ®oIbarbeitcn jeber 3(rt; ^utoelierarbeiten 
ieber 2Irt au6 ®oIb, and) mit ec^tcn ober 
uTiecf)tCTi -Stchicii, ^erlen ufm. 


^funb 


52 


80 




4. ©itberarbeitm jeber 2(rt, and) bergotbet; 
3umelicrarbeiten jeber 2trt au8 ©ilber, 
aud) Bergotbet, auc^ tnit ec^ten ober un» 
edjten ©teittcn, ^erlen uftr. 


^funb 


9 






5. ®o(b unb ©ilber in biinnen SStiittern, beren 
Oemicbt auf 100 QuabratjoII betriiot: bei 
®oIb — 90 unb toeniger J)oIi unb bei 
©ifber— 48 unb toeniger Soti, einf(^Iiefe=' 
licb be« ®efDicf)tg ber 33iicf)elcf)en. 


^funb 


7 


50 




6. ®mibt unb SJanber (geftoc^ten ober gewebt) 
aug ®oIb, ©ilber ober unec^tem Saf)n, 
®rabt unb ®efpinft au« ®oIb unb 
©ilber. 


'•Pfunb 


10 


80 


au« 149 


SEBaren aug jtupfer, Jfupferlegierungen- unb anberen 
in 5)Jummer 143 genannten TOetaffen unb Se» 
gierungen: 

1. ?ampenbrenner, aKein ober in S3erbinbung 

mit SSebciltern, falls biefe nicbt einem 
()bf)cren S'^lk untertiegen. 

2. Jffioren , ot)ne erljabene ober geftoc^ene 58er« 

jierungen unb geftanjte SBarcn, aud) in S3er= 
binbung mit §oIj, gifen, SBIed), ?eber ober 
anberen gert)b5ntid)en ©toffen: 


■iPub 


9 






a) bei einem ®elBid)te Bon me^r a(« 5 
'iPfunb fur bos ©ttlcE. 


<(5ub 


8 






b) bei einem @elt)ic^te Bon 5 'ipfunb ober 
hjeniger filr ba8 ©tiitf. 


^ub 


9 






3. SBaren mit erbabenen ober geftodjenen 58er= 
giebrungen (aufeer ben geftanjten), au«ge= 
rliftet ober nidjt, gebraud)8fertig ober 
ni(it, h)ie Ornamente, Jfari)otiben, "Mt-- 
baillong, 93itften unb ©tatuen. 


•iPub 


21 




nii6 150 


©ufeeifen, Bernrbeitet: 

1. ®u6ftiicle of)ne SBearbeitung 


■iPub . 




90 




3. ©ufewaren, gemuftert (faffoniert), obgebrebt, 
poliert, gcfdjUffen, ongeftricben, bronjtert, 
Berjinnt, mit Sacf, (Smail (aufjcr ®efd)irr), 
3inf ober anberen uneblen WctaKen ilber= 
jogen, aud) mit leilcn au« §oIj, ,f upfer 
ober f upferlegierungen. 


^ub 


4 


20 




anmcrtuna. iffiarcn au8 [(^micbfiorcni ®uf! 
merben roic Eifcn= imb ©tal)lmatcn Ocrjotlt. 









BBEST-LITOVSK PEACE : SUBAPPENDIX 2 TO APPENDIX H. 79 

Tariff A — Continued. 



Numbers ol 
the Russian 


Classification of Articles. 


Unit. 


Rate of 
Duty in— 


General 

Tarifl (ol 

13/26 Jan. 

1903). 


§ 
PS 


1 
1 


from 148 


2. Gold manufactures of every sort, gold i Pound 

jewelry of every kind, also with genu- 1 
ine or imitation stones, pearls, etc. | 


52 


80 




4. Silver' manufactures of all kinds, gilded 
or not, every kind of silver jewelry, 
gilded or not, or with genuine or imita- 
tion stones, pearls, etc: 


Pound - 


9 


.... 




5. Gold and silver in thin sheets, weighing 
per 100 square inches: In the case of 
gold — 90 doli or less, in the case of sil- 
ver — 48 doli or less, including the 
weight of the booklet. 


Pound 


7 


50 




6. Tissues and braids (plaited or woven) of 
gold, silver or brass-foil, gold or silver 
wire or thread. 


Pound 


10 


85 


from 149 


Manufactures of copper, copper alloys or other 
metals and alloys specified under Number 143: 










1. Lamp burners, imported separately or in 
combination with the reservoirs, if the 
latter are not subject to a higher rate of 
duty. 


Pood 


9 






2. Articles not ornamented in relief, or en- 
graved, also stamped articles, even 
though in combination with wood, ii'on, 
tinplate, leather or other common mate- 
rials: 










a. Weighing over 5 pounds each 


Pood 


8 


.... 




b . weighing 5 pounds or less each 


Pood 


9 






3. Articles not ornamented in relief, nor en- 
graved, (except stamped articles) fin- 
ished or unfinished, ready for use or not, 
as well as ornaments, caryatides, me- 
dallions, busts, statues: 


Pood 


21 


. . . . 


from 150 


Cast-iron manufactures; 


Pood 




90 




3. Cast-iron wares, wrought (shaped) turned, 
polished, ground, painted, bronzed, 
tinned, varnished, enamelled (except 
table ware), coated with zinc or other 
common metals, even with parts con- 
sisting of wood, copper, or alloys of cop- 


Pood 


4 


20 




per. 










Note; Wares made of malleable cast iron are 
dutiable nitli iron or steel wares 









80 



THE RUSSIAN PEA.CE. 



Sarif A— gortfetjung. 




151 



au« 152 



153 



au8 154 



ou« 155 



au« 156 



am 157 



(Stfen= ober @tat)IiDaren, gefci^miebet, gcftonst, bc= 
goffen — unbefctit ober Tnit SBefeilutig an ben 
©eitcn unb 9?anbern, jeboc^ of)ne lueitere S8e» 
arbeitung — , aufeer ben befonber« g^nannten; 
gefdjmiebete Jtttgel. 

Sifetne ober ftttfilerne jl'effelfdjmiebenrbeitcn: 
ait« 1. ©amfiffcffel unb at)n(td^e Slpparate 



(gtfen» ober ©tatitoaren, nicfit bcfonberS genannte, 
gemuftert (foffoniert), abgebref)t, (joHert, bronjiert 
ober auf anbere SS5eife bearbeitet, aucf) mit Seifen 
au« ^olj, ^upfer ober ^upferlegierungen: 

1. jeber 2Irt, aufjer ben in 'ipuntt 2 genannten . . 

2. S3or^cinge» unb ©infa^fcfiloffer, aufeer ben 

futjfernen, foirie ©c^raubcn (flir §oIj). 

SInmcrEung. SIHc eiferncn unb ftaOIcrnen Sou* 
unb 3)I&bcIbe{d)lctGe toerben nod) ben bctreffcnbcn 
JBunften bet 91untmer 1S3 Bccjoitt, fall« fie ni(St 
in 9!ummern bc8 ru(fif(6en XorifS aufgefitfirt finb, 
ftlr bie ein i)bf)em Bol'fnt} feftgefefet ift. Sic S8et« 
nicfeluneen foldjer (ycQcnftttnbe begrUnbct nid)t bie 
3un)cifung ju einem [jBberen ^olljafe. 

iSohcn, ^Qpfen, 9^ieten, tScblUffetloc&beiiel unb 
©lilUffeltoSte ttue fiupfet unb SKcttino finb o6ne 
einfluj ciuf bie SBerjottung bet 35ot5an8e= unb 
einfaf5f(6Iiiffct, an benen fie angebtad)t finb. 

SBaren auS aBeifebledj:- 

1. ieber SIrt; and) ladicrte, eraattlierte, BerjinCte 
ober mit anberen uneblen SJfetallen uber= 
jogene SBaren aug ©cbrtarjblec^, alte biefe 
oucb bemalt, aufeer ben unter 'ipuntt 2 biefer 
TRummcr (154) faifenben. 

Slnmettung ju <Buntt 1. EifetneS ®efd)itt, 
cmaittiett, Inctiett unb mit einet Dedfijidjt Itbet" 
jogen, mitb nac6 biefem IfJunEt betjollt, au(i menn 
bie SRanbct unb §enjel mit einet anbeten gatbe al8 
bie Ubtigc ^\lii)i Ubetjogen finb. 

Slnmettuns fiet)e Slummet 141. 



®r(tt)t: 



Slnmetfung [ielje ^iummcr 141. 



©rajttoaren: 

au« 1. on? Sifen ober @tal)I: 

d) Srafjen unb ffira^cnbnnber jeber 3lrt . . 

SInmetfung. ©tednabeln au« @ifen obet ©tatjt, 
nidjt sum Sdimud beftimmt, aud; mit fiBufen ou8 
SJietall obet mit Eugclfiitmigen iJBpfen au8 fdjloat" 
jcm, elnfatbigcm obet matmoticttem ©toS, njetben, 
fofein fie nicjt untet bie fUc EUnftlidjc Steine oof 
gcfc^ene Satifnummct foflcn, luic SSaten au8 
Elfen" obet ©taWbtaljt nad) Vlr. 156 <BunIt 1 bcS 
Sntif* oetjoltt, menn it)tc Sttngc cinfdjIleBIid) bc8 
ffoDfeS 2J tuffifdje SoU (6,35 cm) nidjt Ubetfteigt, 
unb menn fie ben ben .Sotlfimtetn tlbetfnnbten 
SHuftctfomntlungen entfDtcd)en. 

StnmetEung fiedc 9!ummet 141. 



Stabeln au« ©tafil ober ©ifen: 

1. Sttt^nabetn unb anbere Sfabeln jeber 

aufeer ben treiter untcrt genonntcn. 

2. gtaljmafcbinennabeln 



art, 



■iPub. 



^ub. 
^nb. 



^ub. 



10 



10 
20 



^5ub. 



^Pub. 



80 



<Pfunb . 
<Pfunb. 



20 



BEEST-LITOVSK PEACE: SXJBAPPENDIX 2 TO APPENDIX II. 81 

Tariff A — Continued. 



Numbers o£ 

the Russian 

General 

Tariff (of 

13/26 Jan. 

1903). 



151 



from 152 



153 



Classification of .Articles. 



from 154 



frum 155 
from 156 



from 157 



Iron or steel wares not separately mentioned, Lf 
wrought, turned, polished, ground, bronzed or 
otherwise elaborated, with or without parts 
composed of wood, copper or copper alloys: — 

1. All kinds except those named in subdivi- 

sion 2. 

2. Padlocks and mortise locks (except of cop- 

per), also screws (for wood). 

Note: \U iron or steel fittings used in buildings or 
furniture pay duty aceording to the respective sub- 
divisions of NumV,Pr 153. in ease they are not listed 
under numbers of the Russian tariff for which a 
higher rate of duty is preseril:ed. Nickclling of 
such articles is no reason for subjecting tliciu to a 
higher rate. 

Bolts, pigs, rivets, keyhole drops and pipes of 
kevs made of copper or la-as.^ have no cll'ci t on the 
Mtc of dnt\' ]3re-^crilicd lur padlocks or morfise 
lucks to ^\llicll lhe>' lu-c ;.ul:.ichrd. 

Tin-plate manufactures: 

1. of all kinds, also sheet iron manufactures 
coated with varnish, enamel, zinc or 
other base metals, even if these be 
painted, except those that fall under 
number (154). 

Note to subdivision 1. Tron-iitcnsils v.uni^hcd 
■ind r-uatcd with a lave of paint, pay duty under 
tins ^ubdi\i-ion, ovu il the cdrc^ anl handles are. 
painted ol a dilTcient color than the rest ol the .sur- 
face. 

.\'otc. SCI' Number 141. 

Wire : 

Note, see Numlier 141. 
Wire manufactures: 
from 1. of iron or steel: 

d. Cards and fillets of cards of all kinds. 

Note; Iron and steel pins not intended for orna- 
ment, whether v."ith metal lieads or with globular 
heads of black, unicolored or inoi i led glass, in so far 
as they do not fall under the I ariJf number provided 
for precious stones, shall pay duty, like iron or steel 
wire according to I^o. 1.5fi, subdivision 1 of the tariff, 
if their lentjth , inclusive of thehead , does not exceed 
2\ r^nssiijn inches (6.35cm.) and if they correspond 
(0 1 lie samples forwarded to the custom houses. 



Note, see .N'umbei' 141. 

Needles of iron or steel: 

1. Sewing needles and other needles of all 
kinds except those designated below: 



2. Serving-machine needles. 



Rate of 
Duty in— 



Unit. 



Iron or steel manufactures, forged, stamped, | Pood, 
moulded — ^not filed, or filed on the sides and i 
edges, but not otherwise wrought,-- -except 
those separately designated, forged nails. 

Iron or steel boilermakers' work: 
from 1. boilers and similar apparatus Pood. 



Pood. 



Pood. 



Pood. 



Pood. 



10 



10 



20 



Pound . 
Pound . 



SO 



20 



IHE RUSSIAN PEACE. 

inrif A — jvortfeijung. 



''Jiummern beS 
rilffifdjen 011= 

gcmeincn 

larifs (oom 

13./26. 3anuat 

1903). 



auS 158 



©c^ciitiiune bcr Siarcn 



9J!efferlDoren jcber ?lrt, aufecr ben unter anberc 
5Kummcrn bc« Sarif* faUcnben unb ben ajJafdjinens 
meffern: 

1. 9J?ef|crVDarm jebcr 31rt, oljne SRlidfidjt auf 

itire Ssermenbung, auS fcftmiebborem ®u|3= 
eifen, ©d)Tntebeeifen, ©tof)I, Supfer, 
j^upfcrlcgierungen ober anberen in 9tum» 
mcr 143 gcnannten SKetalten unb 
50!eta((cgicrungen, in Jaffungcn auS gc^ 
iDolinUdjcn ©toffen; @cf)ercn unb '>13in= 
jetten, mit glatten ober gejttfjnten ®d)nei= 
ben; 91?cfferHingen; Wabcin ofine ^^efte, 
fcrttg ober nidjt. 

Slnmerfuufl au ^iinlt 1. ^ic[fcr unb ©abeln 
mit ^eften auS 0eli)ol)nIicf)en ©toffen luerben naclj 
biefem <Buntt mit 20 SRubcln 40 Kopcten bctjoltt. 

2. biefclben ©egenftanbe, Dergolbet ober tier= 

filbert, aud) mit bergolbcter ober Berfit= 
berter goffung, folt)ie in goffungen au« 
(itattiertem ©ilber, ©c^ilbjiatt, 'ipert' 
mutter, natiirlidjem unb foffilem @[fen= 
bein, ober ttienn biefc ©toffe, ®oIb unb 
©ilber inbegriffen, aU Sfierjierungen an 
goffungcn au« getoiibnlidjem ©toffe ange= 
brad)t finb. 

2. ©trol)f)acEfeImef(er, ©djoufein, ©paten, ®a» 
beIn, ^^arfen, Crbljauen, ^acfen, jlrcuj» 
[jaucn un <pi(el. 

9inmcrfung. ©roiie ©abein alter Slrt, luie 
8. ffl. (Sobcin jum au«t)cben oon SRllben, gWiftjabelu 
uftD. tDcrben nad) biefer 9?ummcr berjollt. 

SfficrEjcug flir §anbmerfcr, S)iinftler, Jabrifen unb 
SBertftiitten: 

1. %eikn, Kafpetn, au(i J?Iu)jpen, ®elrinbe= 

bof)rcr unb ©rf)raubenbad'en. 

2. SBerfjcug icber 2(rt — aufeer bem in 'ifunft 1 

biefer 9}ummcr (161) genannten, foroie 

bem unter Stummer 158 fadcnben — 

aud) mit Jciten au«! anberen gctt)i)l)n» 
[id)cn ©toffcn. 



au« 102 ^ufic'^or fiir tl)t)ograt)[)ifd)en toalj unb S8ud)brud: 
3. Sittjograpljierfteine mit 3eid)uungeu 




au« 160 



161 



aug 163 



SBarcn au« Sm'^h 3if f unb beren Segienmgcn, nufeer 
ben unter Shimmer 215 faHenben. 

Slnmcrfuna. SBorcn quS 8ritamiianmctat[ — 
cltier CcQieriin^ bon ,3inn unb Slnttmon mil cincm 
Subferiutalj bi« ju 2% — mcrbcn nacl) Sllummct 
163 reic SfBnrcn aue 3inn ocrjotlt. 

JInmerfnna fiebc Hiummct 141. 



■iPub. 



20 



40 



■"Pub. 



60 



■iPub. 



80 



■iPub. 



■iPub. 



50 

80 



'iPub. 



50 



BREST-LIXOVSK PEACE: SUBAPPEKDIX 2 TO APPENDIX II. 83 

Tariff A — Continued. 



Numbers of 

ttie Russian 

General 

Tariff (of 

13/26 Jan. 

1903). 



Classification of .Vrtit-k-s 



Rate of 
Duty in— 



from 158 



from 160 



161 



from 162 



from 163 



Cutlery wares of all kinds, except those which 
fall under other numbers of the tariff, and ex- 
cepting mechanical cutting appliances: 
1. Cutlery of any kind and for any purpose, 
of malleable cast iron, wrought iron, 
steel, copper, copper alloys or any other 
metals and metal alloys designated in 
Number 143, in mountings of common 
materials; also scissors and pincers — 
provided with smooth or notched edges, 
knife blades, forks without handles, 
whether finished or not. 



Note to subdivision 1. Knives and forks accord- 
ing to this subdivision 20 Roubles, 40 Copeclcs. 



2. The same articles, gilded or silvered, or 
with settings which are gilded, silvered, 
or silver-plated, or of tortoise shell, 
mother-of-pearl, i^ory or fossil ivory, 
or when any of these materials, gold and 
silver included, are present by way or 
.ornaments in settings of common mate- 
rials. 



2. Straw-choppers, shovels, spades, pitch- 
forks, rakes, hoes, picks, spuds and 
mattocks. 

Note: Large pitchforks of every kind as for 
instance forks for talcing up beets, dung-forks, etc. 
pay duty according to this number. 

Hand-tools for artisans, artists, factories and 
work-shops : 

1. Files, rasps, also draw-plates, wimbles, 

and screw-dies. 

2. Hand-tools of all kinds, except those 

mentioned in subdivision 1 of this 
Number (161) as well as those that fall 
under number 158, even though with 
parts consisting of other common mate- 
rials. 

Printing, compositors', and printing trade acces- 
sories. 

3. Lithographic stones with drawings thereon 

Manufactures of tin, zincorof their alloys, except 
those falling under Number 215. 

Note: Manufactures of British metal— an alloy 
of tin and antimony with an addition of copper up 
to 2%.— pay duty iicrordingto Number 163 like tin 
wares 

Note: sec Niunlici HI. 



Pood. 



20 



40 



Pood. 



Pood. 



80 



Pood. 



Pood. 



50 

85 



Pood. 



50 



84 



THE RUSSIAN PEACJK, 

Xnrif A— Sortfefeung. 



5Iummetti bcs 
ruffifcften aH> 

Qcmcinen 

Sarife (oom 

13./26.3onuat 

1903). 



au« 165 

166 

au« 167 



iBcjeic^nung ber SBateii. 




3innfolie im ©etoic^t toon 1 ©olotnit unb mentgcr 

auf 25 OuabratjoIL 
SBronjierpulBer au« uneblcn 9J!etaf[en 



9[)Jafd)tncn unb Slpparate, nud) untiollftanbig, 
fammengefe^t ober au^einanbergenommen: 



3u= 



au8 ®u6etfen, ©(^miebeetfen, ©taljt, and) 
mit Zdkn au« anbercn ©toffen, aucfi in 
S5er6tnbung mtt ^upfer, fofern bag jfupfer 
nic^t met)r al« 25% be6 ®efamtgemic()t« 
bcr 3)Jafcf)inen augtnac^t; 

a) jcber 2trt, ntdjt befonberS genannte. 

b) @aS« ober ^etrofeumtnotorcn, 

Sampfmajcfiincn, Sotomobilen — 
au§er ben in ^unft 5 biefer 5)Jum= 
mer (167) genannten; ?ototnoti= 
Ocn, ®ampftonggong; Sampf, 
braifinen unb e[ettrifd)c %at)v= 
jeugc; tppograp^ifcfje unb at|o« 
grapf)ifrfie I)rudEniafc§inen; '>Pa= 
piermafcf)inen; §ol26ear6eitung«» 
mafcftincn, au§er ©atterfiigen, bie 
nad) ^untt la biefer 9}ummer 
(167) Berjolit Ircrben; jjjumpen 
unb §anbfcucrfpTifecn; «omprcf= 
foreu, ©«= unb tiif)linnfdnncn; 
9Ml)mafdjtnen. 

c) iDJafdjinen fiir 2)2etat[6earbeitung, 

aufeer S!Batjenfttif)[en unb ®ttmpf« 

Ijttmmern, bie unter 'iPuntt la 

biefer 9?ummer (167) fatten; 

T)ampfcucrfprii3cn;aBaffermeffer, 

Cynamcffer; ©c^reibmafc^inen. 

2. SKafdjinen jebcr art nu« ^upfer ober j?upfer= 

legierungen, cinfdjHefeKcS folc^er, bei benen 

S'upfer ober ii'upfertegterungen mct)r al« 

25% be« ®efamtgetoid)tg ber 2)?afd)ine 

au^madien. 

4. [anbtt)irtfd)aftlid)c 9Jfafd)inen unb ©eriitc, 
o^ne ©ampfmotore, nid)t befonberg ge» 
nannte, and) aSiobeUe berfelbcii. 

7. Seile toon Sltafdiinen unb ?(pparaten, fur fi^ 
eingeljenb, nidit befonber« genannte: 

a) au« tupfcr ober .ffupfcrlegierungen, 

einfd)Iie^lid) foidjcr, bei benen 
•Supfer unb feinc Cegierungen 
meljr al« 25% il)ce« @cmt(tt« 
nuSmadjen. 

b) auct ®uJ3cifen, ©djmiebecifen - ober 

©tabi, auc^ mit Xciten nuci anberen 
©toffen, abcr an ifupfer uidjt 
mebr ale 25% ibte« ®emirfit« 
cntl;altenb. 



^ub. 
^ub. 



^ub. 
?ub. 



<18ub. 



■iPub. 



fiotie. 
fen. 



10 
20 



^ub. 



■SPub. 



^ub. 



20 



75 



20 



BEEST-LITOVSK PEACE: SXJBAPPENDIX 2 TO APPENDIX II. 85 

Tariff A — Continued. 



Numbers of 

the Russian 

General 

Tariff (of 

13/26 Jan. 

1903). 



from 165 

166 

from 167 



Classification of Articles. 



Tinfoil weighing 1 solotnick, or less per 25 square 

inches. 
Bronze powder made from non-precious metals . . . 

Machines and apparatus, complete or not, put 
together or in parts : 

1. Of cast iron, wrought iron, or steel, with 
or without parts composed of other 
metals also in combination with copper 
to an extent not exceeding 25 per cent 
of the total weight of the machine. 

a. All Idnds not separately classified 

b. Gas and naphtha motors, steam engines, 

portable engines, except those specified 
in subdivision 5 of this Number (167); 
locomotives, locomotive wagons: 
steam-driven drays and electrical 
vehicles; typographic and lithographic 
printing machines, paper making ma- 
chines, wood working machines, except 
frame saws which are assessed under la 
of this number (167); pumps and hand 
fire-hoses, compressors and ice-making 
and refrigerating machines, sewing 
machines. 



c. Machines for the working of metals, ex- 
cept rolling and steam hammers, which 
fall under la of the present number (167 i 
steam fire-hoses; water meters, gas 
meters, tj^pewiiting machines. 

2. All kinds of machines made of copper or 
its alloys including those in which cop- 
per or its alloys, including those in 
which copper or its alloys constitute 
more than 25^ of the total weight of 
the machine. 

4. Agricultural machines and implements, 
with steam motors not separately de- 
signed; also models thereof. 

7. Parts of machines and apparatus, im- 
ported by themselves, except those 
classified apart. 

a. Composed of copper or copper alloys in- 

cluding those in the composition of 
which copper or any alloy of copper 
constitutes more than 25% of their total 
weight. 

b. Composed of cast iron, wi-ought iron, or 

steel, though with parts consisting of 
other metals, or with a combination of 
copper — not exceeding 25 % of the total 
weight of each part. 



Hate of 
Duty in— 




Pood. 
Pood. 



Pood. 



Pood. 



Pood. 



Pood. 



10 

20 



Pood. 



20 



75 



20 



86 



THE RUSSIAN" PEACE. 



Jarif A — gortfe^iitig. 



^Jfummern beS 
mffifd)en a(U 






SoUjalj in 


gemcincn 

lorifa (oom 

13./26. 3onuar 

1903). 


SSejeidjmme ber Sffiorcn. 


einSctt. 


SRu= 
beln. 


tm. 


au« 167 


ajlafdjinen unb Slppatote, au4 unttoKftiinbig, ju« 

fammengefeljt ober au^emanbergcnommeu— 

gortfc^ung. 

8. grfa^teUc fiiraKafrfiinm unb Slpparate, mc()t 

befonberg genannte, mtt ben SJfafdjinen 

unb apparaten jufammcn cingefli£)rt, auS 

^upfer ober .Supfcrlegicrungen, etnfcf)Ue6= 

lid) foId)er, bd bcnen ba« ifupfer ober feine 

Cegierungcn mti)X aU 25% i!)rc8 ®e= 

ftic^tS au«tn,a(f)cn. 


^ub 


8 






9, grfa^teile fiir 932afc^inen unb apparate, mit 
ben 2)?afcf|tnen unb SIpparaten jufammcn 
eingeflif)rt, au« ©ufeeifen, ®d)micbeetfen 
ober ©ta[)(, nud) in 58erbinbung mit 
S'upfcr, toenn le^tereS nii^t mc^r als 25% 
be« ®emi(^t« iebeS einjelnen jelled rtu«= 
' mac^t: 

a)' mit ben unter ipunft la biefer 
9}ummer (167) genannten 9[Ko= 
fd)inen eingeflil)rt. 


?5ub 


2 


10 




b) mit ben unter 'iPuntt lb biefer 
JJummer (167) genannten 9Wa= 
ft^inen eingefuf)rt. 


■iPub 


3 


20 




c) mit ben unter ''Cunft Ic biefer 
9Jummer (167) genonnten TOa= 
fdlinen eingefiiljrt. 


^ub 


4 


20 




au8 11. grfaljteile flir lanbhjirtfdiaftlidie ffltafd)inen 
unb SIpparate, mit biefen jufammen cin= 
gefiii)rt, mit 3lugnaf)me ber in $unft 6 
biefer iKummer (167) genannten. 


«Pub 


. . . . 


75 










168 


SBagen (jum SBiigen) mit ^ufeftijr; Sagenteile, 
mit 2Iu«naf)me foldjer au8 ffiupfer unb ^iipfer= 
(egierungen: 

1. fttr bie erften 3 '>Pub eine« feben ©tiirfg; 

®emid)te. 

2. flir jebe? ineiterc ^ub 


^ub 

^ub 


4 


50 
10 



BEEST-LITOVSK PEACE : SXJBAPPENDIX 2 TO APPENDIX II. 87 

Tariff A — Continued. 




from 167 



168 



Machines and apparatus, complete or not, put 
together or in parts — Continued 

8. Spare parts of machines or apparatus ex- 
cept those separately classified, im- 
ported together with the machines and 
apparatus, composed of copper or cop- 
per alloys, including those in which 
copper or any alloy thereof is present 
in a proportion exceeding 25% of the 
total weight of each part. 



9. Spare parts of machines and apparatus 
imported together with such machines 
or apparatus, composed of cast iron, 
wrought iron or steel, with a com- 
bination of copper provided the latter 
does not exceed 25 % of the weight of 
each separate part: 

a. Imported with any of the machines 

classified under la of the present 
Number (167). 

b. Imported with any of the machines 

classified under lb of the present 
number. 

c. Imported with any of the machines 

classified under Ic of the pesent 
Number. 

from 11. Spare parts of agricultural machines and 
apparatus, imported together with 
such machines or apparatus, _ except 
those designated in subdivision (i of 
the present Number (167). 

Weighing-scales and their accessories, parts 
of weighing-scales except of copper or of al- 
loys of copper: 

1. For the first 3 poods weight of each 

article. 

2. For every additional pood 



Pood. 



Pood. 



Pood. 



Pood. 



Pood. 



Pood. 
Pood. 



10 



20 



20 



75 



50 
10 



THE RUSSIAN PEACE. 

Zav[\ A — gortfe^amg. 



5(liimmetn b£« 
ru(fifc6en oE» 

gcmcinen 

Eatifg Coom 

13./26. 9anuoi 

1903). 



fflcseidinung bcr SSJaten. 



Nonfat} in 



®in&eit. 



SKu. 
Beta. 



Sope. 
ten. 



ani 169 



aug 171 



?|35l)fitolifd)e/ aftronomtfe^e, matficmatifd)e unb ber= 
gleic^en Stiftrutnente unb 2t)Dparate fotrte cIettro= 
te(^nifd)e ^ubefiorteile: 
1. 3;i^fttumentc unb a^jparate: aftronomifdje, 
optifcEie (aufeer ben in Stummcr 170 ge* 
nannten), pljpftfnlifdie, (^emtfc^e, Tnat|e» 
iTiatifdje, geobiitifcfie unb jum ^etdinen; 
mebijinifctie, SKanometer, SSafuumiueter, 
QnbtEotoren unb ^Sft'ilJpnratc (au§er ben 
unter 'ipunit 2 bicfer 9Jummer [169] 
gcnanntcn); ^aubcr= obcr 'iprojeftion^s 
Iciternen, )3f)Otogvapf)ifd)e 3())parntc; geo= 
grap^ifdie ®(oben; ®lafcr fiir SriUen, 
Corgnctten, fortie S8tcnn=, S5etgrt)6«ung«= 
unb optifdje ®[Sfer jeber 2Irt; etcftrifdje 
?tuSfcf)aIter, Unifd)alter, ©idierunacn, 
§u(fcn ftir ®Iut)lamtJen, 9t^eoftate unb 
iiommutototcn jeber Strt, 3ufoiTimengc= 
fe^t ober augeinanbergenommen; Sele^ 
gvapf)en= unb Ztitpijonappamte; e[cftrifd)e 
ober pncuntatifd)e ®Ioden unb .3ubci)or 
fiir elettrifdje ©i8na(borrid)tun8en. 



2. Slettrotedjnifdje 2)Ie6a}Jparatc (Sfmperemeter, 
SBattmeter, 95oItmeter unb 3"f)l£r). 

U^rntodjermaren: 

au« 1. Ufirtoerte, o()ne ®et)(iufe ober Soften obcr 
Oon biefen gctr&nnt eingeftiljrt; 

b) p aBanb=, 2ifd)=,f amin= unb 5Rcife« 
uljren, aufeer ben unter lit. c 
gennnnten, fUr ba« ©tilcE 1 
9iu6el 50 If opefen unb aufjerbem. 

Slnmcrtuns 2. SBaiib., 3:if(f)=, Samin-- unb 
iRcifcufircn, beren SBertc fict) Bom ©eftaufe ober 
JEnftcn of]nc §ilfe eincS 3nftrument8 nidjt ttennen 
laffcn, loerbcn nail) bem ©toff bc8 ®cfiSute8 ober 
Soften* Ocrjottt unb auBcrbcm roctben folsenbe 
^filie erBoben; 

a) flit bie tm ^un(t 1 lit. b senonnten U6t' 

njctte: fUt b(i« Btlid 4 SRubel, 

b) fUr bie im 'iPuntt 1 lit. c genonnten Uftr^ 

merfe: fUt boa ©tlict 60 SoncFen. 
Udtloecfc nod) omctiEanifdjem ©nftem, ba8 t)ci6t 
mit gcftanjtcn, gcbeiaten, iactietteu unb oud} ijolicf 
ten unb burcf)farod)enen ©eftetien unb 9?abern, beren 
Sricbe nid)t aefd)nitten finb (mil SlnSnofjme ber 
aufjcritolb ^fotinen angcbrad)ten 2:ricbc), oud) 
menn bie Slufjielifebern in gcfdjloffenen Srommein 
(eingebouten Sebcrftaufern) untergebradit finb, 
soljlen 90 fiotietcn fUr boe ©tUct, obne Erbebung 
eines ®eloid)tSjon8. 8ii6t fid) bci Ut)ren mit 
iffierten biefcr Slrt ba« SHJert bom ©ebttufe oI)nc 
Silfc eine8 3nftrumentS nid)t trcnncn, fo roirb cin 
®cn)id)t«so[( nod) bem SKoterioIe be6 ©ebaufeS unb 
baneben ein .Soil oon 90 jfopeten com ©tlld fUr 
bn« ffiert er[)oben. 



<Pub. 



IJub. 



^funb . 



12 



BBEST-LITOVSK PEACE : SUBAPPEKDIX 2 TO APPENDIX 11. 89 

Tariff A — Continued. 



Numbers of 

the Russian 

General 

Tarifl (of 

13/26 Jan. 

1903). 



Classification of Articles. 



Unit. 



from 169 



fromUyi 



Physical, astronomical, mathematical and simi- 
lar instruments and apparatus, as well as elec- 
tro-technical accessories: 

1. Instruments and apparatus: astronomical, 

optical (except those mentioned under 
No. 170). physical, chemical, mathemat- 
ical, geodetical, and drawing instru- 
ments, etc.; manometers, vacuum- 
meters, indicators and calculators (ex- 
cept those mentioned in subdivision 2 of 
the present Number) magic lanterns and 
other lanterns for picture-projection, 
photographic apparatus, geographical 
globes, glasses for spectacles and field 
glasses, burning glasses, magnifying and 
all kinds of optical glasses, electrical 
switches, shunts, and protective ap- 
pliances, caps for electrical incandes- 
cent lamps, telegraphic and telephonic 
apparatus: electrical and pneumatic 
bells and accessories for electrical sig- 
naling. 

2. Electro-technical measuring apparatus 

(amperemeters, wattmeters, voltmeters, 
and calculators). 

Clock and watchmakers' products: 
from 1. Watch and clock movements imported 
without or separately from the cases: 
b. Clock movements for wall, table, mantle- 
piece, or carriage clocks, except those 
mentioned below under c, per piece 1 
Rouble 50 Copecks and in addition. 

Note 2. W.ill, table, matel, or carnage clocks, 
whose movements cannot be separated from the 
frames or cases without the aid of tools, pay duty 
according to the material of the frames or cases and 
m addition the following duties arc levied: 

a. For movements mentioned under (lb) 4 Rou- 

bles each. 

b. For movements enumerated in (Ic) each 60 

copecks. . 

MovcmentsonthcAmcrican systemwith stamped, 
etched, varnished, and also pohshed and perforated 
stands and wheels, the pinions of which arc not cut 
(except springs attached outside the bed-plate), 
even though the winding springs are inclosed in 
locked barrels (built in spring casings) pay 90 co- 
pecks each, without le\7ing any duty per weight. 
If in case of clocks having this kind of movements, 
the movements cannot be separated from the case 
without the aid of a tool, there shall be levied a duty 
based on the weight and in addition a duty of 90 
copecks on each for the movements. 



Pood 



Rate of 
Duty in- 



Pood: 



Pound. 



12 



75 



90 



THE EUSSIAN 



PEACE. 



Xorif A — gortfe^ung. 



^^fuinmern bcS 






Somali in 


ruUiff^'en an- 








gemeinen 

SarifS (Bom 

13,/26.3anUOT 

1903). 


SBejcidjiiuno bcr SBoren. 


einlieit. 


3tu. 
beta. 


JSlone 
fen. 


ttU« 171 


Ufjrmadjermaren — gortfc^ung . 

5. UIjrltievHcitc, in auSeinatibersenomtnenem 
3uftanbe: 










a) nid)t untereinanber Berbunbene leile, 
J. 58. : einjdne SRitber, SIctifcn uftr. 


^funb 




75 












b) untereinanber Berbiznbene leile fo= 
mie nicf)t Berbunbene Jeile, tnit 


^funb 




75 












ben erftercn in einer inneren 










SBertJadfung jufatnnten eingefiiljrt. 








au« 172 


9}JufitaUfcf)e ^nftrumente: 










1. gliiget; niijjt tran^partable Orgein jeber 

2lrt. 

2. ^(aBierc 


©tiicf 


168 






©tM 


96 






4. md)t befanberg genannte mufifalifdje 3nftru« 
mente jeber 2lrt, ^ubeljorteilc ju ntuftfa= 


^funb 




15 












lififien ^nftrumenten, gefonbert cingefilljrt, 










wit: SBogen, X'nrm= unb ©cibenfniten 










(metaKene ©aiten ttierben nadj Summer 










1.55 Berjollt), fi'Iatiiaturen, §aTnmerd)en 










(Sffiirbel flir j?la»iere iBetben nnrf) 9?um= 










mer 156 ^uuft 1 lit. b oerjoltt), 










9J!etrBnome, ©timmgabetn, Jlnfa^ftiide 










(.SJrone) unb bergleicbcn. 








au« 173 


au8 .3. gafirraber: 










a) jlBcirftbrige 


©tiicf 


30 






au« 6. gaf)rrabtei[e jeber 2lrt. 










anmerfuns ju <Piin[t 6. Winttl (goufbedcn) 










unb 8uft[(^Wud)e ou8 SautfiiuE fUr goljrtaber 










tijctben 9!ummec 88 uersotlt, rocnn on il)nen (cine 










2)?etanteUc aufeer ben an ben ©c^Ittuc&en befinb= 










lidien SBentilcn angebrac^t finb. 








au« 177 


■iPaijiermaren: 










au« 2. JU b) .fragen, 3}fanfc^etten, 3]or[)eniben au«' 


^ub 


3 


60 




■iPapier, aud) ouf einer ober auf beiben 










©eiten mit H)ci§em, farbigem ober be= 










brurftem ?iaumlDol[ftoff Uberjogcn, of)ne 










lt)irflid)e ?fal)te, jufammengettiDgen mit 










ben ®d)ad)teln ober j^artons, in benen 










fie fid) befinben. fflei ber SBerjoHung 










Bon Itngen, 2l?nnfd)etten unb 93or|emben 










ber genannten 2Irten ift eine burd) 'ijjreffung 










bcraorgebradjtc 9Jac()at)mung Bon 9^ttl)ten 










nid)t al« toirtlidje 9Jal)t anjufetjcn. 










y. ipopier unb ^appe, Berjiert burd) SCergoI- 


^ub 


14 


50 




bung, SBcrfilberung, SBronjierung, fx'd' 










gung, 3tu«fc()Ingcu (ju ©pi^en), mit a)?uf» 










tern, i^eicfinimgcn, ©ilbern, SBorbiircn, 










SBappen, ^tamenSatlgen; Slbjiebbilber; 










^5a))iermnreu, mie: SSricfumfdjtcigc, 23Iu 










men, ©d)abtonen jum i^eid)nen, 8ampen» 










fdiirme unb bergleicf)cn; Sffiarcn au« 'iPaijier, 










■ipatjpe, '!papiermorf)e unb ©teinpappe mit 








• 


SJerjierungen, aufeer ben untcr 5Wummer 
215 faKenben fomie ben in '>13untt 4 biefcr 
Jfummcr (177) genannten. 


• 







BEEST-LITOVSK PEACE : BUBAPEEKDIX 2 10 APPENDIX II. 



91 



Taeiff a — Continued. 



Numbers of 

the Russian 

General 

Tarifl (of 

13/26 Jan. 

1903). 



from 171 



from 172 



from 173 



from 177 



Classification of Articles. 



Clock and watchmakers' products — Continued. 
5. Parts of watch and clock movements; 

a. Parts not combined with each other, 

for example separate wheels, axles, 
etc. 

b. Parts combined with each other, also 

parts not combined with each other, 
imported in the same underwrapper 
with the former. 

Musical instruments: 

1. Grand pianos, organs non-transportable, of 

all kinds. 

2. Pianos 

4. Musical instruments of all kinds not sep- 
arately designated; accessories of musi- 
cal instruments, imported separately, 
such as bows, strings of catgut, of silk 
(metal strings are assessed under Number 
155), keyboards, rods for opening check 
valves of organs (pegs for pianos are as- 
sessed under Number 156, subdivision 
1. letter b.), metronomes, tuning forks, 
mouth pieces and the like. 

from 3. Cycles: 

a. Of two wheels 

from 6. Cycle-pa,rts, of every sort. 

Note to class 6. Covers and pneumatic rubber 
tubes for cycles are assessed according to Num- 
ber 88 if no metals are used in their make up 
except the air-valves attached to the tires. 

Paper wares: 

from 2. of b. Collars, cuffs, false shirt fronts made 
of paper, also if covered on one or 
both sides with white, unicolored or 
printed cotton material without real 
seams, weighed together with the 
cases or paste-board boxes in which 
.they are. In assessing collars, cuffs 
and shirt-fronts of the Hnds described 
an imitation seam produced by pres- 
sure is not to be regarded as real. 

3. Paper and paste-board, ornamented, e. g. 

gilded, silvered, bronzed, impressed, 
pinked (to look like lace) in patterns, 
drawings, pictures, borders, coats-of- 
arms, monograms; transfer pictures, 
manufactures of paper, such as envel- 
opes, flowers, stencils for drawing, 
lamp shades, and the like; manufac- 
tures of paper, papiermache, card- 
board, and statuary pasteboard, orna- 
mented, except such falling under 
Number 215, and those designated in 
subdivision 4 of the present Num- 
ber 177. 



Unit. 



Pound. 
Pound. 



Per piece. 

Per piece. .. 
Pound 



Per piece . 



Pood. 



Pood. 



Rate of 
Duty in— 



168 
96 



30 



14 



75 
75 



15 



60 



50 



86409—18 7 



92 



THE RUSSIAN PEACE. 

Jarif A — gortfeijuttg. 



Dlummetn be* 
tuffifcften aU' 

semeinen 

SEotifS (oom 

13. 26.3anuar 

1903). 



SeaeidmunB bet SBarcn, 



eindeit. 



beln. 



3off[ol3 in 



flolie. 
ten. 



auS 178 



58llc§cr, SBilber, Sanbfarten: 
au8 1. SBilber, ^^ic^nungen, "ipiane, Sanbtarten, 
gioten: 

b) auf papier gletc^diet burc^ meldjeS 
SrudBerfa^ren Ijergeftellt, auger 
ben unter lit. c unb d genannten 
©egcnftttnben. 

Slnmcrtuno ju lit. b. 2Infic6't8DoftIartcn Wetben 
nad) biefer lit. derjoUt. 

.d) 5Rotcn 



au8 182 



auS 183 



au8 185 



2. Slicker unb ^eitfdjrtften, gl^i'^tiie^ bur$ 

ttielc^eg 58erfa[)ren in fremben ©pradjen ges 
brudt, mit ©infc^Iufe folc^er, bie im lejte 
ober in 93eilagen 9toten, Sanbfnrten, ^Ittne, 
©ttd)e unb ^fii^nuiiflen entf)altcn; ^a^ 
tatletoortetbilc^er mit ruffifc^em Seyte. 

SBaunthJoIIe, gcf(^la8cn, farbatfdit; SBaummoIIen^ 
ioattc, au(^ in gcteimten Sagen, ©aumiDottens 
fitmmlinge jeber 3Irt: 

3. lf)l)8rofropif(^e obcr antifcptifdic Sffiatte 



aui 186 



SBauntlnoIIengarn. 

2Inmerfung. ^aiif ber 9InmcrEunfi gu 9Ir. 183 
TOerben aud) bie ©elfaftorfcile bcrjottt. 

©eibe, gejirirnt unb gefponnen. 

anmertung. S)et Untcrfciieb im ^oHfalse, 
meliiec im ruffifcficn ^otltarifc Bom 13. ,'26. 3<" 
nuor 1903 jlsifiien bcr 3Iummer 185 <Punft 1 a, b 
unb bet Slnmcttung (©eibe, gebtefit unb oefponnen) 
einet[etts unb btx 9iummet 180 ^unft 4 unb bet 
SInmctEung (tolie ©eibe obet @tcgc) anbetetfctte be* 
(tcbt, mitb ma^tenb bet Sauet bic(c6 SSetttag* nidjt 
etl)iit)t ftetben. 

SBoKe, getiimmt, gefponnen unb gcjlBirnt: 

2. gefponnen: 

a) bi« 5Runtmer 57 (nac^ bent metric 

Wen ©ijftem) einfdilie5li(5: 

a) ung«f(irbt 

b) gefiirbt 

b) iiber Sftumnier 57 (mi) bem metric 

Wen ©tjftcm) : 

a) ungefttrbt 

b) gefiirbt 

3. gejioirnt, fiergeftctlt ou8 einfo(J^cm ®arne 

folgenber 9?untmern: 

a) bi8 9fumnter 57 (nad) bem mctri= 

f($cn ©ijftem) elnfc^Iiefelid): 

a) ungefiirbt 

b) gefiirbt 

b) tlber yiummtx 57 (nad) bem mctri= 

fc|en®pftem); 

a) ungefiirbt 

b) gefiirbt 



■•Pub. 



12 



«Pub. 



80 



SoIIfrei 



'iPub. 



75 



^ub. 
?ub. 



?ub. 
^ub. 



■iPub 
■iPub 

'iPub 
■iPub 



12 
14 



40 
40 



80 



90 
90 



30 
30 



BREST- LITOVSK PEACE : STJBAPPENDIX 2 TO APPENDIX II. 93 

Tariff A— Continued. 



Numbers of 

tjie Russian 

General 

Tariff (of 

13/26 Jan. 

1903). 



from 178 



Classification of Articles. 



Bobks, pictures, maps; 

from 1. Pictures, drawings, plans, maps, music: 

b. Produced on paper, no matter by what 
printing process, except the articles 
designated under c and d. 



Note to letter b. Picture postcards are assessed 
according to this letter. 



d. Music notes. 



from 182 



from 183 



from 185 



from 186 



2. Books and periodicals, printed by any 

process in foreign languages, including 
such as contain, either in the text or 
in appendices, maps, music, plans, 
engravings or drawings; parallel dic- 
tionaries with Russia text. 

Cotton: scutched, carded; cotton wadding, even 
though pasted in layers, cotton combings of 
all Hnds. 

3. Hygroscopic or antiseptic wadding 



Cotton spun into yarn; 



Unit. 



Note. Selfactlng rope too pays duty according 
to tlie note to No. 183. 

Silk, twisted or spun; 

Note. Tlie difference in tlie rate of duty wtiieli 
exists in tiie Russian customs tariff of 13/26 Jan., 
1903, between Number 185, subdivision la, b 
and tlie note (silk, twisted or spun) on the one 
hand and Number 180, subdivision 4 and the note 
(raw silk or grege) on the other, will not be raised 
during the life of the present treaty. 



Wool, combed, spun, or twisted: 

2. Spun: 

a. Up to and including No. 57 (metric 

. system): 

a. Undyed 

b. Dyed 

b. Above No. 57 (metric system); 

a. Undyed 

b. Dyed 

3. Twisted, prepared from yam of the fol- 

lowing numbers; 

a. Up to number 57, inclusive (metric 

system) : 

a. Undyed 

b. Dyed 

b. Above number 57 (metric system); 

a. Undyed 

b. Dyed 



Pood. 



Pood. 



Pood. 



Rate of 
Duty in— 



12 



free 



80 
free 



75 

75 



Pood 
Pood 

Pood 
Pood 



Pood. 
Pood. 



Pood. 
Pood. 



40 
40 



80 
80 



90 
90 



30 
30 



94 



THE RUSSIAN PEACE. 



3:artf A— gortfe^ung. 



giummetn beS 
rufftMen aa= 

gctncincn 

SorifS (oom 

13./26. 3anuat 

1903). 



SBejei^nung bet iffiaren. 



3oa(o)3 in 



glnSelf. 



beln. 



ten. 



au8 186 



189 
ou« 192 



ou« 197 



199 



au8 202 



aBone,9etaTnmt,8cfponnenunbgejmtrnt— gortfc^ung. 
4. foffonierte jeber SIrt (mit Jlnoten, aiugett, 
©(^leifen uftt).) : 

a) ungefarbt 

b) gcfttrbt 



^ub. 
^ub. 



16 
18 



30 
30 



anmettung 1. @ebletd6t« SBoHc Wirb.lDte un= 
aefarbtc ocrjollt. 

anmcrfung 2. S)te in 9!umm£t 186 $unEt 2 
unb 3 acnonntc qe\poxintne unb Bcjmitnte SBotle 
mirb nad) ben flit biefe ^untte feftgefelsten Oettraga" 
mafeigen ©aijcn tierjottt, auc^ roenn fie mit i8aum= 
mofie, Seinen ober ©cinf 6cnii[itt ift. 

JSautntooIIener ©atnt, baumiDoIIener 'ipiilfc^ unb 

boumrtJoKene 'iglllfeiibanber, auc^ gemuftert. 
©etoebe au« Sute, glai^8, §anf unb anbercn in 
■^untt 3 bcr 9tummet 179 genanntcn ©toffcn, 
mit ?lu«naf)me ber in ben SJummcrn 191 unb 193 
gcnonnten ®ettiebe: 
1. 3»iaicf) p aKatra^cn unb W6btln; 3:eppi(^» 
gemebe, SKiibelftoffe unb bergteic^en. 



3. Sifc^turfier, ©erciicttcn unb .gianbtiic^cr .... 

2InmerEung ^u ben ^unEten 1 unb 3. ;©ie 
in Summer 192 ^unEt 1 unb 3 genanntcn ©ctoebe 
IBcrben nat^ ben fUr biefe ^unEte feftgefetjten tizx" 
tragSmttfeigen ©ttben toerjoUt, and) njenn [ie mit 
SBaumraotle gemift^t finb. 

anmettuns ju ^unEt 3. ZiWiiiia, Bet- 
Bietten unb §anbtUd)er nserben nai^ bicfem "^JunEte 
SecjoUt, aucft rocnn fie mit einfadjem bbc^ftene i SoU 
brcttem einfocfeem ^o&Ifaume unb mit Sranlen oer= 
jiett finb, meWe nidit an bo8 &ettiehe angendfjt finb, 
fonbern lebiglic^ au« ber SBerlSngetung bcr iffiebe« 
fiiben befte^en. 

©anif unb 'ipillW, ©omt» unb ^lUfc^bttnber, bercn 
■ipol au8 ©eibe (ober 3tbfan[glorctt=]feibe) beftei)t, 
bie ober in j!)ctte unb ©cf)ufe feine ©eibe (ober 
3lbfatt[gIotett»]feibe) ent^alten — ou(i^ mit tincr 
au8 feibenen ober fialbfeibencn .ffettenfaben be= 
fte^enben ^ante son t|oc^ften8 J 3"^ iBreite auf 
jeber ©cite be8 ©toffcS ober be« SSanbeS. 

iffioltengehiebe, nidjt be(onber8 gcnonnte: 

mit brei Quabratarjcfiin ober ttieniger auf ba8 

^funb. 
mit mef)r al8 3 Qunbratarfc^in auf ba« ^funb . 

anmetEung. Jiidjt bcfonbete genanntc aSSoItcn" 
geraebe tterben nniEi ben fUr bic Siummer 199 feft» 
gcfei}tcn l)ertrag«m«6igen ©ttljen nerjotTt, oudi 
tocnn fie mit SBoumnjotlc gemlfd)t finb. 

aBoHcnroaren jum ©cbraudj flir gabrifcn unb SBert^ 

ftfttten: 
ju 2. Zreibriemen ou8 ^omclfjaar unb ^rc6= unb 
S?iltertU(fier 



■iPfunb . 



'iPfunb . 



■iPfunb. 



10 



60 



35 



■iPfunb . 



50 



■iPfunb . 
■iPfunb. 



50 



ffunb. 



35 



BEEST-LITOVSK PEACE: SUBAPPENDIX 2 TO APPENDIX II. 95 

Tariff A — Continued. 



Numbers of 
the Russian 






Rate of 
Duty In— 


Tariff (of 

13/26 Jan. 

1903). 


Classification of Articles. 


Duit. 


3 
a 
o 


S 
o 


from 186 


Wool, combed, spun or twisted — Continued. 
4. Fashioned, of all sorts (with knots, eyes, 
rings, and the like) : 
a. Undyed . 


Pood 

Pood 


16 

18 


?n 




b. Dyed 


so 




Note. Bleached wool pays duty like dyed wool. 










Note 2. The spun or twisted wool mentioned in 
Number 186, subdivision 2 and 3, is assessed accord- 
ing to the conventional rates established for those 
numbers, even though they be mixed with cotton, 
linen or hemp. 








189 
from 192 


Cotton velvet, plush, and plush ribbons, figured 
or not. 

Tissues of jute, flax, hemp, and other materials 
named in subdivision 3 of No. 179, except the 
tissues named in Nos. 191 and 193: 


Pound 


1 


10 




1. Ticking for mattresses and for furniture; 
heavy tissues for carpets, furniture, and 
the like. 


Pound 




fiO 












3. Table-cloths, napkins, and towels 


Pound 


1 


3 




Note to subdivisions 1 and 3. The tissues named 
in number 192, subdivisions 1 and 3, are assessed 
according to the conventional rates fixed for those 
subdivisions, even though such tissues be mixed 
with cotton. 

Note to subdivision 3. Table-cloths, napkins 
(serviettes), and towels pay duty accordmg to this 
subdivision, even though they be finished with a 
simple seam, at most i inch wide, and with fringes 
that are not sewed on the tissue but merely consist 
of an extension of the threads of the tissue. 








from 197 


Velvet and plush, ribbons of velvet and plush, 
with nap of silk or floss silk, not containing any 
silk or floss silk, either in the warp or the weft-— 
even with a list of not more than J inch in 
width of silk or half sUk on each side of the 
tissue or ribbon. 


Pound 


4 


50 


199 


Woolen ma,terials. Woven, not separately desig- 
nated: 
With three square arshin or less per pound. . 


Pound 


1 


50 




With more than 3 square arshin per pound. . 


Pound 


2 


.... 




Note. Woolen tissues, not separately designated, 
are assessed according to the conventional rates fixed 
for No. 199, even when such tissues are mixed with 
cotton. 








from 202 


Woolen manufactures for use in factories and 
workshops: 

To 2. Machirie belting of camel's hair, and press- 
ing and straining cloth. 














35 











96 



THE RUSSIAN PEACE. 

3:arif A— gortfc^ung. 



9!ummetn btS 
cuffiMen oH- 

gemclncn 

larifs (Oom 

13./26.3ianuat 

1903). 



SejeicSnunB btr Sffloren. 



Nonfat in 



Sinfieit. 



8Ju. 
tieln. 



ten. 



au3 205 



2BirE« unb 'iPofamentierttiaren: 
ou8 1. SBirftDorcn, au(5 mit etnfac^et SJii^tctet 
(traces be couture) : 
c) au« SBautnmotle 



au« jebetn aubereu in $untt 1, c tn= 
begriffenen ©pinnftoff. 

©d^niire unb ^ofamentierbiinber, SIeiber» 
before (SlgrementS), granfen, Quaften, 
®arnituren unb anbere geflodjtene go= 
britatc: 

a) feibene unb fialbfeibene 



b) anbere Jcber SIrt . 



206 



207 



au8 208 



anmeclung. ^adi ben entfDredjenben <Punttcn 
biefet Jiummer mtrben oerjodt SffiirN unb 'il5o(o= 
mentiermortn, mit ber §anb ober bcr SKoftJine Jet" 
geftcHt.abgeeoStBearbettet (regular) ober gefc^nitten, 
aui) geruuSt ober olUlcSnrtig, anS) mit cinfa^er 
Jiiifiarbeit. SBirtrooren ou6 fflaummoHe, Seinen unb 
ffiolle (Snnen, of)nc bes^olb f)of)er sersotlt ju merben, 
einen 35cfai3 fjaben, roenn barin feine ©eibc ent^ 
Soltcn ift. 3eboc() fotlen gemirtte ^onbfcf}ui)e nad; 
bem Oertragamaiiigcn 3on(ai}c ber Kummer 205 
5!unft 1 c of)ne ^ufddog imS) bann OerjoHt roerben, 
menn fie mit cinreiftigen ^midCeln au8 ®cibe ober 
©aibfeibc aerfejen finb. Oeroirfte fileibungsftudc 
icber art fallen unter Sfummer 205. 

Slid, aufeer feibenem, im ©tUcE ober abgepafet: 

1. bauntftoKener gemuftertcr ©arbinentltU 

(nic^t geftidtt unb ofme aufgenttfitc Slrbcit 
[2tp))titotionen]). 

2. Siitt jeber 2Irt, nic^t befonbers genannter . . 



©pi^en unb SBarcn (iu« ©pi^en: 

1. feibene ober in SBerbinbung mit ©eibe . 



2. anbere jeber 2[rt 

©tidcreien, gcftidCte Oehiebe unb geftictter 2UtI: 

au8 1. jeber 2Irt oufeer ben in 'ipunft 2 bicfcr 9^um= 
mer (208) genannten: 

b) anbere jeber Hrt — aufeer ben feibe» 

nen unb ^attfetbencn — befticEt mit 
©eibe, (jjolb, ©ilber, unec^tem 
®oIb» unb ©ilbergefpinft. 

c) bie unter lit, b bicfe« ^unfteS ge= 
nannten, mit getoobnlicfjen ©toffen befticEt. 



■iPfunb . 
^funb. 



75 
90 



■iPfunb. 
^funb. 



85 
90 



■iPfunb . 

?funb . 

^funb. 
^funb . 

■iPfunb . 
^funb. 



10 
4 



10 



72i 



80 



BBEST-LITOVSK PEACE : SUBAPPENDIX 2 TO APPENDIX II. 97 

Tariff A — Continued. 



Numbers of 

the Russian 

General 

Tariff (ol 

13/26 Jan. 

1903). 



from 205 



Classification of Articles. 



Knitted wares and trimmings : 
from 1. Knitted wares, with or without embroi- 
dered marks, 
c) of cotton 



of any other kind of knitting material 
comprised in subdivision 1, c. 

2. Tapes and braids for trimming, fringes, 
tassels, facings and other plaited wares: 



a) of silk and half silk. 

b) of any other kinds.. 



206 



207 



from 208 



Note: The following shall pay duty according to 
the corresponding subdivisions of the present num- 
ber; Knitted wares and trimmings, made by hand 
or machine, made of material with woven .border 
or pieced, also carded or plushlike, with or with- 
out traces of sewing; knitted wares of cotton, Unen 
and wool may, without having to pay a higher 
duty on that account; have a garniture, provided 
it contain no silk. However, knitted gloves shall 
pay duty according to the agreed tariff rate of No. 
205, subdivision 1 c, mthout surtax, even when 
they are pro\aded with one row crotches of silk or 
half silk. Knitted articles of clothing of ail kinds 
fall under number 205. 

Tulle, except of silk, in the piece or part piece: 
1. Cotton tulle for curtains, figured (neither 
embroidered nor edged). 



2. Tulle of all kinds not separately desig- 
nated. 

Lace and lace manufactures: 
' 1. of silk or with admixture of silk 



2. all other kinds. 



Embroideries, embroidered tissues and embroi- 
dered tulle: 
from 1 Of all kinds except those named in sub- 
division 2 of this No. (208): 
b) all other kinds (except those of 
silk or half silk) embroidered 
with silk, gold, silver or tinsel. 



c) Those named under b of this 
number embroidered with com- 
mon material. 



Unit. 



Pound. 
Pound. 



Pound. 
Pound. 



Pound 

Pound 

Pound 
Pound 



Pound. 



Pound. 



Rate of 
Duty in— 



10 



75 
90 



85 
90 



72i 



80 



98 



THE EUSSIAK " PEACE. 



2:arif A— gortfe^img. 



^ummcrn bcS 
tuffifcljen o[t> 

gcmcincn 

5J;atif8 (oom 

13./26. 3anuat 

1903). 



ou« 209 



SBtjtidjnung ber SBoten. 



au8 2. (Scinebe unb SEliH, nicfit trctitger als 1 2Irfc^in 
brcit, an einer ^atite in einer 6reite Bon 
I)o(5ften« 1 SBerfcfioE fieftidt. 



anmet!un8 ju $un[t 2. goroeit fUt ®elDebe 
unb Suit of)ne ©tidcrei DertraeSmtifeiBc ^oHfalje 
feftgefelit finb. hjerben bie in bicfcm ^unEtc bora 
eefe^enen 3nfct)I(ifle unter ^nflrunbelegung ber ber' 
troflSmtifeiflcn 3o&ffifec beredjnet. 

S!Bttf(5e unb iJIeiber in fertigetn obcr in tialbfertigem 
3u[tanbe: 

1. SBofcEie alter 2Irt uaS baummodenen, leinenen 

ober tootlenen ®emeben, gejeic^net, o6er 
o^ne anbere SSerjterungen unb JIuSpu^. 

2. SBaWe {eber 2lrt (au^er feibener unfa f)a(b» 

feibcner, bie nacf) 'ipuntt 6 biefer iKummer 
[209] oerjoUt mirb), mit §Iu8t)u^ Bon 
©pi^en, ginfa^cn unb berg(ei(fien, auc^ 
mit ©tiderei. 



aWcinnerfleiber, auc^ mit ?(u8pu^: 

a) auS i8aumftio[Ien=, ?einen» 

§anfgett)eben. 

b) au§ SSBoIkngetBeben 



ober 



4. grauen» unb j^inbertlciber unb onbere nidit 

bcfonberg genonnte SSetleibungggegenftanbe 

au« ©emeben after 2Irt, aufeer feibenen ober 

f)alb|eibenen: 

a) fertige, obne ben unter lit. b biefeS 

$untte8 genannten Wu^pu^. 



b) mit Slugpu^ am Sgcinbern, ©amt, 
^etjtoert, ©pi^en, ©ticfcrei, 
beffen TOenge nidit bie beS S(ei= 
berftoffeg felbft iibertrifft. 

5. biefelben 'ffileifaer au« jloei unb me^ir ®ctoc» 

ben — Bon benen eineg auS ©eifae ober 

§atbfeibe beftetit unb an SKenge baS 

anbere ©emebe nicfit iibertrifft — , nu(^ 
mit augpufe. 

6. nic^t befonberg gcnannte .ftlciber jcber 3lrt 

unb anbere SSetlcibunfiSffCflenftiinbe (fUr 
ajfttnner, grauen unb Sinbcr) au« ©amt, 
^albfamt, feibenen ober ^olbfeibenen 
®ett)cben, mit ober otine Siugpuij; S'leiber 
jeber Strt, bei melc^en bie genannten ©toffe 
ober ber Sluapulj barau« tlbermiegen. 

Stnmertungen au ben genicinfonien Semcctungen 
JU ben Jiumtncrn 183-209. 

^u ben Slnmertungcn 2, 4 c unb 6. ®o«)elt flit 
®otne, ©eroebe, SBtrt- ober Srcffenmaren unb 




^Pfunb . 



■iPfunb . 



■iPfunb. 



<Pfunb. 



^Pfunb. 



^funb. 



^funb. 



70 



60 



<Pfunb. 



12 



60 



BEEST-LITOVSK PEACE: STJBAPPENDIX 2 TO APPENDIX II. 99 

Tariff A — Continued. 



Numbers of 

the Russian 

General 

Tariff (of 

13/26 Jan. 

1903). 



from 209 



Classification of .\rticles. 



from 2. Tissues and tulle, of not less than 1 
arshin in Tvidtli, embroidered on one 
edge to a 'width not exceeding 1 ver- 
shok. 

Note to subdivision 2. In so far as conventional 
tariff rates have been fixed for tissues and tulle, 
the surtax provided in this subdivision shall be 
computed on the conventional rates of duty. 



Underlinen and other clothing, partly or wholly 
made up : 

1. Underlinen of cotton, flax or woolen tis- 

sues of any kind, marked but not other- 
wise embellished or trimmed. 

2. Underlinen of every kind (except of silk 

or half silk, which pays duty according 
to subdivision 6 of the present number 
(209), trimmed with lace, insertions, or 
the like, or embroidered. 

3. Men's clothing, trimmed or xmtrimmed: 

a) of cotton, linen or hemp , 



b) of woolen tissues. 



4. Women's and children's apparel and other 

articles of clothing, not separately 
named, of any kind of tissue except 
silk or half silk: 

a) made up, without the trimmings 

mentioned under letter b of this 
subdivision. 

b) trimmed with ribbons, velvet, fur, 

lace, embroidery to an extent 
not exceeding the material of 
which the garment is made. 

5. The same articles of clothing composed 

of two or more tissuesr- of which one is 
of silk or half silk and does not pre- 
ponderate over the other — with or with- 
out trimmings. 

6. All other kinds of clothing (for men, 

women or children), not separately 
designated, of velvet, half velvet, silk 
or half silk tissues, trimmed or not; 
also all kinds of clothing in which the 
said tissues, or trimmings thereof pre- 
dominate. 

Note to the notes common to the numbers 183-209. 

To the notes 2, 4c and 6. In so far as lor yarn, 
tissues, knitted or braided manufactures and spun 



Unit. 



Pound. 



Pound. 



Pound. 



Pound. 



Pound. 



Pound. 



Pound . 



Pound . 



Rate of 
Duty in— 



2 ' 70 



60 



60 



100 



THE RUSSIAN PEACE. 



Jartf A — gortHung. 



9?ummern bcS 
tu[(if(4en ot[« 

fiemcinen 

EarifS (»om 

13. 26. Sanmr 

1903). 



am 209 



au« 211 



auS 212 



fflejeidjnuttB bcv Sffiacen. 



SBafi^e unb S'leiber in fertigem ober in Iiaffifertisem 
^uftanbc — gortfe^ung. 

^ofamentierarbeiten obne 29eimifcl)un6 bon ©eibc 
ober unedjtcm 2abn (fotnic bon ©olb obcr ©tibcr) 
oertraaetnatise Botlfafte feftaefeljt finb, toecben bte 
fur foId)c SBcimifcbungen in ben 2InmcrEungcn 2, 
4 c unb 6 oorgefeflEnen ^ufcblSgc auf Otunb bet 
bertraflSntfl&iQcn i^ollfiiljc beredjnct. 

3u ben Slnmerfungen 7 unb 8. ®ie fut ben 
^crftelluneSftoff ber Sffiaren feftgefefelen bertrnaS" 
mafeiBtn ^oilfSfje finb aucb fUr bie SSetjotluns ber 
aenannten ffiaren unb fUr bie SSere^nung ber 3"' 
fcblttge mafegebenb. 

SRegenfc^irme, ©onnenfc^inne, ©tocte mtt ©c^irtnen: 
1 . jeber SIrt, Uberjogen mit feibenem ober f)al6= 
feibencm ®m<:bt: 

a) mit 2Iu«pu^ beg Ueberjugg (tnit 

©piljen, iBftnbern, ©tidEercien 
ufm.). 

b) oi)ne aiugpu^ 



2. jeber 3Irt, mit anberen ©eirebcn liberjogcn: 

a) rait Stugpu^ bes UberjugS (mit 

©piijcn, SBftnbern, ©tirfereien 
ufm.). 

b) oi)nt 2Iu«)3u^: 

mit iSaumlDoHftoff tiberjogen. . 
mit anberen ^^ugftoffen llber» 
sogen. 

SInmerfung ju ben ^unEton 1 unb 2. ©c^itnt' 
bUDcn (gutterale), bie au8 ^eugftoff bon bem 
topinnftoff bjie bie (StftirmUberaUge angefertigt finb, 
fomie ©UKcn au8 '^a^in ober Sebertudj merben 
nicbt befonbcrg oerjoltt, menu fie mit ben ©(Airmen 
eingebcn. 

au« 3. auS a) ©djirmgeftelle otine ®riff, ieboc^ aui) 

mit einem Uber ba« OeftcH bin"u§» 

ragenben unb jur Scfeftigung eineS 

®riffe8 bienenben SiHetattftocte fomie beren 

Seftanbteilc (3Jipt!en, aKctanftode). 

Snopfc: 

au8 1. aKetatltniibfe jeber Hit, aufecr golbenen, 
filierncn unb ^latintniipfen (Sfummcr 
148); (einene, baumiuottcne, mollene unb 
feibene jfnopfe jeber 2Irt. 

au6 2. ouS 'iPorjeKan , . . . 



Slnmcrfung jn Jtummer 212. Die SScrjotlung 
nad) blefer Stumiucr (212) crfotgt einfdjiiefeli* bc« 
®en>id)t8 bet S'ortcn, nuf benen bie ffinBpfe befeftigt 
finb. 

Stnmetfung ju <I5un(t 2 ber S'iummcr 212. ®a« 
31rtuIot be8 .SoKbetiartemcnta bom 15. 3anuar 
1897 dimmer 1(187 Sbfalj 3, bctrcffenb bie fficr. 
jollnng Don SJnSpfcn au3 ^iorjcflannadjabmungen, 
bleib. rofitjrenb ber Saner birfeS iSertiafi« In Jlcoft. 



SinSeit. 



©tfld 
©tilcE 
©tiid 



©tad. 

©ttld. 



©tild. 



^funb . 



■iPfunb. 



3onfal5 in 



SRu= 
beln. 



*obe> 
ten. 



60 
30 



25 



90 



37i 



BKEST-LITOVSK PEACE : SUBAPPENDIX 2 XO APPENDIX II. 101 

Tariff A — Continued. 




from 209. 



from 211 



from 212 



TJnderlinen and other clothing, partly or wholly 
made up — Continued. 

wares without an admixture of silk or tinsel (or 
of gold or silver) contractual customs rates are 
fixed, additional charges foreseen for such admix- 
tures in notes 2, 4c and 6 will be computed on the 
basis of the contractual customs rates. 

To notes 7 and 8. The contractual customs rates 
fixed for the material used to manufacture these 
goods are likewise determinative for the payment 
of the duties of the said goods and for the computa- 
tion of the additional charges. 

Umbrellas, parasols, sticks with covers: 

1. of every kind, covered with silk or half 
silk tissue: 

a) trimmed (with lace, ribbon, em- 
broidery, etc.). 

b) untrimmed 



2. of every sort covered with other tissue: 
a) trimmed (with lace, ribbon, em- 
broidery, etc.). 



b) untrimmed; 

covered with woolen tissue . . 
covered with other tissue .... 



Note to subdivisions 1 and 2. Umbrella slips 
made of the material of which the umbrella covers 
are made, as well as sheaths of paper or of leather 
cloth are not taxed apart if imported with the 
umbrellas. 



from 3. from a) Umbrella frames without handles, 
but with a metal piece in prolongation 
of the frame and serving to affix a 
handle, as well as their component 
parts (ribs, metal sticks). 

Buttons ; 

from 1. Metal buttons, of every kind, excepting 
gold, silver and platinum buttons 
(No. 48); linen, cotton, woolen and 
silk buttons of every kind. 



from 2. Of porcelain. 



Note to No. 212. Pavment of duty according to 
this number (212) is inchisive of the weight of the 
cardboard to which the buttons are fastened. 

Note'to subdivision 2 of No. 212. The circular 
letter of the customs department of 15 January, 
1897 No. 1087, paragraph 3, refernng to the pay- 
ment of duty upon buttons made of imitation por- 
celain, remains in force during the vahdity of this 
treaty. 



Per piece . 
Per piece . 
Per piece . 



Per piece . 
Per piece . 



Per piece . 



Pound . 



Pound. 



60 
30 



25 



90 



37i 



102 



THE RUSSIAN " PEACE." 



larif A — ^ortfe^ung. 



Stummnn be8 
rufrtWra att> 

gemeinen 

SarifS (Oom 

13./26. 3anuar 

1903). 



Sejcic^nuns bet iSSaren. 



BoIIfafe in 



iSinl&cit. 



beln. 



ffioDe. 
(en. 



au« 214 Set, 'iperlen au« 3Ba(5«, ®toS, JKetatl unb cmberen 
gemo^nlicfien ©toffen. 

SlnmettunB. ©oaenannte ffioiSStJCrlen unb 
$etlen au« intoenBtB mil Siftftfiutipen" obcr 
onberet ^5eclenef(enj belestcn ffiugelcijen ou8 roeiScm 
(Sfafe fallen unter bie(c 9iummer (214), ouc^ menn 
fie fic$ qIS ^'tadjafimunBen Don ecf)ten ^erlcn bar= 
ftettcn. 

215 Oalarttctie* unb Soilettenorttfct, nic^t befonberS 
genannte, jufatnmengefeijt ober auSeinanberges 
•nontmen; jJinberftiicljeug: 

1. iDerttooIIe ©cgenftttnbe, in n)eld)en ©ctbe, a(u= 
minium, 'iperlmutter, ^oratten, @c^ilb= 
pott, gifenbein, gmail, Sernftcin ober 
bergleic^cn onberc toftbare ©toffe, Der= 
golbete ober Berfilbcrte iKetaKe ober 
ajJetoHcgierungen ent^alten finb; nicfit 
befonberS gcnannte SBaren ieber iixt mxi 
■iPerlmutter, ©c^ilbpatt, ©Ifenbein unb 
SSernftein. 

Hnmertunfl ju ^untt 1. ®a8 3irfntT be« 
^ollbetjortement* bom 16. 5fooembet 1894 Sfum^ 
met 21510 abfatj 7, betteffenb bic ^odbeSanbluns 
Don Eafiidicn ou« 'JJlUfd), bleibt raaf)renb ber 
SDouet btefeS 35ertta88-in ffiraft. 

2. gen)(i{)nR(fie ©egenftdnbe mit Sciten, 5affun= 
gen ober 93erjierungen au8 nic^t foftbaren 
SWetatlen ober TOetaHegierungen (unBer» 
golbcten unb unfierfilberten), auS ©orn, 
finodjen, ^otj, ^orjeKan, uncblen @tei= 
nen, ®lo«, iKeerf($oum, gifd)bein, 3et, 
^eriutoib, 8aBa unb anberen nicfit foftbaren 
©toffen; nic^t bcfonberS genonnte SBaren 
jeber 3Irt aug §orn, Snocfien, iKeerfcfioum, 
gifcfebein, 3et, ^eHuIoib, ?at)a ober SBatfiS. 

Stntnerfuna ju ben ^Juntten 1 unb 2. fiinbec 
fUietseufl jebcc Stt, tnit Huanaljme beS untei 
$un[t 3 fatlenbcn, ttiitb mit 70 ffo|)eten fUt ein 
$funb oeraoftt. 

anmcrfuno au ^untt 2. '!Rixi\ bem filr biefen 
?!un(t feftsefeljten ©olj nierben bie Wet genannten 
ffiaten DetjoKt, auci Wenn fie ©eibe obet .'patbfcibe 
entftatten. 

3. unter biefc Stummer (215) fattenbe ®egen= 
ftanbe au« ilupfer ober fiupferlegierungen, 
oI)ne erl)abene ober geftodiene Si'erjierungen, 
— audi geftanjt C^Puntt 2 ber SJummer 
149), au6 ©ufeeifen, ©d)miebeeifen, ©ta^il, 
3inn, S8lei ober ^mt, im ®emid|t Don 
toeniger als 3 ^funb bag einjetne ©tUcf, 
ofinc SBerbinbung tnit onbercn JOIctallen. 



<Pfunb. 



70 



«Pfunb. 



70 



<Pfunb . 



40 



BKEST-LITOVSK PEACE : SUBAPPENDIX 2 TO APPENDIX U. 103 

Tariff A — Continued. 



Numbers of 

the Russian 

■ General 

Tariff (of 

13/26 Jan. 

1903). 



from 214 



215 



Classification of Articles. 



Jet, pearls made of wax, glass, metal and other 
common material. 

Note. So-called glass pearls and pearls or beads 
of "White glass filled with fish scales or other pearly 
essence come under this nrunber (214). even al- 
though they appear as imitation of genuine pearls. 



Fancy and toilet articles, not separately desig- 
nated, complete or in parts; toys; 

1. Costly articles, into the composition of 

which there enters .gilk, aluminium, 
mother-of-pearl, coral, tortoise-shell, 
ivory, enamel, amher or other costly 
materials, gilded or silvered metals or 
metallic compositions, wares of all 
kinds, not especially designated, and 
made of mother-of-pearl, tortoise-shell, 
ivory and amber. 

Note to subdivision 1 . The circular letter of the 
customs department of 16 November, 1894, No. 
21510, paragraph 7, regarding treatment by the 
customs offices of small bags made of plush, re- 
mains in force during the validity of this treaty. 

2. Common objects with parts, settings or 

embellishments of non-precious metals 
or metal compositions (neither gilded 
nor silvered), or of horn, bone, wood, 
porcelain, non-precious stones, glass, 
meerschaum, fish bone, jet, celluloid, 
lava, and similar uncostly materials; 
wares of all kinds not especially desig- 

nated, made of horn, bone, meerschaum, 

fish bone, jet, celluloid, lava or wax. 

Note to subdivisions 1 and 2. Toys of every sort, 
with the exception of those which come under sub- 
division 3, pay 70 Copecks per pound in customs 
duties. 

Note to subdivision 2. Accordmg to the rate 
provided in this subdivision, customs duties will be 
paid on the goods here indicated, even though they 
contain siUc or half silk. 

3. Under this number (215) come objects 

composed of copper or copper alloys, 
without costly embellishments or em- 
bossed work, — even if stamped (sub- 
division 2 of No. 149), or of cast iron, 
wrought iron, steel, tin, lead or zinc, 
weighing less than 3 pounds per piece, 
and without admixture of other metals. 



Unit. 



Pound 



Pound 



Pound . 



Rate of 
Duty in— 



70 



70 



40 



104 



THE RUSSIAN PEACE. 

2;arif A — ^gort[e^ung. 



91ummetn be8 
tutfifiSen ott= 

flcmcinen 

lotifS (oom 

13./26. Sonuot 

1903). 



SBejeicinunB ber SBoten. 



au« 216 



218 



au8 219 



BonM in 



ein^elt. 



8Ju. 
beln. 



iBIctftlfte jcber SIrt etnfi^IiefeUcJi ber garbftifte, auc^ 
affortkrt, tnit ben ©i|a(^teln, in welc^en fie ein= 
gefutirt finb, jufantmen gewogen. 

atimcrfuna 2. ©4)icfertafeln, liniiett obct un= 
Uniictt, audi mtt 8!a()mcn, foiric Siiicferariffel, 
aud) mit <Pa))tcr obet anbeten ©toffcn Uberjogen, 
merben nad) 5!ummcr 66 HJuntt 6 mit einem 3u= 
Wlagc Don 20% oerjollt. 

5Wufter Berfcfiiebener ©toffe unb (Sraeugniffe, melcfie 
nic^t baS au«fef)en unb ben Sljaratter Bon aSaren 
f)aben. 

anmertuna. aKuftet »on IScrrcben unb SrscuB" 
niffen jebet Slrt, loeliis nidjt ba« auSfeScn unb ben 
Ejatatter »on SBaren daben, fallen unter biefe Vlum' 
met (218), oucfe ttenn fie nuf ffartcn befeftigt, 8e» 
beftct ober eingcbunbcn finb. 

SBJaren, beren {ginfuf)r derboten ift. 

SRuffifdje ©cfieibemlinje, tupferne unb filberne, unb 
aualiinbifc^eg tupferneg unb filberneg ®elb alter 
2Itt. 

SInmcrtuna. 5)tei(cnben unb iBettoJnetn be8 
®renjbejir[8, melije bie ©renje mit orbnunB^mS" 
6iBen ?e8itimoti(in8|)opieten tlbetf(ireiten, ift e« ae* 
'ftattet, ruffif^e ®d)cibemUnje bi8 ju 4 iKubel SO 
SJotieten, beutf(4c JSu))fet>, 5nicJeI= ober iSiIbet= 
mllnje bi9 ju 10 SKotf mit fiiS ju fUbten. 



S8cr3ei(^ni8 ber 2lu8fu|)rjbIIe. 

Sumpen unb Sappen jeber 2lrt, iBoltene 2lbf(^ni^el 
unb 'iPapierbalbjeuB. 



^funb. 



£o)ie- 
ten. 



52i 



jottfrei. 



joilfrei. 



BEEST-LITOVSK PEACE : SUBAPPENDIX 2 TO APPENDIX II. 105 

Tariff A — Continued. 



Numbers of 

the Russian 

General 

Tariff (o£ 

13/26 Jan. 

1903). 



from 216 



from 218 



from 219 



Classification of Articles. 



Lead pencils of every kind, inclusive of colored 
leads, although assorted^ weighed together 
with the cases in which they are packed. 

Note 2. Writing slates, lined or unlined, to- 
gether with their frames, as well as slate pencils, 
al though covered with paper or other matenal, wil 1 
pay, according to No. 66, subdivision 6, an addi- 
tional duty of 2C%. 

Samples of various materials and products hav- 
ing neither the appearance nor the nature of 
manufactured articles. 

Note. Samples of tissues and products of every 
sort not having the appearance nor the character 
of manufactured goods, come under this number, 
(218), although fastened to cardboards, stitched or 
bound in book form. 

AETICLBS WHOSE IMPORTATION IS rOEBIDDEN. 

Russian fractional currency, of copper or silver, 
and foreign copper and silver currency of every 
kind. 

Note. Travelers and inhabitants of the frontier 
districts who cross the frontier and provided with 
certificates i ssuedin accordance with the ordinances 
in force, are permitted to carry with them Russian 
fractional currency to the amount of 4 Rubles and 50 
Copecks, German copper, nickel or silver currency 
to the amount of 10 Marks. 

TAEIFF ON EXPORT DUTIES. 

Rags and shreds of all kinds, woolen clippings, 
and half-pulp for' paper manufacture. 



Unit. 



Pound . 



Rate of 
Duty in— 



52i 



Exempt from duty. 



Exempt from custom 
duties. 



106 



THE RUSSIAN PEACE. 

2:arif B. 



artiW 

bee beut((Jen 

3olItarif8 

Som 

25. Sejember 

1902. 



au«3 



4 

au8 11 

12 

13 

16 

18 

19 

ou«28 



30 
31 



Sejalrfinune ber SBarcn. 



SRosflen. 



SJBctjen unb ©))clg . 



®erfte mit 2lu8naf)me Bon DJJaljgerfte . 



anmerhms. 3118 onbete ©crfte oI« „5DJalj8etfte" 
ift ju bejanbeln unb jum rnnagiBten ^oHfofjc einsU" 
laffeti: 

1. beim Singang liber beftimmtc, mit befonberer 

©rmticfttiflune oerfebene 3oKftetIen ©erftc, 
roelrfie in reinem ungemifc^tem, flrannen= 
lofem 3uftanbc bo8 Ocmicbt Don 65 ffilo. 
gramm fUr 1 §eEtoUter nid)t erreid^t unb 
jugletcb nic&t mcf)r al8 30 ©enjic^tSprojente 
abmer cntbiilt, bcren (SemiiSit 67 fiilo. 
gramm ober mcbr fUr 1 §ettoIiter betrSgt; 

2. ®erfte, fUr adi)c ber DtndjmeiS geftlfirt mirb, 

ba6 fie jur 8creitung Hon SUalj ungecignet ift 
ober baB fie bicrju ni^t oertoenbet mirb. 
Sails bie SRidjtigfeit bee grgebniffe ber in SIbfal} 1 
jugetaffenen (grmittelung bom SBareneinbringer be* 
(tritten roirb, ober fads (id) infolge ber befonberen 
SBefAaffenbeit ber jur ^oQabfertigun^ gefteOten 
©cnbung anbere ^^eifelsgrlinbe binftd)tlid) ber 
SJertDenbung ber ®erfte ergeben, ift bag 3oflamt 
nur oerpflicbtet, bie SBare jum ermafeigten ^ottfalje 
jujulaffen, inenn e8 fie jubor gur iBereitung Don 
'ifftaU ungeeignet gemadjt bat. 31)ieS fann nacb 
9BabI bee ^oUamts burd) 9Infd)roten, ©piijen, 
@infrf)neiben, 33red)en ober ein ttbnlic^eS SSerfabren 
0ef(^eben. (£8 beftebt jebod) (ginoerfttiubnis, bafe 
bie Hnraenbung eine8 folc&en 55erfabren§ obne 
Soften fur ben SSoreneinbringer erfolgt. 



§cifer 

(2r6fen, ?tnfen 

gutter' (^ferbss u\n.) 93of)nen, Supinen, SBiden'. . . . 

3{ap« unb gjiibfcn, hotter, Olrettigfaat, ' ©enf, 
§eberi(^faat. 



Seinfaat, ^anf faat 

SRotfleefaot, SBetfetleefaat unb anbere Sleefaaten. 

®roSfaat olter SIrt 



glac^« unb .^anf, rof), flereinigt, geriiftet, gebroc^en, 
gef(|n3ungen, entlcimt. 



SInmertung. SDJerg »on glac^S unb $anf mirb 
nad) SHv. 28 jottfrei abgelaffen. 



^opfen . 



^opfenmet)! (?upulin) . 



(Sin^eit. 



100 kg 
100 kg 
100 kg 



100 kg. 
100 kg. 
100 kg. 
100 kg. 



100 kg m^' 
gcroid^t. 

100 kg SRol^' 
gemid^t. 



Sottfo* 

in 

smart. 

5 

5,50 
1,30 



5 

1,50 

1,50 

2 

fret 
fret 

fret 
frei 



20 
20 



beesi-litovsk peace: subappendix 2 to appendix ii. 107 
Tariff B. 



Articles of 
he German 

Customs 
Tariff of 25 

Dec, 1902. 



Classilication of tlie goods. 



Unit. 



1 j Rye. 



2 Wheat and spelt. 



from 3 Barley, excepting malt-barley. 



100 kg. 
100 kg. 
100 kg. 



Customs 
rate in 
marks. 



5.50 
1.30 



from 11 
12 
13 

15 
18 

19 



Note.— The following are rated as other than 
"malt-barley" and are to be admitted at reduced 
customs duty. 

1. At entrance through definite cistoms offices to 

which are granted special authorization- 
barley which, in the pure, unmixed state 
and awnless, weighs less than 65 kg. per hec- 
tolitre, and which, at the same time, does 
not contain more than 30 % grain the weight 
of which registers 67 kg. or more per hecto- 
litre. 

2. Barley which is proven to be unfit for the prep- 

aration of malt, or proven not to be intended 

for such end. 
In case the accuracy of the results obtained by 
the inspection specified under paragraph 1 is con- 
tested by the importer, or in case, m consequence 
of the peculiar constitution of the shipment pre- 
sented for clearance, grounds for suspicion should 
arise regarding the use of the barley, the customs 
ofBce is required to admit the barley at the reduced i 
duty only after having rendered it rmtit for use hi ■ 
preparing malt. This operation may, at the 
pleasure of the customs ofHce, be effected through 
rough-grinding, blunting, breaking the grain or bv 
any other similar process. It is understood, how- 
ever, that recourse to such a process is free of cost 
to tlie importer. 

Oats 100 kg. 

Pease, lentils ' 100 kg. 

Fodder (horse, etc.), beans, lupines, vetches 100 kg. 

Colza, cole-seed, camelina grain, Chinese radish | 100 kg., 
seed, mustard seed, erysimum seed. 

Linseed, hempseed 



Red clover seed, white clover seed and other 
clover seeds. 

Grass seed of all kinds 



from 28 ; Flax and hemp, coarse, cleaned, steeped, broken, 
beaten, ungummed. 



30 



Note. The hards of flax and hemp are e.xempt of 
customs duties according to No. 28. | 

Hops i 100 kg. gross 

weight. 



31 . Lupulin ' 100 gross 

. weigli t. 

86409—18 8 



5 

1. 50 
1.50 

2 

free 
free 

free 
free 



20 
20 



108 



THE RUSSIAN PEACE. 

Jarif B — J^-orticljimg. 



attifci 

beg bcut[d)cn 

BotltiirifS 

bom 

25. 3!)ejEmbcr 

1902. 



74 



Scacirf)nim8 bcr SBarcit. 



SHaw unb 3{u^f)Dlj, unbearkitct ober lebtfllid) m ber 
Cluerri(^tung rnit ber Styt ober ©age bearbettet, 
mit ober of)ne 9?tnbc: 

Ijart 



Stntjcit. 



flOO kg.... 
U geftmeter. 



tDcid) . 



jflOO kg. . . . 



76 



2[nmerEung. UtibcarbeiteteS ober lebigtid) in ber 
Querrtd)tunB mit bcr 2I|t ober ©tiee bearbeitetcS 
i8au= unb 9!iil3f)o!3 filr ben ^iiuSlirfjen ober ()anb= 
iDerf^mdfeigcn SSebarf bon 33eiDobnern beS ®ren3= 
bejirfea, [ofern eS in S^raglaftcn cinge^t ober mit 
.3ugtieren gefabrcn luirb, bleibt, xmter Uebermadmng 
ber 5?erluenbun0 unb mit SBefdiriinfung nuf 10 
Seftmetcr in einem ^t'alenberiabre fUr jeben i8egiige= 
bcrccbtigten, ^ollfrci. 

S8au« unb 9!u^f)Dlj, in ber CttngSrirfitung beftfjlagen 
ober anbcrroeit mit ber Jljt aorgearbcitet ober jer» 
fleinert; and) geriffene ©bttne unb in anbcrer SJBcifc 
ate burd) SKcijjen bergefteffte Slttrfptrtie: 



li.n-t . 



mcii^. 



33au» unb ^futjbolj, in bcr ^iiiigsvidjtimg gcfftgt ober 
in anbercr Sfccife imrpeviditct, iiiiDt gct)obett: 



flOO kg. . . . 
U geftmeter . 



flOO kg. . . . 

\1 Seftmetcr. 



f)art. 



1 100 kg. . . . 
i\l gcftmeter. 



iticid) . 



80 I Ciifen6at)nWli]ct(cn, mit bcr Styt bcnrbcitet, and) auf 
niOit meijr nte uncv Vtiniv^fcitc gcfiigt, nicbt gcl)obcIt: 

I 

oiio iirtricm ."ooljc . 



(100 kg. . .. 
\1 Jcftmctcr. 



ifioo kg. . . . 
U gflOiu'tcr . 



aua iDcidjem .'polv-' , 



flOO kg. . . . 
11 Scftmcter. 



^,'lmiin-hiiig lu ben ?f?unimern 7}, 7.^j, 7r. unb 
Ml. Tic vjrriullimg be8 in bicfen iTiummern go 
nonnten .Vioijes (ann nod) fflatjl bc8 EinbriiwerS 
»qJ) i^'fioiiiii flit 1 ©obpeljentnct ober nml) 5u!ali 
flu biu^ ?i-e|"l.iiclcv crfolgcn. 



BBEST-LITOVSK PEACE : SUBAPPENDIX 2 TO APPENDIX II. 109 

Tariff B — Continued. 



Articles of 
the German 
Customs 
Tariff of 25 
Dec, 1902. 



74 



75 



Cla.ssification of the goods. 



Construction lumber and lumber for industrial 
purposes, undressed or only trans-versely hewn 
or sawn, with or without bark: 

Hard 



Soft. 



Note. Undressed construction lumber, or lamber 
for industrial purposes, or only transversely dressed 
with ax or saw, for domestic or professional use by 
the inhabitants of the frontier district , carried in by 
man or brought in by draft animals, is exempt from 
customs dues, under control of it.s use, and limited 
to 10 cubic meters for ea ch privileged person and for 
such calendar year. 

Construction lumber and lumber for industrial 
purposes, squared lengthwise or otherwise 
dressed or cut into smaller parts with ax; also 
ripped splinters and ships intended to clarify 
liquids and obtained otherwise than by rend- 
ing with the hand; 



Hard. 



76 



80 



Soft. 



Construction lumber and lumber for industrial 
purposes, sawed lengthwise or otherwise pre- 
pared, not planed: 



Hard. 



Soft. 



Railway ties, prepared with ax, and not sawed 
the full length on more than one side, not 
planed : 
Of hard wood 



Of soft wood. 



Note to Nos. 74, 75, 7i'. and 80. Payment of cus- 
toms duties may, at the pleasure of the importer, be 
made for lumber specified under these numbers, 
according to weight per 100 kg., or to measurement 
per cubic meter. 



Unit. 



100 kg 

1 cubic me- 
ter. 

100 kg 

1 cubic me- 
ter. 



100 kg 

1 cubic me- 
ter. 



100 kg 

1 cubic me- 
ter. 



100 kg 

1 cubic me- 
ter. 



100 kg 

1 cubic me- 
ter. 



Customs 
rate in 
marks. 



100 kg 

1 cubic me- 
ter. 



100 kg 

1 cubic me- 



ter. 



110 



THE RUSSIAN PEACE. 

Slarif B — gortfc^ung. 



artlfel 

bc8 beutfJicn 

BoUtanie 

Oom 

25. Scjembec 

1902. 


93c3eidjnung ber SBorcn. 


gin^eit. 


3oIt(i>is 

in 
matt. 


au« 100 ' 'iPferbe: 

! im TOprtp hi« 1000 <)Wnrf hn« Kh'irf . _ . 


fiir 1 ©tiid . . 


72 




anmertung. ipfetbc im SBctte bie 300 SJiatt 
ba8 Stllct unb mtt njcniaer als 1,40 STOetet StodmaS 
inerbcn jum ijollfatj Don 30 Mart filr 1 Stud abje. 
loffen. 






106 




100 kg 8e« 
b e n b g e= 
tni(5t. 


9 








107 


gebertiief): 

©itnfe 




frei 




§uf)ner atfer 2[tt unb fonftigeS lebcnbcs gebcrBiel) 


100 kg 


4 


auS 108 


glcifc^, au«f(5Iie61ti$ be« ©d)itieinef;3ect«, unb gemefe* 
bare ©tngeineibe bon 58iel) (auSgenommen gcber= 
Bicf)) : 

e-infad) juberettct 








100 kg 


35 




anmerluns ju ben 3Jummecn 108 unb 109. ®et 
S8unbe8rat ift befugt, fttt beftimmte ©tcnjftreim 
im Salle cineS Brtlidjen ffiebUtfniffeS bie jollfreie 
Einfnijt einjelnet gtttctc bon ftifijem obet einfaiS 
jubereitetem Sleifdje obcr bon ©djroeincfpecE in 
iUengen bon nicl)t mef)r qI8 2 iJiloeramm, nid)t mit 
ber ^oft etngcbenb, fut SBcrooIjner bee (Srcnsbejirfc* 
nodjaufaffen. 2)er 5a^ bee oben oorgefebcnen brt= 
licben i8cbUrfnti(c8 Irtrb fUt bic tufftfdje (Srcnje bc> 
aUgtirf) ber jollfreien ginfuljt frifdjen obec einfad) 3U< 
bcreiteten <5(^roeinef(etfd)ee onerfannt mit ber 5D?a6= 
^abt, bafe biefe (Sricidjteruns acitnjeitig anfocf)oben 
merben (ann, (ofcrn anSnabmemciic Uetcrtnar=poli= 
jeilicic arttnbe bieS erforbern. 






au8 110 


gebcrttiefi: 

gefcblad^tct, aucf) jerlegt, nid)t juberettet 

gefpidt ober fonft einfad) juberettet 


100 kg 

100 kg 


15 
20 


mi 112 


geberlnilb: 

nidjt [ebenb, auc^ jcrlegt, nic^t juberettet . . . 
gcfptdt ober fonft einfac^ juberettet 


100 kg 

100 kg 


20 
20 


118 


^abiar unb ^abiarerfa^ftoffe (eingefaljener gifd)= 
rogen), auc^ geprcfet ober jercluc^ert; £'abtarlate. 


100 kg; 


150 


134 


SSutter, frtfd), gefatjen ober eingefdimoljen (58uttcr= 
fc^ntalj). 


100 kg 


2Q 


136 


®ier bon geberbiel; unb gebermilb, rot) ober nurin ber 
©(^ale getod)t, aud) gefiirbt, bentalt ober in anbcrer 
SBeife berjtert. 


100 kg 


2 


137 


Slgelb, flliffig, aud) etngefaljen ober mtt anberen bie 
§altbartcit er^obenben ,3itfa^en; (Sigetb, getroct« 
net, aud) gefjulbert; ein8efd)Iagene (Sier oI)ne ®d)ale 
(Sigelb unb eimeife bermtfd)t). 


100 kg 


2 


147 


SBettfeberu, and) gcrcintgt obcr jugertc^tet (8efd)tiffen 
ufn).). 




frei 









BREST- LITOVSK PEACE: SUBAPPENDIX 2 TO APPENDIX II. Ill 

Tariff B — Continued. 



Articles ol 
the German 
Customs 
Tariff ot 25 
Dec, 1902. 


Classification of the goods. 


Unit. 


Customs 
rate in 
marks. 


from 100 


Horses; 

Worth up to 1000 Marks per head 


per 1 head . . 


72 




Note. Horses worth 300 Marks per head and 
measuring less than 1.40 meter up to the withers, 
will be admitted at the customs rate ol 30 Marks 
per 1 head. 




106 


Hosts 


100 kg. live 
weight. 


9 








107 


Fowl: 








Poultry of all kinds and other live fowl 


100 kg 


4 


from 108 


Meats, exclusive of bacon, and convertible vis 
cera of cattle (excepting poultry) : 








Prepared in simple manner 


100 kg 


35 




Note to Nos. 108 and 109. The Federal Council is 
authorized, for special frontier stretches, in the case 
o£ local necessity, to grant exemption from import 
duties, for distinct pieces of fresh or of simply pre- 
pared meats or bacon, in quantities of not more than 
2 kg., not forwarded by mail, for the use of the in- 
habitants of the frontier district. The case of the 
aforementioned local necessity is recogmzed for the 
Russian frontier, with regard to the free importation 
of fresh or simply prepared pork, pro\'ided that this 
rehef may be temporarily stopped, in so far as, by 
exception, such action is necessary for reasons of 
veterinary .supervision. 




from 110 


Poultry: 

TCiIIpH also put hid not, DrPDared - - - 


100 kg 

100 kg 


15 




Larded or prepared in some other simple way . 


20 


from 112 


Feathered game: 

Not live, also cut up, not prepared 

Larded or prepared m some other simple way. 


100 kg 

100 kg 


20 
20 


118 


Caviar and caviar products (salted fish roe), also 
pressed or smoked ; pickled ca\'iar. 


100 kg 


150 


134 


Butter, fresh, salt or cast (butter grease) 


100 kg 


20 


136 


Eggs from poultry or feathered game, raw or 
boiled in the shell, also colored, painted or 
otherwise embellished. 


100 kg 


2 


137 


Egg-yoke, liquid, also salted or ^nth other things 
added to conserve them; egg-yoke, dried, also 
powdered; broken eggs, without shell (egg- 
yoke and white of egg mixed). 


100 kg 


2 


147 


Bed-feathers, cleansed or prepared (stripped of 
quills etc.). 




free 







112 



THE RUSSIAN" PEACE. 



larif B — Jottfe^img. 



attiw 

beS beutfcden 
SoHtatifS 


^Seaeiifinung ber SBaren. 


ffiinjeit. 


in 


25. Sejembet 
1902. 






SWott. 


au8 210 


©cnf, gepulsett, auc^ entiilt: 

in anberer i8er)»a(funfl als in Heincn fiir ben 
ginjelciertauf 6e[ttmmten Slufmac^ungcn. 


100 kg 


3 


auS 239 


gtbiit (petroleum), ftiifftger natarlic^er SSerateer 

(grbteer), iSraunfofilenteeroI, Sorfbl, ©c^teferol, 

Si ou« bem Seer ber iBogJeab* ober Siinneltotile 

unb fonfttge anberrteit nic^t genannte 3Wineral8Ie, 

roj ober gereintgt: 

©(5mierole; auc^ teerdrtige, fiaraffinf)altige unb 

tm SEBaffer ntdit unterftntenbe pec^arttge 3JilcE= 

ftanbe Bon ber ®efttItatton ber a»tneraIole; 

.^argiil. 

2Inmerhing. 5)ic SSeraottung bon petroleum unb 
anbetcn geceiniaten, ntc^t befonbctS gsnannten, 3U 
Sel£u<4tung«slucc!en gecigneten 5ffiineraI8Ien tann 
nadi 3Ba6l beS tSinbringerS nnd) ©eraid&t untcr 3"= 
aninbelegung Son 1 SDobDeljetitnct obct naS) bem 
y?auTnget)tiIt mit ber iOIafegabe jugclaffen toerben, 
bak babei fUr 125 Siter bci einer Xemperatur don 
15 E. ISoptieljentnct 8JcingcH)i(4t getccbnet mirb. 


100 kg 

100 kg 


6 
6 


265 


Ouedffilber unb Ouecffilberlegicrungen (Slmatgame) 




frei 


au8 353 


glUcfitige (iittiertWe) file: 

Serpentinol, gic^tennabelBl, .^arggeift (^arjef^ 
fens). 

ani«oI 




20 




100 kg 


20 









BREST- LITOVSK PEACE: SUBAPPENDIX 2 TO APPENDIX II. 113 

Tarii'f B — Continued. 



Articles of 
the German 

customs 

tariff of Dec. 

25, 1902. 



from 210 



from 239 



265 
from 353 



Classification of tlie goods. 



Mustard, powdered, also unoiled: 

In other containers than the small packages 
for retail trade. 

Mineral oil (petroleum), liquid natural mineral 
tar (liquid asphalt), coal naphta, peat oil, 
schist oil, oil from the tar of boghead or cannel 
coal, and other mineral oils not otherwise 
specified, crude or refined: 

Lubricating oils; also pitchy residues from 
the distillation of tar and parafine contain- 
ing mineral oils, and floating in water; 
rosin oil. 

Note. Payment ol customs duties on petroleum 
and other refined, but not specially mentioned min- 
eral oils, u-ed for illuminating purposes, may, at tlie 
option oJ the importer, be paid, at weight, on the 
liasis of 100 kg., or on the basis ol space occupied, 126 
liters, at a temperature of 15 degrees centigrade, 
ec|ualling 100 kg. net wei'^lit. 



Quicksilver and quicksilver alloys. 



Unit. 



100 kg. 



Customs 
rate in 
marks. 



100 kg 



Volatile oils (oil essences): 

Turpentine oil, pine needle oil, rosin spii-its 
(rosin essence). , 

Aniseed oil 100 kg 



free 

free 

20 



10. RUSSIA— GERMANY. 



lEGAl-POIITICAL TREATY SUPPLEMENTARY TO THE TREATY 
OF PEACE BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE CENTRAL POWERS. 
SIGNED AT BREST-LITOVSK, 3 MARCH, 1918/ 



[German text as published in the Reichs- 
Gesetzblatt, No. 77, 11 .hnu, 1918.] 

3Iuf ®runb bc.^ Irtifel XII beg 
ijriebengtiertragg jmifc^en ©eutfcfilanb, 
Ofterretc6=Ungarn, 53u(garien unb ber 
Xiirfei eincrfcit? unb SRuBlanb anberer* 
fettg finb 

bk 33et)oHmac()tigten bc>3 Seutc^en 
SKeicfiS, ndmlid) 

ber 2 taatS fefretar beg 2luglDartt= 
gen 3Imteg, .ft dferlicfier 2Strf= 
(icf)er ©efieimer SRat, Scrr 
SRiifiarb Don .S'ut)Imann, 

ber j?aiferU(i)e ©efanbte unb 6e= 

»o(Imacf)ttgte gjlintfter, '§err 

Dr. Don 9io[enberg, 
ber .ft'bntgticf) "^Jreufeifcfie ©enerat 

major Hoffmann, E^ef be? 

@eneroI[ta6g beg Cberbefeftte' 

tinberg Cft, unb 

ber .ftatfertid)e .ftapitdn jur 2ee 
.giorn, fomie 
bie SBeooHmcic^ttgten ber 9?ufftfcf)en 
goberatioen 2on)jet«=9Jet)ubIif, nant= 

m, 

©rigorij oafototetoitfrf) iofoIni= 
tow, 93HtgIteb beg 3entral= 
eyefutioaugfcfeuffeg ber State ber 
2irbeiter=, @oIbaten= unb 33au= 
embeputierten, 

Seto S[«tcf)at(on)it)d) .«arac^an,2)at= 
glieb beg J3entralefefutitiaug= 
fc^uffeg ber $Rate ber 2trbeiter=, 
3oIbaten= unb 93auembeputier= 
ten, 



[Translation.] 

In virtue of Article XII of the 
Peace Treat}- between Germany, 
Austria-Hungary. Bulgaria, and 
Tui'key, on the one hand, and 
Russia, on the other hand, 

The plenipotentiaries of the 
German Empire, namely. 

The Secretary of State for 
Foreign Affairs, the Actual 
Imperial Privy Councillor, 
Herr Richard von Klihl- 
mann; 
The Imperial Envoy andlMin- 
ister Plenipotentiary, Dr. 
von Rosenberg; 
The Royal Prussian Major 
General Hoffmarm, Chief 
of the General Staff of the 
Commander-in-Chief of the 
East; and 
The Imperial Naval Captain 
Horn; as well as 
The plenipotentiaries of the 
Russian Federal Soviet-Repub- 
lic, namely, 

Grigory lakovlevich Sokolni- 
kow, }iiember of the Cen- 
tral Executive Committee 
of CounciUors to the Dep- 
uties of the Workingmen, 
Soldiers, and Peasants; 
Lew ilichailovich Karachan, 
Member of the Central 
Executive Committee of 
CounciUors to the Depu- 
ties of the Workingmen, 
Soldiers and Peasants; 



1 Eatiflcations exchanged at Berlin, 29 March, 1918 (p. 139, this volume). 



115 



116 



THE RUSSIAN- 



PEACE. 



(Seorgti aBaffilteUntfd) Z\d)xt\d)i'- 

tin, ©eliilfe beS 33oItgfotniffarg 

fiit auStcctrttge 2lngelegen{)eiten, 

unb 

®rigorti 3'h)onoitiitfd) 'iJJetrohJgtii, 

33ot!i<fommiffar fiir trmere 3In= 

gelegenf)eiten, 

iibereingefommen, bte ,£)erftettung ber 

offetttIid)en unb prtoaten Siec^tSbesie^ 

()ungen jtoifc^en 3)eutfd}Ianb unb 9?u6- 

lanb, ben 3Iugtoufd) ber .^riegggefange= 

nen unb ^-g^'Jitint^tnis'-'ten, bie giirforge 

fiir JRiidnjanbcrer, bte auS 2(nla6 beS 

grieben^[d)(uffeei 3U erlaffenbe 3lmneftte 

unb bie ^Be^anblung ber in bie ®en)alt 

beS Ocgnerg geratenen ,Sl'auffaI)rtei= 

fii^iffe unoerpgltdi ju regetn unb gu 

biefem ^ioede einen ^wfifebertrag ,5U 

bem griebenSftertrag abjufdiiiefeen. 



9^od)bem- bie 53et)offmad)tigten feft» 
geftellt Iiatten, bafe bie Don ii)nen bet ber 
Unterseid^nung beg griebengsertrogS 
ttorgelegten 35otImad)ten bie Sriebigung 
ber t)or[tebenb bejeicfineten ©egenftctnbe 
mit umfaffen, baben fie fid) iiber fotgenbe 
SBeftimmungen geetnigt. 

S r ft e c^ S\ a p i t e I. 

SSieberaufnafjme ber bi)3lo» 
m a t i f d) e n unb f o n f tt I a r i= 
f d) e n 58 e J t e f) u n g e n. 

?IrtifeI 1. 

iict 2Bieberaufnabme ber fonfu(art= 
fdien -'Sesiefiungen gemiii? :\rtife( X beg 
griebenStiertragg mirb feber oertrag= 
fdiliefeenbe Xeil bie .ft'onfulnbeganberen 
2;et[eg an alien "ipiaijen ieincj ©ebietg 
julaffen, fomeit nid)t bcreitg nor bent 
.fi'riege fiir etn^elne gemifd)tfprad}igc 
^]3(ai3e ober (Mcblctgteile 3Iugnaf)rrten be= 
ftanben unb biefe SluSnabnten nad) bem 
ftriege feber britten ^Jhdjt gegcitiiber 
gieidnnofeig aufred)ter[}alten mcrbcn. 



3eber Icif be;;n(t fid) oor, auS 
©riinbcn ber Vricgcinotluenbigfett an 
gemiffen 'ipia^en .Vonfi'tn beg anbcrcn 
Tcileg erft nad) ^.'(bfddufe beg at(ge= 
meincn ("^ricbong jujiilaffen. 



Georgi Vassilliovich Tchi- 
tcherin, Assistant of the 
People's Commissioner for 
Foreign Affairs ; and 
Grigory Ivanovich Petrov- 
sky, People's Commis- 
sioner for Internal Affairs, 
have agreed to settle forthwith . 
the reestabhshment of public and 
private legal relations between 
Germany and Russia, and the 
exchange of war prisoners and 
interned civilians, provision for 
repatriates, the amnesty to be 
issued by reason of the conclusion 
of peace, and the treatment of 
merchant ships which have come 
into the power of the opponent, 
and to that end to conclude 
an additional treatv to the Peace 
Treaty. 

After the plenipotentiaries had 
established that the powers which 
thej^ had submitted at the sig- 
nature of the Peace Treaty in- 
clude the settlement of the ob- 
jects hereinbefore indicated, they 
agreed upon the following stipu- 
lations. 

FIRST CHAPTER. 

resumption of diplomatic and 
consular relations. 

Article 1. 

Upon the resumption of con- 
sular relations, in accordance 
with Article X of the Peace 
Treaty, eachcontrac ting party will 
admit the consuls of the other 
party to all parts of its territory, 
provided that already before the 
war exceptions did not exist 
with regard to places or terri- 
torial regions of mixed languages, 
and provided that these excep- 
tions will, after the war, apply 
equally to any third Power. 

Each party reserves unto itself, 
for reasons of military necessity, 
to admit to certain places con- 
suls of the other party only after 
the conclusion of the general 
l)o;icc. 



LEGAL-POLITICAL TREATY WITH GEEMAIv'Y. 



117 



3Irtitet 2. 

3eber OertraQfd)Itefeenbe Jcil tutrb 
al(e ?cf)obeix erfc^en, bie in feincm @e= 
biete mafjrenb beS .T^riegeS Don ben 
bortigcn ftaatlidjen C^rganen ober ber 
Seoijlferung burd) Oolferredit«mibrige 
.^anblungen bipIomattfd)en unb ton= 
fufnrifdien 58eamten beg anberen Xci(es^ 
pgefiigt ober an 58otfdiaft«= unb .fton = 
futatSgebctuben biefeg JeileS ober an 
beren o^ntientar angcrtd)tet tnorbcn ftnb. 



3 to e 1 1 e g ^ apiteL 

2B t e b^e r {) e r ft e It u n g ber 
^taatSbertrage. 

Slrtttel 3. 

X'ic iBertrage, SIbfommen unb S8er= 
einbarungen, bie 5mifdien ben bertrag^ 
fcbttepenben xeikn Dor ber .ft"rieg8er= 
flcirnngin .ftraft getnefen |"inb4retcn oor= 
bebaltlid) abtneicbenber Seftimmungen 
beS ^riebenSDertragg unb biefeS ,3ufi^= 
Dertragg bei beren 9?attfitation mit ber 
$)Jtepgabe iDieber in .(?raft,- ba^, fotoeit 
fie fiir eine beftimmte S^^i unfilnbbar 
finb, biefe 3eit urn bie .ff'rieggbauer tier= 
liingert mirb. 



SIrtitel 4. 

3eber oertragfdiliefeenbe Xeil faun 
bem anberen Jeile binnen ferfjg ilJJonaten 
nadi ber Untcrjeirfinung be§ 5riebeng=- 
Dertragg bie Sertriige, llbfommen lober 
58ereinbarungen ober beren (Jinjelbes 
ftintmungen mittetlen, bie nadi feiner 
2tuffaffung mit ben Inaftrenb beg .fJriegeS 
eingetretenen S5eranberungen in 2Biber= 
fprud) fteben. T.iefe 58ertraggbeflim= 
mungen fofteu tunticbft balb burd) neue 
58ertrage erfe^t toerben, bie ben Der= 
anberten 3lnfd}nuung£n unb 3?erbalt= 
niffen entfpred}en. 

Snx Slugarbeitung ber im Slbfa^^ 1 
»orgefef)enen neuen SSertriige mirb 
binnen fed)g SJJonatcn nac^ ber 9iatifi= 
fatten beg griebengcertragg eine aug 
SBertretem ber beiben leile befte^enbe 



Akticle 2. 

Each contracting party will 
make compensation for all losses 
which have been caused during 
the war by local public organs or 
by the population, through acts 
contrary to international law 
against the diplomatic and con- 
sular officials of the other party 
or against the buildings of the 
embassy and consulate of this 
party or against its property. 

SECOND CHAPTER. 

reestablishment of political 
treaties. 

Article 3. 

The treaties, conventions, and 
agreements which were in force 
between the contracting parties 
before the declaration of war go 
again into force after the ratifi- 
cation of the Peace Treaty and of 
this additional treaty with the 
reservation of contrary stipula- 
tions, on the condition that, in 
so far as they cannot be de- 
nounced for a definite time, such 
period of time will be extended 
to the duration of the war. 

Article 4. 

Each contracting party may, ■ 
within the six months after the 
signature of the Peace Treaty, 
communicate to the other partj^ 
treaties, conventions, or agree- 
ments, or their special provisions 
which in its opinion are in con- 
tradiction to the changes that 
have taken place during the war. 
Such treaty provisions shall, as 
soon as possible, be replaced 
through new treaties meeting the 
changed views and conditions. 

For the drafting of the new 
treaties provided for in para- 
graph 1, a commission consist- 
ing of representatives of the two 
parties will meet at Berlin within 



118 



THE BUSSIAW PEACE. 



Sommiffton in iBerlin ,ut[nntTnentreten. 
Sotiieit fid) biefe binncn brei Monnten 
nacf) ibrem ,^u[ammentritt nid)t einigt, 
ftebt e§ icbem leile frei, Bon ben 58er= 
trngSbcftimmungen jurltdjutreten, bie 
cr gema)3 2lbfa^ 1 3a^ 1 bem anbercn_ 
Xeii'c mitgieteilt bat, bnnbeft e§ [id) ba-- 
bei um (Sinsetbel'ttmmungen, fo ftebt 
bem onberen Xctle ber ^Ivildtritt Som 
ganjen i^ertrage frei. 



airtifel 5. 

SDie 23ertrage, Jlbfommen unb 93er= 
etnbarungen, an benen aufeer ben ber= 
tragfc^iiefienben Xeilen britte 5Wadite 
beteiiigt finb, treten snjifc^en ben bciben 
Xdkn, borbebaltlic^ abmeidienber S3e= 
ftimmungen beg griebengbertragS bei 
beffen 9?atififation h)ieber in J?raft. 
Jiuf bie mit foId)en .f oHeftit3t)ertragen 
in ^ufammenbang ftebenben (ginjett)er» 
triige smifd)en ben beiben Zdkn finben 
bie SBeftimmungen beg Strtifet 3 iibcr 
bie 58ertengerung ber @e(tunggbauer 
unb beg Slrtifel 4 iiber ben 3?ucftritt 
feine SInmenbung. 

SBegen ber ftoKeftibftertrttge po(i= 
tifd)en 3nbaitg, an benen nod) anbere 
friegfiibrenbe TlixdjU beteitigt finb, be» 
balten ficb bie beiben Jeife ibre ©teHung= 
nabme big nacb ?(bfc^(u& beg affgcmeinen 
griebeng toor. 



J) r i 1 1 e g .ft' a p i t e [. 

SBieberberftetfung ber 
^ribatred)te. 

Slrtifel 6. 

'Mc in bem ©ebict eineg bertrag^ 
fdjliefeenben Jeiteg beftebenben 3}eftim» 
mungen, monad) mit 9^ii(Jfti1)t auf ben 
.f ricggjuftonb bie Jlngebbrigen beg an= 
beren Jeifeg in i'difebung ibrer '$ribat= 
recite irgenbftekber befonberen 3iege(ung 
unterliegen (.^riegggefcfee), treten mit 
ber g^atififation beg griebengbertragg 
aufeer Sinmenbung. 



the six months following the 
ratification of the peace treaty. 
In case this commission does not 
reach an agreement within the 
three months following its meet- 
ing, each party is free to with- 
draw from the treaty provisions 
which, according to paragraph 1, 
clause 1, it has communicated 
to the other party; in case this 
concerns special provisions, the 
other party has the right to 
withdraw from the entire treaty. 

Aeticle 5. 

The treaties, conventions, and 
agreements in which, besides the 
contracting parties, third powers 
take part, go again into force 
between the two parties, with the 
reservation of contrary provi- 
sions of the Peace Treaty, upon 
the latter's ratification. Special 
treaties .between the two parties 
and connected with such collec- 
tive treaties are not affected by 
the provision of Article 3 con- 
cerning the extension of the 
validity, nor by Article 4 anent 
the rejection of treaties. 

As regards collective treaties 
of a political nature in which 
other belligerent powers also take 
part, the two parties reserve unto 
themselves their attitude tiU after 
the conclusion of the general 
peace. 

THIRD CHAPTEK. 

REESTABLISHMENT OF PRIVATE 
RIGHTS. 

Article 6. 

All provisions in force within 
the territory of a contracting 
party, by which, because of the 
state of war, the nationals of the 
other party are subject to special 
regulations (war laws) with re- 
gard to their private rights, go 
out of forces upon the ratification 
of the present treaty. 



LEGAi-POOTIOAL TREATY WITH GEKMANT. 



119 



'^ii- 3Ingef)orige eitieg t>ertragfc^lte= 
^enben JeileS gelten auc^ folc^e jurifttfd^e 
■iPerfonen unb ®ei'ellfcf)aftcn, bie in fei= 
nem ©ebiet tf)ren gilj baben. gerner 
ftnb ben 2Ingef)ortgen eineei leileS 
iuriftifcfie ^13erfonen unb ©efeltfc^aften, 
bte in fetnem ©ebiete ntc^t tf)ren 2iij 
baben, infonjcit gleidj^uftetten, aU fie tm 
©ebiete beS anberen leileg ben fiir biefe 
3lngef)ortgen geltenben 33eftimmungen 
untertDorfen maren. 



artifet 7. 

iiber prioatrecbtlic^e 2cfiu(bberf)alt= 
niffe, bte burcft £rteg§gefe^e beeintrac[)= 
tigt inorben finb, roirb nacfeftetienbe?! 
Berembart. 



§1. 

Sie ©cbulbberbataiffe fterben liite= 
berj)ergeftel(t, jomeit fic^ ntcfit au^ ben 
28eftimmungen ber Slrttfel 7 bis- 11 ein 
Slnbereg ergibt. 

§2. 

S)te iSej'timmung beS § 1 f)inbert 
nic^t, bafe bie grage, toelc^en Sinffufe bie 
burd) ben .^rieg gefc^affenen ^uftcinbe, 
tnSbefonbere bie burcb 33erte^rg£)inbeT= 
niffe pber §anbeIgberbote b^'i^^^W' 
fl:{)rte Unmbglic^feit ber SrfiiHung, auf 
bte ®cfiu(bt)erf)ciltniffe auSiiben, im @e= 
biete jebe3 tiertragfcf)Iie&enben ieile^ 
md) ben bort fttr atle Sanbegeintnobner 
geltenben ©efe^en beurteilt ftirb. 



3)abei biirfen bie Stngebbrigen beS 
cmberen 3:cile§, bie burcf) ^Wafenabmen 
biefeg Xeileg befiinbert toorben finb, 
nid)t ungiinftiger bebanbcit merben, aU 
bie 3lngef)brigen bei eigenen itaateS, 
bie burc^ beffen dJla^nabmm bebinbert 
toorben finb. Slucf) foff berjenige, ber 
burcb ben £rieg an ber recbtjeitigen 33e= 
tBirfung einer ?eiftung bebinbert mar, 
nic^t t)crpflicf)tet fein, ben baburd) ent» 
ftanbenen s;c6aben ju erfe^en. 



Juridical persons and societies 
whicli hare their seat within the 
territory of a contracting party, 
are also regarded as nationals of 
that contracting party. And, fur- 
thermore. Juridical persons and 
societies which have not their seat 
within the territory of a contract- 
ing party are to be regarded as on 
a par with the nationals of this 
party, in so far as within the ter- 
ritory of the other partj^ they were 
subject to the regulations applying 
to the nationals of the latter party. 

Article 7. 

Concerning private legal debt 
relations, which have been af- 
fected by the laws of war, the 
following has been agreed upon. 



.§ 1- 

Debt relations will be reestab- 
Ushed, provided it is not other- 
wise specified in the provisions of 
Articles 7 to 11. 



The provision of § 1 does not 
prevent the question as to v.^hat 
influence the circumstances crea- 
ted by the war, especially the im- 
possibility of fulfillment brought 
about by hindrances in transpor- 
tation or commercial prohibitions, 
exert upon debt relations, from 
being decided within the territory 
of each contracting party accord- 
ing to the laws applicable to aU 
the inhabitants of the country. 

In these circumstances, the 
nationals of the other party who 
have been restricted through 
measures of this party may not 
be treated less favorably than the 
nationals of the respective State 
who were restricted through the 
measures of that party. Even 
the one whom the war prevented 
from fulfilling an obhgation in 
due time shall not be obligated 
to make compensation for the 
losses occasioned thereby. 



120 



THE RUSSIAN PEACE, 



§3. 

©elbforberungeu, beren 58e3a£)lung 
tm ^'aufc be6 J?riegeg auf ®runb tion 
J^rtegggefeljen tierroetgert »t)erben fonnte, 
braudicn ntd)t tior Slblauf toon fecfiS 
SKonaten nad) ber 9Jaiififatton be§ 
grtebenSDertragS beja^It ju hierben. 
®ie finb Hon ber urfpriingtii^en Stttt{g» 
fett an fiir bie Trailer beg .^ricgeS unb 
ber anfcfiliefeenben fed)§ 9}lonate o^ne 
9fit(f[td)t aitf 9Koratorien mit fiinf tiom 
.^unbert filr ba& 3ai)x ju tier^mien; btS 
3ur uriprungltcf)en gatltgfeit ftnb gege= 
benenfntfe bie bertrag(id)cn .3tn|"en ju 



S)te oertragfcbtiefeenben Jeile be= 
batten fid} Bor, nat)ere 93cftimmungen 
nnf bent (Jjebtete beS 35ed)ieti unb 
®d)ecfrerf)ts fomie ber 23a[utage[(^afte 
p ttereinbaren. 

§4. 

giir bie Jtbmidetung ber 2luJ3en= 
ftcinbe unb fonftigen pribatrecbttidjen 
58erbinbtirf)teiten [inb bie ftaotticb an» 
ertannten ©[anbigerfdmljBerbcinbe jur 
SSerfotgung ber Jlnfpritcbe ber it)nen 
ange[cfitof[enen natilrlicben unb iurifti= 
fd)en ^]3er[onen ate beren 93et)otfmac^tig» 
te ttedifetfeitig anjuerfennen unb juju^ 
taffen. 



atrtifet 8: 

3eber nertragfd)(ie^enbe 2reit mit 
(ginfcblufs fetner ©tiebftaaten tnirb fofort 
nad) ber 9Jatififatiori beS j5rieben§ber= 
tragg bie Se^abtung feiner 33erbinb= 
licbfeitcn, iugbefonbere ben bffentticben 
©d)ulbcnbien[t, gegcniiber ben 2lnge= 
borigen beS anbcren JeileS lBieberauf» 
ne{)men. 5)ie Uor ber Siatifitation 
fctttig geliDorbenen SSerbinblic^teiten mer= 
ben binnen fed)8 9Wonaten nad) ber 
9^atififation bejablt iDerbcn. 

X)k 53eftimmung beS 2tb[a^ 1 finbet 
feine Slntnenbung auf foldje gegenUber 
einem Jcile beftebenben gorberungen, 



§3. 

Pecuniary obligations whose 
payment could be refused in the 
course of the war by virtue of 
war laws, need not be paid before 
the expiration of six months from 
the time of the ratification of 
the Peace Treaty. Regardless of 
moratoriums, they are payable, 
with interest at 5% per annum, 
from the original date when pay- 
ment was due, for the duration 
of the war and the additional six 
months; in case interest was 
stipulated up to the time on 
which payment was due, such 
interest is to be paid. 

The contracting parties reserve 
unto themselves to agree upon 
more detailed provisions in the 
field of the laws anent drafts and 
checks as well as monetary trans- 
actions. 

§4. 

For the liquidation of out- 
standing debts and other private 
legal 'obligations, the national 
recognized associations for the 
protection of creditors are to be 
recognized and admitted as re- 
ciprocally empowered agents for 
the prosecution of the claims. of 
natural and juridical persons con- 
nected with them. 

Aetiole 8. 

Each contracting party, with 
the inclusion of its component 
States will, immediately upon 
the ratification of the Peace 
Treaty, resume payment of its 
obligations, especially payment 
of public obligations, to the na- 
tionals of the other party. Obli- 
fations that have become due 
efore the ratification, will be 
paid within the six months fol- 
lowing the ratification. 

The provision of paragraph 1 
does not apply to such claims 
against a party as have only, after 



LEGAL-POLITICAL TREATY WITH GERMANY. 



121 



hit erft nac^ ber Unterjetcftnung beg 
griebengbertragS nuf angc^orige be« 
anberen 3:ei(e§ iibergegangen finb. 

Strtifel 9. 

tlber Urfie6errecf)te unb ge)i3erblicl)e 
<B<i)u1^nd)U, f onseffionen iinb "ipribile' 
gien fotoie iibnlidie Snfprudjc auf bffent= 
ti(f)=rec^tltd)er ©runblagc, bie buret) 
^rteg§ge[c^e beemtriidjtigt tcorben finb, 
tt)trb iTad)[tef)enbe§ tiereinbart. 

§1. 

Die tm (Singang be5cid)Tieten 3ied)te 
iBerben tt)ieberbergefte(It, fohJeit fid) 
nid)t au§ bem 9(rtifel 11 ein Jlnbereg 
ergibt. 

!Dem SBerecbtigten toerben bie Don ifim 
flir bie ^eit ber (Sntjicbung ber 9?ecbte 
gefc^ulbeten ©ebit^ren erloffen ober, 
falls er fie bereits be^af)!! bat, 3U» 
riiderftattet; f)at ber ©taat au§ ber 58e« 
nu^ung ber 3?ed)te burc^ ©ritte 35er=^ 
mbgengbortetle gejogen, voeidit bie @e« 
bitbren iiberfteigen, fo ift bem 58ered)tig= 
ten ber 3)Jebrbetrag berauSgugeben. 
©olBeit ber ©taat JRecbte, bie ibm 
iibereignet tcorben finb, beim^t bat, 
ift ber i8ered)tigte angemeffen ju ent= 
[(^abtgen. 



3eber bertrogfdiliefeenbe 3;eil tnirb 
ben Slngefjbrigen be§ anberen 2;eiIeS, 
bie aug ?ln(afe beg Sriegeg eine gefetj= 
Iic|e grift fixr bie SSomabme einer jur 
Segriinbung ober ©rbaltung eineg ge= 
toerblic^en ©c^u^reditg erforberIid)en 
§anblung berfaumt ^aben, unbefd)abet 
roofilertoorbener ^fiedftt fritter, fiir bie 
5ta(^§oIung ber §anblung eine grift 
bon minbefteng einem 3abre nadi ber 
5Ratififation beg ^riebengbertragg ge= 
todfiren. 

®etoerblid)e @d)ui5red)te ber 2Inge= 
f)origen beg einen Jeileg folten im 
©ebiete beg anberen STeileg inegen 5^id)t= 
augiibung nic^t bor Slblauf bon bier 
3af)ren nac& ber 9?otififotion berfalten. 



the signature of the Peace Treaty, 
passed into the hands of nationals 
of the other party. 

Article 9. 

Concerning copyright, and in- 
dustrial patents, concessions, and 
privileges as well as similar 
claims based upon pubhc law and 
which have been prejudiced by 
war laws, the following is agreed 
upon. 

§1. 

The rights indicated in the 
beginning of this article are re- 
established unless otherwise pro- 
vided for in Article 11. 

Tlie owner of the right is re- 
leased from the dues owed for the 
time when he was deprived of his 
rights, or in case he has already 
paid such dues, they are to be 
returned to liim ; in case the State 
has derived profit through the use 
of his rights by third parties and 
such profit exceeds the dues, the 
surplus is then to be paid to the 
owner of the right. In so far as 
the State has made use of rights 
which have been conveyed to it, 
the owner of the right is to be 
adequately compensated. 

§2. 

Each contracting party wiU ex- 
tend to the citizens of the other 
party a term of not less than one 
year from the ratification of the 
iPeace Treaty, in order to allow 
them to take necessary action, 
nrovided this does not violate the 
legally appropriated rights of 
third parties to estabhsh or to 
maintain an industrial patent, in 
case the legal term given for such 
action has been allowed to elapse 
owing to the war. 

Industrial patents of the na- 
tionals of one party shall not be 
forfeited within the territory of 
the other party on account of 
their non-exploitation before the 
expiration of four years after the 
ratification. 



122 



THE EUSSIAN PEACE. 



§3. 

S)te 33cftimmung beg § 1 ?Ibf. !■ 
finbct auf .fjonjeffionen unb "ipribtlecsteTt 
[olTitc al)nlicfie ?(nfpruc^e auf offetititc^= 
red)tUcf)er ©runblagc feme Sintoenbung, 
foliiett biefe auf ®runb etner fitr alle 
?onbe§emttiof)ner unb fur alte ^Rec^te ber 
gleid)en 2Irt gettenben ©efe^ge&ung in= 
jlTDtfdien abgefd)afft ober tiom ©taate 
ober oon ©emeinben ubernommen tDor= 
ben finb unb in beren SBeft^e berfileiben; 
in biefen fatten regelt fid) bie @nt= 
fdjcibigung beg ^gerec^tigten nad) ben 
93eftimmungen beg Slrtifel 13. 



§4. 

S)ie Bertragfdjiiefeenben Sleile bef)alten 
fid) Dor, toegen ber "iprioritat getoerb^ 
ticker ©c^u^red)te befonbere 55eftim= 
mungen ju Bereinbaren. 

Strtifel 10. 

Sie griften filr bie 25erial)rung Oon 
$Ked)ten folien im @ebiete jebeg bertrag= 
fc^Uefeenben Jeileg gegeniiber ben ?lnge» 
borigen be§ anberen ietleg, fallg fie jur 
3eit beg ,f rieggaugbruc^g nod) nid^t ah' 
getaufen Wann, frlt^efteng ein 3a£)r 
nac^ ber JRatififation beg griebeng»er= 
trageg abloufen. Sag ®Ieid)e gilt bon 
ben griften jur SBorlegung Oon Si^^' 
fd)einen unb ©etoinnanteitfdieinen fotnie 
Oon auSgeloften ober fonft jablbar ge= 
morbenen SBertpapieren. 



Strtifel 11. 

Sie Jatigfeit ber ©te(kn, bie auf 
®runb bon Sriegggefeljen mit ber 33e= 
auffid)tigung, 2?erft)a{)rung, 25erltiat= 
tung ober ?iquibation bon 33ermbgeng= 
gegenftanben ober ber 3lnnoI)me bon 
„Saf)Iungen befafet morben finb, foH un- 
befdiabet ber ^Beftimmungen ber Slrtifel 
12, 13 nad) SJJafegabe ber nad)ftebenben 
®runbfa^e abgemidelt Inerben. 



§3. 

The provision of § 1 Para- 
graph 1, does not apply to con- 
cessions and privileges nor to 
similar claims based upon public 
law in so far as, in virtue of valid 
legislation applicable to all the 
inhabitants of the country and to 
aU rights of a similar nature, they 
have, in the meantime, been an- 
nulled or taken over by the State 
or by communities and remain in 
their possession; in such cases the 
indemnification of the owner of 
the right is settled in accordance 
with the provisions of Article 13. 

§4. 

The contracting parties reserve 
unto themselves to agree to spe- 
cial provisions with regard to 
priority of industrial patents. 

Article 10. 

The dates for the expiration 
of rights shall, within the terri- 
tory of each contracting party 
and in respect to the nationals of 
the other party, not expire earUer ' 
than one year after the ratifi- 
cation of the Peace Treaty, pro- 
vided that they had not expired 
at the outbreak of the war. The 
same applies to the dates for the 
presentation of interest certifi- 
cates and certificates in profit 
sharing as well as to securities 
redeemed or else become due. 

Article 11. 

The activity of the institutions 
which in virtue of war laws have 
been entrusted with the super- 
vision, safeguarding, administra- 
tion, or liquidation of properties 
or with the . acceptance of pay- 
ments shall, without prejudice to. 
the provisions of Articles 12, 13 
be settled in accordance with the 
following basic rules. 



LEGAL-POLITICAL XEEATY WITH OEEMANY. 



123 



3)ie fieaufftc^tigten, berh)af)rten ober 
tierrtalteten S^ermogenSgegenftantie finb 
auf SSertangen beS S8ered)tigten unt)er= 
jiigltcf) freisugeben; bi§ jur tlbernofime 
buxd) ben S8ere(f)tigten tft flir bie ^at)' 
rung feiner 3ntere[[en ju forgen. 



©etber unb SBertpapiere, bie fid^ bei 
einer jentratert §inter(egung§ftelle, ei= 
nem offentlicbeii 2:reuftanbler ober einer 
fonftigenftaatlicfi beauftragten ©ammel= 
fterte befinben, finb binnen brei 9Wona» 
ten nacf) ber 9?attfifation be8 grtebeng^ 
bertragg bem Serecfitigten jur S5er= 
filgung ju fteKen ; mit ben ©elbern finb 
3tnfen jum ^a^regfaije bon bier bom 
§unbert feit ber Sinjafjlung bet ber 
©ammelftelk, mit ben SBertbapieren 
finb bie eingejogenen 3infen unb ®e= 
ttinnanteile tieraugjugeben. 



§2. 

2)ie iBeftimmungen beS § 1 follen 
loof)[ertt3orbene SJec^te Srttter nij^t 
berufiren. 3i^)tun8en unb fonftige 
?etftungen - eineg lirpci^ulbnerS, bie bon 
ben im @ingang biefeS SlrtifelS er= 
h)(if)nten ©telten ober auf beren S?eran= 
laffung entgegengenommen ftorben finb, 
foiien in ben ©ebieten ber bertrag= 
fc^Iiefeenben 3:eile bie glet(fie SSirfung 
{)aben, mie hienn fie ber ©taubiger felbft 
empfangen l^cttte. 

■iPribatrec^tlit^e 2?erfilgungen, bie bon 
ben bejetc^neten ©tetten ober auf beren 
35eranlaffung ober i£)nen gegenliber bor= 
genommen toorben finb, bleiben mit 
SBirfung fiir beibe Xdk aufrec^ter= 
l^alten. 

§3. 

liber bie Jcitigfeit ber im ©ingang 
biefeS airtifete txtoixpnUn ©tetlen, in8= 
befonbere iiber bie (ginnaf)men unb §Iug= 
gaben, tft ben Seret^tigten auf 25er= 
fongenunbersliglic^ SluSfunft ju erteiren. 



86409—18 9 



§ 1. 

The supervised, safeguarded, 
or administered properties are, 
upon the demand of the person 
entitled thereto, to be released 
immediately; until the transfer 
to the person entitled thereto 
has been effected, the safeguard- 
ing of his interests is to be cared 
for. 

Moneys and securities held by 
a central institution of deposit, 
by a public trustee, or in other 
savings institutions commissioned 
by the State, are to be placed at. 
the disposal of the person en- 
titled thereto within the three 
months following the ratification 
of the Peace Treaty; along with 
the moneys, interest at the annual 
rate of 4% from the date of de- 
posit with the savings institu- 
tions is to be paid; along with the 
securities, accrued interest and 
profit shares are to be handed 
over. 

§ 2. 

The provisions of § 1 shall not 
affect properly acquired rights 
of third parties. Payments and 
other obligations of a debtor 
which have been accepted by the 
institution mentioned in the be- 
ginning of this article or upon 
their solicitation, shall, within 
the territories of the contracting 
parties, have the same effect as 
if the creditor himself had re- 
ceived them. 

Private legal measures which 
have been resorted to by the 
specified institutions or upon their 
solicitation or with regard to 
them, are to remain effective for 
both parties. 

§3. 

Concerning the activity of the 
institutions mentioned in the be- 
ginning of this article, especially 
concerning receipts, expenditures, 
information is to be immediately 
afforded upon the demand of 
those entitled to it. 



124 



I'HE RUSSIAN PEACE. 



Sr[a1?an[pruclje inegen ber Icttigfett 
biefer ©telien ober megen ber auf t£)re 
35eraiilaffiing tiorgenommenen §anb= 
lungen fbnnen nur gemiife ben 58eftim= 
muTigen be§ 3lrttfel 13 geltenb gemacfit 
h)erbeti. 



Slrtitet 12. 

©runbftilcfe ober 9?ed)te an einem 
@rnnb[tu(f , 58ergmerf«geredjtfamc fotoie 
9xed)te auf bie 33enul|ung ober 2luji&eu= 
tung Don ©runbftiicfen, Untemef)mun= 
gen ober I'leteiligungcn an einem Unter= 
ne&men, inSliefonbere SIftien, bie infotge 
tion Uriegggc[e^en tseraufeert ober bem 
58ereif)tigtcn fonft burd) ^wang cnt= 
jogen tnorben finb, follen bem friil^eren 
Sered)tigten ouf einen inner^ntfa eineS 
3al)reg nad) ber 9iatiftfatton be§ 5-rie= 
benStiertragg ju ftcllenben SIntrag gegen 
9?ucfgeWa{)rung ber i^m au6 ber SSer= 
ctufeerung ober (5ntjie{)ung ettoa er= 
madifencn SBorteile frei Bon alien in= 
5mifct;en begrilnbeten 9icd)tcn Sritter 
n)ieber ii&ertragen Inerben. 

3)ie Seftimmungen beg Slbfafe 1 
finben feine Stntoenbimg, fotoeit bie ber= 
aufeerten SBermogenggegenftctnbe auf 
@runb einer fiir alk £'anbegeinn)o£)ner 
unb filr a((e ©egenftiinbe ber gleid)en 
Slrt geltenben ©efe^gebung injmifdjen 
Oom ©taate ober Don ®emeinben iiber» 
nommen morben finb unb in beren 93e= 
fi^e Oerbleifaen. 3n biefen gciden regelt 
fid) bie Gntfd)abigung beg 33ered)tigten 
nad) ben Seftimmungen beg Slrtifel 13 ; 
and) faun bei einer 2Bieberauff)ebung ber 
Ubernaf)me ber im Slbfa^ 1 Oorgefei)ene 
SIntrag auf 9{iid8etnal)ruug inner^alb 
cineg 3al)reg nad) ber SBieberauftjebung 
geftellt toerben. 



SSierteg tapitel. 

6rfa^ flir ^ibilfc^iiben. 

artttel 13. 

!Der 2(nget)orige cineg bertragfc^Iie= 
feenben 2;eileg, ber im ©cbiete beg an= 



Claims for damages on account 
of tiie activity of these institu- 
tions or on account of actions 
taken upon their solicitation can 
be validly presented only in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of 
Article 13. 

Article 12. 

Parcels of land or rights to a 
parcel of land, mining privileges 
as well as rights to the use or ex- 
ploitation of parcels of land, en- 
terprises or participation in an 
enterprise, especially shares which 
in consequence of war laws have 
been alienated or forcibly taken 
from the person entitled thereto, 
must be returned to the former 
owner upon a claim to that end 
within one yc:ir after the ratifica- 
tion of the peace treaty by de- 
ducting any profit that may have 
accrued to him sis a result of the 
said alienation or subtraction, 
exempt from all rights established 
in the interval by third parties. 

The provisions of paragraph 1 
do not apply in so far as the 
alienated properties, in virtue of 
legislation applicable to all the 
inhabitants of the land and to all 
objects of a like nature, have 
been taken over in the meantime 
by the State or by communities 
and remain in their possession. 
In such cases the indemnity due 
the person entitled thereto is set- 
tled in accordance with the pro- 
visions of Article 13; further, in 
the case of cancellation of the 
transfer, the demand foreseen in 
paragraph 1 anent deducting of 
profit, may be presented within 
one year after the cancellation. 

FOURTH CHAPTER. 

compensation for civil losses. 

Article 13. 

The national of a contracting 
party who within the territory of 



LEGAL-POLITICAL TREATY WITH GEKMANY. 



125 



beren Jeileg tnfolge toon f rteg§eefefeen 
burdj bie jeitlDeittge ober bauernbe gnt= 
3ief)ung tion Ur^eberredjten, geh3erb= 
tic&en ©dnil5recf)ten, JSonseffionen, ^xu 
titlegien unb af)nltd)en 3lnfprud)en ober 
burd) bie ^Beaufficfettgung, 53erh)a{)rung, 
SBerlnaltUTig ober 3Serau6eruTig Bon 93er= 
mogenSgcgenftanben einen @d)aben er= 
litten f)at, t[t in angemeffener JBei[e ju 
entf(^abigen, fofteit ber Sdiaben nid)t 
burc^ SSiebereinfe^ung in ben tiorigen 
otanb er[e^t tnirb. S)ieS gilt and) bon 
SIftionaren, bie inegen if)rer Sigenfc&aft 
ate feit^biidie Slujtanber Don einem Se= 
^ugSred}t auggefdiIo[fen iDorben finb. 



Jtrtifel 14. 

3eber Oertragfdilteiienbe leil tt)irb 
ben i^ioilangetiorigen beS anberen ieileg 
bie Sdiiibcn erfeljen, bie if)nen in feinem 
©ebiete rDtifircnb be>5 firicgert bon ben 
bortigen ftaat[id)en Crganen ober ber 
i8ebo(fcrung burd) bblferred)t§h3ibrtgc 
@eb)altafte an ?cben, @efunbf)eit ober 
l^ermbgen jngefiigt Worben finb. Xicfe 
SBeftimmung finbet audi SIntt)cnbung 
auf bie @d)aben, toeldie bie 3tngef)brigen 
beg eincn Tei[e§ als XcilJja&er ber auf 
bem ©ebiete beg onbercn STeileg befinb= 
Iid)en llnteme!)mungen eriitten i)abm. 



artitel 15. 

^ur iveftfteirung ber nnc^ Slrtifel 12, 
14 ju erfe^enben Sdiciben foH afebalb 
nod) ber $Katifitation beg griebengber= 
trageg in 'Bt ^etergburg eine -^om= 
miffion jufammentreten, bie ju je einem 
©rittel oug iSertretem ber beiben 
j^ei(e imb neutralen aWitgliebem ge= 
Bilbet toirb; urn bie Segeic^nung ber 
neutralen ^D^itgtieber, bamnter beg 
SSorfi^enben, n)irb ber ^rcifibent beS 
©c^meijcrifc^en Sunbegratg gebeten 
tnerben. 

5}ie .f ommiffion ftellt bie fitr i£)re 
Sntfc^etbungen maf^gebenben ®runb= 
fa^e ouf; auc^ erlafet fie bie iux (gr= 



the other party, in virtue of war 
laws has suffered loss through the 
temporary or permanent sub- 
traction of copyright, industrial 
patents, concessions, privileges, 
and similar claims, or through the 
supervision, safeguarding, admin- 
istration, or alienation of proper- 
ties, is to be compensated in ade- 
quate manner, in so far as the 
loss can not be made good by 
restoration to the former condi- 
tion. This applies also to share 
holders who in their quality of 
enemy aliens have been excluded 
from the right of preemption. 

Article 14. 

Each contracting party will 
compensate the civilian nationals 
of the other party far the losses 
which have been occasioned to 
them, in body, health, or prop- 
erty, within its territory during 
the war by the local public organs 
or by the population through 
acts of violence contrary to in- 
ternational law. This provision 
apphes likewi'se to the losses 
which the nationals of the one 
party have suffered as associates 
in enterprises within the territory 
of the other party. 

Aeticle 15. 

In order to deternune the losses 
to be compensated for in accord- 
ance with Articles 13, and 14, 
a Commission shall meet in St. 
Petersburg, immediately after the 
ratification of the peace treaty, 
which will be composed one-third 
each of representatives of the two 
parties and of neutral members; 
the President of the Swiss Federal 
CouncO will be requested to des- 
ignate the neutral members, and 
among these, the chairman. 

The Commission establishes the 
principles, authoritative for its 
decisions; it also adopts the 
necessary business order for the 



126 



THE EUSSIAK 



PEACE. 



lebtgung tf)rcr Stufgakn erforberlic^e 
@e|d)aft8orbnimg imb bie 93efttm' 
mungen ilber boS babci emjufrfilagcnbe 
S3erfaf)ren. 3^re (Sntfrfietbungen cr= 
folgen in UnterfoTnTni[ftonen, bie auS 
je einem 2^ertreter ber betben 2:ctle unb 
emem neutralen Obmann gebilbet h)er= 
ben.. Tic Don ben llnterfommiffioncn 
feftge[teHten 93etrage finb inner[}nlb 
einc§ 9}Jonnt6 nad) ber geftftcHimg ju 
bejaljlen. 

3lrtifel 16. 

3eber Sertragfc^Iiefeenbe Jcil h)irb 
bie Son if)m in feinem ©ebiete bet 2In= 
gef)origcTi beS nnberen Sleile^ ange= 
forberteti ©egenftiinbc, fotBeit bieg ttod^ 
nid}t gefd)et)en ift, unberjuglid) begat)len. 

SBegen Dtegelung ber Sntfcftctbigung 
filr |oId)c 25ennbgen8rt5erte bon 2lnge= 
{)brigen beS eiticn leileS, bie nbgefef)cn 
bon ben im §IrtifeI 9 § 3 unb im 
Slrtitel 12 §tbf. 2 bejeic^neten SttHen 
im ©ebicte be§ anberen STeilcS of)ne aug= 
reidienbcn (5rfa^ enteignet tnorben finb, 
bleibt eine befonbere SSereinbarung Bor= 
bef)alten. 



glinfte« taMtel. 

SluStaufd) ber ^rieg8ge» 
fangenen unb ^i^ilinters 
n i e r t e n. 

SIrtiM 17. 

liber ben im Slrtifel VIII be6 grie= 
benSbertragS borgefelienen Slu^taufc^ 
ber ^riegggefangenen ttierben bie nad^= 
ftebenben S3eftimmungen getroffen. 

§1. 

3)ie beiberfeitigen .friegSgefangenen 
merben in i{)re §eimat entlaffen berben, 
folreit fie nic^t mit ^uftimmung beg 
S'Jebmeftaatg in beffen ©ebiete ju bkiben 
ober fid) in ein anbereS ?onb p begeben 
toUnfc^en. 



settlement of its tasks and the 
rules of procedure which it is to 
observe. Its decisions are reached 
in subcommissions each of which 
will be composed of a represen- 
tative of the two parties and one 
neutral umpire. The amounts 
established by the subcommission 
are payable within one month 
after the determination thereof. 

Aeticlb 16. 

Each contracting party wiU 
immediately pay for the articles 
requisitioned within its territory 
of the nationals of the other 
party, in so far as this has not 
already been done. 

With regard to the settlement 
of the loss of such property 
values by nationals of one party 
who, besides the cases specified 
in Article 9, § 3, and in Article 
12, Paragraph 2, have been seized 
within the territory of the other 
party without adequate compen- 
sation, a special agreement is re- 
served. 

FIFTH CHAPTEK. 

EXCHANGE OF PRISONERS OF WAR 
AND INTERNED CIVILIANS. 



Aeticle 17. 

Concerning the exchange of 
prisoners of war foreseen in Arti- 
cle VIII of the Peace Treaty, the 
following provisions are adopted: 

§1- 

The prisoners of war of both 
parties will be released into their 
homeland, in so far as they do 
not, with the consent of the cap- 
turing State, desu-e to remain 
within the latter's territory or 
betake themselves into another 
country. 



i^EGAL-POLITIOAL TREATY WITH GEEMANY. 



127 



S)er berettS im ®ange beftnblidje 
Stugtaufiit) bienftuntaugltd}er .ftrieg?ge= 
fangenen toirb mit tnbgtid}fter 33e= 
fc^Ieuniguttg burcf)gefil{)rt hierben. 

S)er Slugtaufd) ber iibrtgen' Srtegg= 
gefangenen erfolgt tunltd)ft 6alb in 6e= 
ftimmten, ttod^ ntt^er p tieretnbarenben 
^eitraumen. 

9?u6Ianb ftitrb auf fetnem ©ebiete 
beutfd)e f ommtfftonen jum ^icecfe ber 
giirforge fiir beutfc^e .trtegggefairgene 
jutaifen unb nadj .ftriiften unterftii^en. 



§2. 

Set ber (Sntlaffung erf)atten bie 
Sriegggefangenen bag t{)nen bon beit 58e= 
f)orben beg ^^efimeftaatg abgenommene 
^rtbateigentum fohjte ben noc^ nicbt 
augbejaJjIten ober tierre(fineten letl 
tf)reg Sirbeitgberbtenfteg; bie[e 33er= 
pflidltung bejtefjt ft(^ nic^t auf @(^rtft= 
ftllcfe mtlitartfd}en ^nijaltg. 



§3. 

Seber bertragfc^Iie&enbe 2;etl totrb 
bie Slufroenbungen, bie fiir feine in 
^riegggefangenfd)aft geratenen Slnge= 
fibrigen bon bem anberen Jeile gemac^t 
iBorben finb, erftatten, folueit bie 
2lufn)enbungen nidit burd) bie SIrbeit 
ber J?riegggefangenen in ©taatg= ober 
■JSribatbetrieben alg abgegolten anju= 
fef)en finb. 

©ie 93esaf)Iung erfolgt in ber 2Ba{)= 
rung beg Ste^meftaatg in 3:eilbetrngen 
fiir je 50 000 .ftriegggefangene, unb 
ivoax jebegmai innerfialb einer 2Bod)e 
nadi beren (Sntlaffung. 

§4. 

Sine aug je bier 25ertretern ber 
beiben 3:eile ju bilbenbe .S'ommiffion 
foil algbatb nac& ber 9?atifitation beg 
griebengbertragg on einent nod) ju 
b'eftimmenben Orte gufammentreten, 
urn bie im § 1 2tbf. 3 borgefefjenen 
^eitrciume fowie bie fonftigen (ginjel* 



' The exchange of prisoners unfit 
for service which is already under 
way will be carried out with all 
possible dispatch. 

The exchange of the rerqaining 
prisoners of war takes place as 
soon as possible within definite 
periods of time still to be agreed 
upon. 

Russia will admit to her terri- 
tory German Commissions for the 
purpose of providing for German 
prisoners of war, and assist them 
as far as within her power. 



Upon their release, the prison- 
ers of war receive the private 
property taken from them by the 
authorities of the capturing State, 
as well as the part of their earn- 
ings not yet paid or credited to 
them; this obligation does not 
refer to written documents of 
military contents. 



§3. 

Each contracting party wiH re- 
imburse the expenses incurred by 
the other party for its nationals 
who have been made prisoners of 
war, in so far as the expenditures 
are not to be regarded as bal- 
anced by the work of the war 
prisoners in State or private in- 
stitutions. 

Payment is made in the cur- 
rency of the capturing State in 
partial amounts for each 50,000 
war prisoners, and in every case 
within, one week after their re- 
lease. 

§4. 

A Commission to be composed 
of four representatives of each of 
the two parties shall immediately 
after the ratification of the Peace 
Treaty meet in a place still to be 
determined, in order to define the 
periods of time foreseen in § 1, 
Paragraph 3, as well as the re- 



128 



THE BUSSIAN PEACE. 



f)eiten be6 SlugtaufdjeS, tnSbefonbere 
bie 2lrt unb SBetfe ber §eimbeforberung, 
feftpfe^en vmb bie ©urd^fiifirung ber 
getroffenen 35ereinl)arungen ju Uber= 
mac^en. 

gerner toirb bie Sommiffion bie nad) 
§ 3 toon ben beiben SJeilen jn erftattenben 
3Iuftt)enbungen fiir JJriegggefangene feft= 
fe^en. ©oltte fie fi^ tnnerf)alb jhjeter 
SDJonate nac^ iJ)rem ^ufiTt'nentritt 
iiber bie geftfefeung nid)t geeinigt £)a6en, 
fo foil biefe in enbgiiltiger SBeife unter 
3ujief)ung eineg nentralen DbmonnS 
nai^ ®timmenmef)r£)eit erfoigen; um 
bie 33e5eicfinung be8 ObmannS hJlirbe 
ber "iprafibent be6 ©cfimeiserifc^en S3un= 
beSratS ju bitten fein. 



Slrtifel 18. 

liber bie $eimtebr ber beiberfeitigen 
„Si»iIange£)brigen tnerben bie nacf)fte^en= 
ben Seftimmungen getroffen. 

§1. 

!r>ie beiberfeitigten internierten ober 
Oerfcbicften ^i^'itongefjortgen irerben 
tunlid)ft bolb unentgelttid} f)eimbefor= 
bert merbcn, fotneit fie nid)t mit 3"= 
fttmmung beS HiifentbottSftaotg in 
ijeffen ®ebietc ju bleiben ober fidi in ein 
anbereS ?anb ju begeben mitnfcben. 



3)ie in ®t. ^etergburg liber bie §eim= 
tel)r ber .Sibitongeborigen getroffenen 
S?ereinbarungen toerbcn mit mbglidifter 
SBefc^Ieunigung burdjgefiibrt tnerben! 

T)xe im Sfrtifel 17 § 4 ertottlinte 
ffommiffion foil bie bei ben 33er^anb= 
lungen in ©t. Petersburg offengeblie= 
berten jjragen regein unb bie !I)urd)ftt]^= 
rung ber getroffenen 93ereinbarungen 
liberwadien. 

J)ie im 2IrtifeI 17 § 1 ?lbf. 4 »orge= 
fel)enen beutfd)en ftommiffionen Inerben 
aud) bie ^fiirforge fiir beutfd}e 5ibilper» 
fonen libernef)men. 



maining details of the exchange, 
especially the manner and method 
of repatriation, and to supervise 
the execution of the agreements 
reached. 

Further, the Commission will 
estabhsh the expenditures for war 
prisoners which are to be reim- 
bursed by both parties in accord- 
ance with § 3. If within two 
months after its meeting no agree- 
ment should have been reached 
in regard to this matter, it shall 
then be finally settled by a ma- 
jority of votes with the assistance 
of a neutral umpire ; as to the des- 
ignation of the umpire, a request 
would be addressed to that end to 
the President of the Swiss Federal 
Council. 

Article IS. 

Concerning the return home of 
the civihan nationals of both par- 
ties, the following regulations are 
adopted. 

§ 1- 

The interned or deported civil- 
ian nationals of both parties will 
be conveyed home as soon as pos- 
sible and without expense, in so 
far as they do not desire, with the 
consent of the State in which they 
sojourn, to remain within the 
latter's- territory or to betake 
themselves into another country. 

The agreements adopted in St. 
Petersburg anent the return home 
of the. civilian nationals will be 
carried out with the utmost dis- 
patch. 

The Commission mentioned in 
Article 17, § 4 shall settle any 
questions that have remained- 
open in the course of the negotia- 
tions in St. Petersburg, and super- 
vise the execution of the agree- 
ments reached. 

The German Commission pro- 
vided for in Article 17, § 1, Para- 
gra)ili 4, will take over the care 
of Goi-man civilians. 



LEGAL-POLITICAL TBEATY WITH GERMANY. 



129 



§2. 

3)ie SIngefiorigen cincS SleileS, bie bet 
^ries§au§briicf) in bem ©ebiete beg 
anberen SletleS itjren SBobnft^ ober eine 
getoerblid)e ober ^nnbelSniebertaffung 
fatten imb fief) nid)t in biefem ©ebiet 
au[J)a(ten, fonticn bort{)m surildfebren, 
fobalb [id) ber anbere SLeil nid)t mefir tm 
triegSsuftanb befinbet. 3)ie 9Ju(fteI)r 
fann nur au8 ©riinben ber inneren ober 
oufeeren ©id^erfieit beS ©taateS berfagt 
loerben. 

2II8 SluStceig genllgt ein t)on ben S3e= 
Iborben beg §eimatftaatg auSgeftettter 
'jjafe, tDonad) ber 3n6aber ju ben im 
2lb[a^ 1 be^eidjneten ^erfonen ge£)ort; 
ein ©icbtBermert aiif bem $affe ift nic^t 
erforberlid). 



Slrtitel 19. 

!Die SInge&origen jebeg I3ertragfd)lie= 
feenben JeileS fotten im ©ebiete beS an= 
beren 2;ei(eg fiir bie ^cit, mcifjrenb beren 
bort if)r ®eftierbe= ober Sanbelgbetrieb 
ober ibrc fonftige grfterbstcttigteit in= 
folge beg ijriegeg geruf)t f)at, feinerlei 
2luflagen, SIbgaben, ©teuem ober @e= 
bii^ren fiir' ben ®eh)erbe= ober §anbete= 
betrieb ober bie fonftige @rfterbgtatig= 
feit untertiegen. Setrage, bie biernacb 
nic^t gefc^ulbet rterben, aber bereitg er= 
{)oben finb, follen binnen fec^g 2)2onaten 
nad) ber fffattfifation beg griebengoer= 
ragg juriiderftottet h)erben. 



2luf §anbelg= unb fonftige @rtoerbg= 
gefettfc^aften, an benen Slnge^iJrige beg 
etnen STeilg alg ®efellfd)after, SIttionare 
ober in fonftiger SBeife beteiligt finb unb 
beren Setrieb im ©ebiete beg anberen 
leileg infolge-beg .ftriegeg gerubt I)at, 
finben bie SSeftimmnngen beg SIbfaij 1 
entfprecjenbe Slntoenbung. 



§2. 

The nationals of a party who at 
the outbreak of the war had their 
domicile or an industrial or com- 
mercial occupation within the 
territory of the other party and 
who did not reside within such 
territory, may return thither, as 
soon as the other party no longer 
is in a state of war. Such return 
may be refused only for reasons 
of the internal or external se- 
curity of the State. 

Sufficient proof of this wiU be a 
passport issued by the authori- 
ties of the home State, showing 
that the holder thereof belongs to 
the persons specified in paragraph 
1 preceding; the passport does 
not require a vise. 

Article 1.9. 

The nationals of each contract- 
ing party shall, within the terri- 
tory of the other party and for the 
time during which their industrial 
or commercial enterprises or any 
other of their industrial activities 
have ceased, because of the war, 
not be subject to any Isind of 
assessments, rates, taxes, or dues 
for the industrial or commercial 
enterprise or the other industrial 
activities. Amounts which, in 
consequence, are not owed, but 
have already been levied, shall be 
reimbursed within six months 
after the ratification of the peace 
treaty. 

The provisions of paragraph 1 
are similarly applicable to com- 
mercial and other industrial so- 
cieties in which nationals of the 
one party are interested as asso- 
ciates, shareholders, or in any 
other manner and whose opera- 
tion within the territory of the 
other party has ceased in conse- 
quence of the war. 



130 



THE EUSSIAN 



PEACE. 



Strtttel 20. 

3eber bertragfc^Iiefeenbe Jeil t)er= 
):fUd)tet ftcij, bie auf [etnem ©ebiete 6e= 
fiubli(f)en ©rabfttitten ber §eere6ange= 
i)origen folnie ber iBcifjrenb ber 3nter= 
Ttierutig ober 25(<rfc^itfung berftorbenen 
fonfttgen 2Inge!)origett be8 anberett Zd' 
Ie§ 5u ad}ten unb ju unter^alten; auc^ 
fonnen Seauftragte biefeS Jettc^^ bie 
'iPffege 'unb angemeffene Slugfdjmlicfung 
ber ©rabftiitten in (Sinberneljmen mit 
ben l'anbeS6ef)orben beforgen. Sie mit 
ber '53flege ber ©rabftiltten 3u[ammen= 
l^angenben ginjelfragen bteiben njeiterer 
SSeretnbarung t)orbeI)aIten. 



S e (^ ft e g S a )3 1 1 e t. 

giirforge fitr 9?ucfmanberer. 

SIrtitet 21. 

3)en Slnge^origen iebe§ bertrag= 
fc^Iiefeenben S^eileg, bie aug bem ©ebiete 
beg anberen Jeileg ftammen, foil eS 
toaf)renb einer grift Don jefin 3a6ren 
nad) ber 9tatififation beg griebengber^ 
trageg freiftefien, tm @inbernet)men 
mit ben 33el)brben biefeg Jeileg nac^ 
i^rem ©tammlanb jurllcfjulDanbern. 

3)ie jur 9?ii(Jh)anberung berec^tigten 
■iPerfonen follen auf 3Intrag bie (gnt= 
laffung aug ifirem bigt)^rigen ®taatg= 
berbanb eri)atten. 2iu4 foil ifir fcl)rift= 
Ii(^er ober munblicf)er 25erfef)r mit ben 
biplomatifd)cn unb fonfutarifdjen 93er= 
tretern beg ©tammlanbeg in feiner 
SBeife gel)inbert ober erfc^toert tocrben" 



35ie im SlrtiW 17 § 1 Slbf. 4 borgc= 
fef)encn beutfc^en .Rommiffionen toerben 
aud) bie giirforge fiir beutfc^e 9iiicf= 
iDonberer llbernef)men. 

Sirtifel 22. 

Sic atiidmanberer follen fiir bie 
ifjuen iDtil^renb beg .fltiegeg megen ifirer 
Slbftommung jugefUgten Unbilben eine 
biltige Gntfdjiibigung er^dten, and) 



Article 20. 

Each contracting party obli- 
gates itseK to respect and to care 
for, within its territory, the 
graves of those belonging to the 
army as well as of other, nationals 
of the other party who died 
during their internment or de- 
portation; persons authorized by 
this party may also, in agreement 
with the national authorities, 
tend to the care and proper 
adornment of the graves. The 
settlement of particular questions 
connected with the care of the 
graves is reserved for subsequent 
agreements. 

SIXTH CHAPTEK. 

care of the repatriated. 

Article 21. 

The nationals of each contract- 
ing party originating from the 
territory of the other party shall, 
during a period of ten years after 
the ratification of the peace treaty, 
be free, in agreement with the 
authorities of this party, to return 
to their original land. 

Upon demand, persons entitled 
to repatriation, shall receive their 
release from the State in which 
they had been held up to that 
time. Nor shaU their written 
or verbal intercourse with the 
diplomatic and consular repre- 
sentatives of their land of origin 
be hindered or made difficult in 
any way whatever. 

The German Commission fore- 
seeii in Article 17, § 1, Paragraph 
4 will, moreover, take over the 
caio of Germans to be repatriated. 

Article 22. 

Ji'or wrongs occasioned them 
during the war on account of their 
origin, the repatriated shall re- 
ceive fair indemnification and 



LEGAL-POLITICAL TEEATT WITH GERMANY. 



131 



burcf) bie SluStibung beg $Rtlcfh)anbc= 
rungSrecfitS tdnertet ttermogenSred^tlit^e 
iJtad^tetle erietben. <Sie fotlen kfugt 
fetn, tf)r Sermogen ju Iiquibieren unb 
ben SrIoS jotDte tf)re fonfttge beh)egli(fie 
paht mitsuneijtnen; ferner biirfen fie 
i^re 'i5acf)tt»ei-trage unter (Sinf)dtung 
einer grift Don fecfig 9}?onateTi tiinbigen, 
of)ne ba^ ber SBerpacfiter ttegen bor= 
jeitiger Stitflofung beg "iPacfitticrtragg 
@(f)abengerfa^ati[priid)e geltenb mad)eTi 
Jann. 



2 i e b e n t e g .ft a p i t c I. 

31 m n e ft i e. 

Slrtifel 23. 

3eber bertragfc^tiefeenbe 2:eil ge» 
iBcibrt ben 3lnget)6rigen beg anberen 
2:ei(eg ©traffreif)eit nad) SKafigabe ber 
nacf)ftef)enben SBeftimmungen. 

§1. 

3eber 2^eil gelDcitjrt bolle @traffrei= 
f)eit ben bem anberen STeile angeI)oren= 
ben .^riegggefangenen filr alte bon 
tf)nen begangenen geri(f)tiic^ ober bif^i^ 
iDlinarifcf) ftrafbaren .gianblungen. 



§2. 

Seber Xdl gemritjrt bolTe 2traffreif)eit 
ben 3ibifangebbrigen be? anberen 4.eileg, 
bie tvai)vmb bc3 Sriegeg interniert ober 
berfdiicft ttjorbcn finb, fiir bie mttbreub 
ber ^ntcmienmg ober 23erfcf)icfung be= 
gangenen gericfttlicb ober bifjiplinarifd) 
ftrafbaren |)anb(ungen. 



§3. 

3eber i'eil gemttbrt OoKe 2traffrci= 
f)eit alfen 3Ingef)origen bei( nnbercn 
JciicS fiir bie ju bcffen Wnnften bc' 



shall suffer no prejudice whatever 
in respect to property rights 
through the execution of the right 
of repatriation. They shall be en- 
titled to liquidate tlreir property 
and to take away with them the 
amount reahzed as well as other 
movable goods ; furthermore, they 
may by an advance notice of six 
months breali their leasing con- 
tracts, and the lessor ^^dll not be 
entitled to claim compensation 
for damages on account of the 
premature dissolution of the leas- 
ing contract. 

SEVENTH CHAPTER. 

AMNESTY. 

Article 23. 

Each contracting party grants 
to the nationals of the other party 
immunity from penalty in accord- 
ance with the following pro- 
visions. 



Each party grants complete im- 
munity from penalty to the war 
prisoners belonging to the other 
party for all acts committed by 
them punishable by the courts or 
in virtue of discipUnary measures. 

§ 2. 

Each party grants complete 
immunity from penalty to the 
civilians belonging to the other 
party who during the war have 
been interned or deported, for 
acts committed during their in- 
ternment or deportation punish- 
able by the courts or in virtue of 
disciplinary measures. 

§ 3. 

Each party grants complete 
immunity from penalty to all 
nationals of the other party for 
the acts committed in favor of 



132 



THE RUSSIAN PEACE. 



gangencrx ©traftaten unb fiir ."i^crftoBe 
gegen bie jitm ^facfitetl femblidjer iuS= 
Icinber ergangenen 3lu8naf)inege[e^e. 

§4. 

Sie in ben §§ 1 &i§ 3 borgefcfiene 
®traffretf)ett crftrcrft fid) nidit auf 
§anblungen, bie nad) ber 9xatiftfation 
beS JriebenStoertragg begangen tnerben. 

girtitel 24. 

3eber bcrtragfdjliefeenbe ITcil ae= 
ttatjrt tiollc ©traffreibeit ben 2Irtgef)o= 
rigcn feiner bett)affneten 9}?ad)t in 2In= 
fef)img ber Strbeiten, bie fie ais .ftrieg^= 
gefangene beg anbercn STetleg geleiftet 
Ijaben. T^a§ ©Icicbe gilt fiir bie tton 
ben beiberfeitigen ^iotlongefjbrigen 
recifirenb ii)rcr ^nternierung ober 93er= 
fditdung geteifteten Slrbeiten. 

Hrtifel 25. 

3eber Bertragfd}Iie6enbe Jeit ge» 
mat)rt bolle ©troffreibeit benSetoobnern 
feiner Bon bem anberen Xctfe befeijten 
©ebiete fiir ibr poIitifd}e§ unb inilita= 
rifd)e8 3?erbalten hJiirenb ber .geit ber 
^Befe^ung. 

2lbgefe()en Bon ben im Stbfn^ 1 be= 
jeid)neten ^aflen gctnabrt jeber Jeil 
BoKe ©traffreibeit ben Slngebbrigen ber 
©ebiete, bie nad) ben SIrtifetn III, VI 
be§ grieben§Bertrngg ber ruffifdien 
©tagtsbobeit nii^t ntebr unterfteben 
ober Bon ben ruffifd)en Truptjen ju 
raumen finb, fiir ibr tioUtifdjeg unb 
mi(ttcirifd)e§ S?crbalten big jnr 9iattft= 
tation beg gricbengoertragg. 



Slrtifet 26. 

©olneit nad) ben SBefimmungen ber 
Jirtifel 2.3 big 25 ©traffreibeit ge= 
rtabrt tDirb, tnerben ncue ©trafBer= 
fabren nid)t eingeleitet, bie anbangigen 
2trofBerfabren eingeftelft unb bie er-- 
fannten ©trafen nid)t BoKftrccft. 



this party and for infractions 
against the exceptional laws de- 
creed to the detriment of enemy 
aliens. 

§ 4. 

The immunity from penalty 
foreseen in §§ 1 to 3 does not 
extend to acts committed after 
the ratification of the Peace 
Treaty. 

Article 24. 

Each contracting party grants 
coinplete immunity from penalty 
to those persons belonging to its 
armed forces with regard to work 
which they performed as war 
prisoners of the other party. The 
same applies to the work perform- 
ed by the civilians of both parties 
during their internment or depor- 
tation. 

Article 25. 

Each contracting party grants 
complete immunity from penalty 
to the inhabitants of its territories 
occupied by the other party, for 
their political and military con- 
duct during the time of the occu- 
pation. 

Apart from the cases specified 
in paragraph 1 , each party grants 
full immunity from penalty to the 
nationals of the territories which 
according to Articles III and VI of 
the Peace Treaty are no longer 
subject to Kussian sovereignty, 
and which are to. be evacuated bj 
the Russian troops, for their polit- 
ical and military conduct up to 
the time of the ratification of 
the Peace Treaty. 

Article 26. 

In so far as according to the 
provisions of Ai'ticles 23-25, im- 
munity from penalty is granted, 
no new penal proceedings will be 
instituted, the pending penal pro- 
ceedings will be discontinued; 
penalties imposed will not be car- 
ried out. 



LEGAL-POLITICAL TEEATY WITH GEEMANY. 



133 



f riegSgefarxflene, bie fic^ iregen 
Jfnegg^ ober SanbegOcrratg, borfa^lt= 
c^er lotung, 5Kau6eS, rciuberiWjer er= 
preffimg, tiorfaljUcfter SBranbftiftuiig 
ober ©ittltc^feitgtterbrecfien in llntcrfit= 
c5ung8= ober ^trnfhoft beftnben, formen 
big 3U it)vev gntlaffutig, bie mogIi(f)ft 
mit bem erften SluStaufd) ber 3)ienft= 
tauglidien 511 erfolgcn fiat, in $aft be= 
fialten toerbcn. Slucf) beljttlt ficfi 
X^eutid)(anb big jum 2Ibfcf)Iufe beS 011= 
gemeinen ^riebenS bag 9ted)t bor, 
gegeniiber 'iPerfonen, benen eg 2traffrei= 
f)eit gemiibrt, bie im ^ntereffe fetner 
militari[($en gid)er{)eit erforberlicfien 
SKa^nabmen ju treffen. 

liber "iPerfonen, benen ©traffreifiett 
getoafirt toirb, unb iiber ifire gomilien 
biirfen aucfi fonftige JRecfitgnacEiteile 
nic^t berbattgt rterben; fortett bieS 6e= 
reitg gef4e{)en ift, finb fie in ben friifie= 
ren ®tanb toiebereinjufe^en. 



2irtifel 27. 

3)te bertragfdjliefeenben Idk befialten 
ficb bor, meitere 93ereinbarungen p 
treffen, toona($ jeber Xei( hiegen ber ju 
feinen Ungunften begangenen §anb« 
lungen greifiett Son ©trafen unb fonfti= 
gen 9?ecfitgnoc^tei(en getoabrt. 



§lcfiteg SapiteL 
STrtifel 28. 

2Iuf bie ^auffaf)rteifcf)iffe ber ber= 
trogfc^Iiefeenben j^eife unb auf beren 
?abungen finbet ofine 9?li(f fic^t auf ent= 
gegenftefienbe ^rifenurteile bog ©ec^fte 
§aager SIbfommen iiber bie 93eI)onb= 
lung ber feinblic^en Jlauffafjrteifc^iffe 
beim ?(ugbruc^ ber geinbfeligteiten bom 
18. Cftober 1907 mit nac^ftefienben 
Tla^Qahm Slntoenbung. 



Prisoners of war who are under 
preliminary arrest or in prison for 
military or State treason, for pre- 
meditated miirder, robbery, pred- 
atory extortion, premeditated ar- 
son, or crime against morality, 
will be detained up to the time of 
their release, which shall coincide 
as far as possible with the fii-st ex- 
change of those unfit for military 
service. Germany also reserves 
unto herself the right, up to the 
conclusion of the peace treaty, to 
take such measures against per- 
son's to whom she grants immu- 
nity from penalty as are in the 
interest of her military security. 

Nor may other prejudices be 
decreed either against persons 
to whom immunity from penalty 
is granted, or against their fam- 
ilies ; in so far as this may already 
have been done, such persons are 
to be restored to their former 
status. 

ARTICLE 27. 

The contracting parties reserve 
unto themselves the right to 
adopt further agreements, in ac- 
cordance with which each party 
grants immunity from penalties 
and other prejudices for acts com- 
mitted to its disadvantage. 

EIGHTH CHAPTEK. 

Article 28. 

Regardless of contrary prize 
decisions, the Sixth Hague Con- 
vention anent the treatment of 
enemy merchant ships at the out- 
break of hostiUties of 18 October, 
1907,' is applicable to the mer- 
chant ships of the contracting 
parties and to their cargoes, on 
the basis of the following regu- 
lations. 



'James Beown Scott (ed.), The Hague Conventions and Declarations of 1899 and 1907 (2nd ed., New 
York, Oxford University Press, American Branch [Carnegie Endowment tor International Peace!, 1915), 
p. 141. 



134 



THE RUSSIAN PEAOJE. 



©ie grkubntS jum StuSlaufen im 
©inne beg Strtttel 2 ?Ifaf. 1 be« 216= 
fommenS fann nur bann aU erteilt 
oiigcfe^en toerben, iDenn [te aud) bon 
ben iibrtgen feinbltdien ©eemcic^ten aTi= 
erfannt tnar. ft'auffa^rteifd)tffe, bie 
gemttfe 3(rtife( 2 Slbf. 2 be§ SIbfommenS 
angeforbert iBorben [inb, iniiffen unter 
(Snt[d)abiguTig fllr bie 3eit ber 23enut= 
jung entoeber jurucfgegeben ober im 
galle beg Serlufteg in ®elb erfefet 
merben. giir nid)t angeforberte ©c^iffe 
i)at ber glaggenftaat bie Sluftoenbungen 
3ur 3nftanbl)altung, nid)t aber §afen= 
gelber unb fonftige ?iegefoften juer= 
ftatten. S)ie nad) i£)rer Sauart pr 
Ummanblung in j?rieggfd}ifte geeigneten 
J?auffabrteifd)iffe toerben abiteid^enb 
t)om Slrtitel 5 beg SIbfommeng mie 
anbere ^auffa£)rtei[d}iffe bebanbelt. 



35ie Seftintmungen biefeg Slrtitelg 
finben auc& auf foldje fiauffaljrtetfc^tffe 
Slntcenbung, bie bereitg bov Slugbruc^ 
beg j?riegeg angeforbert ober aufge= 
brai^t tuaren. 

Sivtifel 29. 

T'k ate "iPrifen oufgebradjten f auf= 
fal)rteifd)iffe ber t)ertragfd}Iief3enben 
Steile foKen, menn fie oor ber Unter= 
3cid)niing beg ,lriebengtiertragg burd} 
red)tgtraftigeg Urteil eineg ^t^rifenge= 
rid)tg fonbemniert rtorben finb unb 
nid)t unter bie Seftimmungen ber 3lr= 
tifel 28, 30 fatten, alg enbgil[tig einge= 
aofrcn angefeben incrbcn. 3m iibrigen 
finb fie prud'jngcben ober, foinett fie 
nidit mebr tiorbanben finb, in Welb jn 
erfeijen. 

Die '•]3efttmmungen beg 9lbfa^ 1 
finben auf bie atg ^rifen aufgebracbten 
»d}iffg(abungen Son ?(nge()origeij ber 
bertragfd)tieJ3enben Teite entfprcrfjcnbe 
?Inh)enbung. 2)od) foden C-Hlter tion 
Jlngeborigen beg einen Xcileg, bie anf 
Sdiiffen feinbltd)er Jlagge in bie (>^C' 



The permit to leave port, in 
the meaning of Article 2, Para- 
graph 1, of the Convention can 
only be regarded as having been 
secured in case it has been recog- 
nized also by the other enemy 
maritime Powers. Merchant 
ships which in accordance with 
Article 2, Paragraph 2 of the 
Convention have been requisi- 
tioned must be returned with 
payment in compensation for the 
time during which they are used, 
or in case of loss, will be com- 
pensated for in money. For 
non-requisitioned ships, the State 
whose flag they fiy must reim- 
burse the expenses incurred to 
keep them in good condition, 
but not any harbor dues and 
other expenses of anchorage. 
Merchant sliips wliich because of 
their construction are fit to be 
converted into warships wiU be 
treated as other merchant ships, 
regardless of Article 5 of the 
Convention. 

The provisions of this article 
are applicable also to such mer- 
chant ships as were requisitioned 
or seized before the outbreak of 
the war. 

Article 29. ~ 

Merchant ships of the contract- 
ing parties which have been 
seized as prizes shall, in case they 
have been condemned before the 
signature of the Peace Treaty 
through a legal decision of a 
prize court and provided they do 
not come under the provisions of 
Articles 28 and 30, be regarded as 
finally seized. In all other cases 
they are to be returned or, in so 
far as they no longer exist, to be 
compensated for in money. 

The provisions of paragraph 1 
are properly applicable to car- 
goes seized as prizes belonging to 
the contracting parties. But 
goods of nationals of one party 
wliich on board ships flying the 
enemy flag have come into the 



LEGAL-POLITICAL TBEATY WITH GEEMANY. 



135 



rtalt beg anberen leKeg geraten ftnb, in 
alien gatfen ben S8ered)tigten I)erouS= 
gegeben ober, fotoeit bieg nicfit mbglicf) 
ift, in @e(b erfetjt toerben. 



?Irtifet 30. 

tauffaf)rteifc6iffe einee oertragfd)tie= 
feenben SleileS, bie innentralen §o]^eit§= 
getcaffern oon ©treitfraften beS anberen 
2:eile8 aufgebracf)t, mit SBefttlag belegt 
ober tjerfentt tourben, finb ebenfo rtie 
it)re ^nbnngen of)ne 9?ii(ifid)t auf entge= 
genftef)enbe 'iprifennrteile juriidjugeben 
ober, fotoeit fie ni^t mebr -ttorbanbcn 
finb, inSelbjuerfe^en; fiir bie Beit bis 
Sur JRitcfgabe ober (grfaijleiftitng ift (gnt= 
fdictbigung jit gen)af)rcn. 



Slrttfel 31. 

.fauffat)rteifcbiffe, bie nacb ben 2lr= 
tifeln 28 biS 30 jurllcfjugeben finb, 
fotlen fofort nad) ber SRattfitation be§ 
griebenSbertragS in bem >5iiftanb unb 
in bem §afen, in bem fie fid) befinbeit, 
bem giaggenftaat jur S3erfiigung ge= 
fteitt toerben. igefinbet fid) ein fo(d)e§ 
@d)iff am "Jage ber SKatifitation auf 
einer 9?eife, fo muJ3 eS nad^ beren 58e= 
enbigimg unb nacb Sbfifiung ber an bem 
be3eid)neten 2:age t)ori)anbenen ?abung, 
fpateftenS aber narft einem SWonat ju= 
rltcfgegeben merben; fiir bie ,3tnifd)en,5eit 
ift bie f)oc^fte 3;ageg3eitfrad)t jn tier' 
gliten. 



§at ber ^uftanb eineS nadj 3lrtifel 
28 prlicbgugebenben ^d)iffe8 toctbrenb 
ber i^eit ber Stnforberung eine liber bie 
getDo^nlidie Slbnnijung ^inauggebenbe 
S3erfc^Iecbtemng erfa^ren, fo ift eine 
entfprecbenbe gntfdjctbigung ju leiften. 
©ag ©leic^e gilt fiir ein nacb Slrtifel 30 
jurltcfsugebenbeg ©c^iff, felbft toenn eg 
nic&t angeforbert murbe. 5iir 93er= 
fc^lec^terungen ober iSerlufte, bie nac& 
ginftenung- ber geinbfeligfeiten burc& 
bag 33er^alten beS ril(JgabepfIi(^tigen 



power of the other party, will in 
all cases be returned to thdse en- 
titled to them, or, in so far as 
this is not possible, be compen- 
sated for in money. 

Article 30. 

Merchant ships of a contract- 
ing party which were stopped, 
seized, or sunk in neutral territo- 
rial waters by the forces of the 
other party, are to be returned 
together with their cargoes, re- 
gardless of contrary prize deci- 
sions, or in so far as they no 
longer exist, to be compensated 
for in money. For the time up 
to their return or payment of 
compensation, an indemnity is to 
be granted. 

Article 31. 

Merchant ships which, accord- 
ing to Articles 28-30 are to be 
returned, shall immediately after 
the ratification of the peace 
treaty be placed at the disposal 
of the State whose flag they fly, 
in the condition and in the port 
in which they are at the time. 
If on the day of the ratification 
such a ship is engaged in a jour- 
ney, it must, at the end of such 
journey and after discharging the 
cargo on board on the day indi- 
cated, be returned at the latest 
within one month; for the inter- 
val of time, the highest daily 
freight rate is to be paid. 

If during the time of the requi- 
sition, the condition of a ship to 
be returned in accordance with 
Article 28 has sustained deteriora- 
tion exceeding that of ordinary 
use, adequate indemnification is 
then to be made. The same ap- 
plies to a ship to be returned ]n 
accordance with Article 30, even 
in case it was not requisitioned. 
For depreciations or losses which 
after the cessation of hostilities 
have been caused through the 



136 



THE EUSSIAN PEACE. 



TcitciJ [|erbcigefuf)rt inorben finb, ift in 
alien gcillen @ntfd)abigung ju gc= 

ilU (Sxiaii \m ein ntc6t ntel)r t)or= 
J)anbeneg 2cfjiff ift ber S3erfaufSlt)ert, 
ben e§ am Jage ber JRatififation bc§ 
griebenSDcrtragg f)aben toiirbe, ju 
ja{)Ien. 3l[§ Cintfdjabigung fiir bie 
58emt^ung ift bie iiblicfie itageSgeit' 
fracf)t ju entricfiten. 

STrtifel 32. 

?ngbalb nacf) ber ' 9iatififation beg 
griebenStiertragS foti jur 33urd)flif)rung 
ber in ben 2Irttfetn 28 bi« 31 ent= 
t)aitenen SBeftimmungen eine J?om= 
miffion au8 je jmei 25ertretern ber 
bertragfdiliefeenben Jeile unb einem 
neutralen Obmann an einem nod) ju 
beftimmenben Orte jufammentreten; 
urn bie 35eseid)nung beS Cbmanng 
mirb ber "iprafibent beg Sc^rteijerifdjen 
58unbe8ratg gebeten irerben. 

3)ie .fSommiffion f)at inSbefonbere 
bie grage, ob im SinjelfaHe bie S3or= 
augfeljung fiir bie ^Kiidgabe ober ben 
(Srfafe eineg @(|iffe8 ober fiir bie ,3a£)= 
lung einer (Sntfc^iabigung Borliegen, 
p entfc^eiben unb bie §oi)e ber ju 
jafilenben 33etrage, unb jtoar in ber 
SBalrung beg glaggenftaatg, feftju^ 
fe^en. S)ie 33etrage finb iunerf)alb 
eineg SK onatg nac^ ber geftfeljung ber 
9iegierung beg glaggenftaatg fiir 3Jed)= 
nung ber 33ere(f)tigten jur SSerfiigung'ju 
fteilen. 



9teunteg j?apitel. 

Organif ation beg ©)3i^ber= 
gen = ?(rd)ipelg. 

Slrtifel 33. 

3Die bertragfdjiiefeenben STeile merben 
barauf l^inrairten, bafe bie ouf ber 
©pi^bergenfonferenj im 3;at)re 1914 
in Slugfidit genommene internationole 
Organifotion beg @pt^bergen4lr(^ipelg 
unter ©leidjfteliung ber beiben Jeile 
burc^gefli{)rt ioirb. 



conduct of the party obligated 
to return it, indemnification is to 
be granted in all such cases. 

The selling value which it 
would have on the day of the ratifi- 
cation of the peace treaty is to be 
paid in compensation for a ship 
which no longer exists. The 
usual daily freight rate is to be 
paid in indemnification for the 
use of it. 

Article 32. 

Immediately after the ratifica- 
tion of the peace treaty and for 
the execution of the provisions 
contained in Articles 28-31, a 
Commission consisting of two 
representatives each of the con- 
tracting parties and a neutral um- 
pire is to meet in a place still to be 
determined; for the designation 
of the umpire, a request to that 
end will be addressed to the Presi- 
dent of the Swiss Federal Council. 

It devolves especially upon the 
Commission to decide whether or 
not, in each specific case, the con- 
ditions exist for the return or 
compensation of a ship or for the 
payment of an indemnity, and to 
determine the amount of sums to 
be paid, namely in the currency 
of the State whose flag it flies. 
Within one month after such de- 
termination, the amounts are to 
be placed at the disposal of the 
Government of the State whose 
flag such ship flies, and to the 
credit of those entitled thereto. 

NINTH CHAPTER. 

organization of the spitzber- 
gen archipelago. 

Article 33. 

The contracting parties will 
direct their efforts to the end that 
the international organization of 
the Spitzbergen Archipelago con- 
templated in the Spitzbergen Con- 
ference of the year 1914 will be 
carried out on a footing of equality 
between the two parties. 



LEGAL-POLITICAL TBEATTT WITH GERMANY. 



137 



S^ btefem ^toede toerben bte $Kegte= 
tungen ber beiben Jeile bte tbntgltd) 
9tor!t)egifd)e 5Regierung bitten, bte 55ot:t= 
fefeung ber ©pi^bergenfonferens tuTt= 
lidjft batb nacb SIbfcfilufe be§ otrgemeirten 
griebeitg f)erbet3uful)rett. 

3 e f) tt t e S AT a p 1 1 e I . 

Sdjlufebeftimmuitgen. 

arttfel 34. 

3)ie[er ^ufafebertrag, ber einen tt)e= 
ferttltdien 3^e[tanbteil beS griebengber* 
tragS btlbet, foil ratiftjtert unb bie 3?att= 
fifationSurf unbelt foMen jugleid) mtt 
ben 9?attfttotton§urfunben beg grtebeng^ 
bertragg auSgetaufcfit merben. 

atrtifel 35. 

3)er ^uftfetoertrag trttt, fotceit barin 
ntcbt ein SInbereg beftimmt tft, gfei(|» 
getttg mtt bent grtebengbertrag in 
Sraft. 

,3ui' Grganjung beg ^ufftfebertragg, 
ingbefonbere jum Slbfdjlufe ber barin 
borfjctiaLcnen tneiteren 23ereinbarungen, 
hjcrben binnen bier Monatev. nad] ber 
9Jatifi!ation 5Sertreter ber t3ertrag= 
fc^Iiefeenben Jeile in ^Berlin 3ufammen= 
treten. Sabei foH aucb bie ^nhienbung 
ber ©eftimntnngen beg ^ufaljbertragg 
auf bie beutfc^en 2d)u^gebiete geregelt 
rterben. 



^u Urfunb bef[en J)aben bie 33eboff= 
miic^tigten biefen ^^fafeoertrag eigen= 
f)(inbig unterjeicfinet. 

2luggefertigt in boppelter Urfc^rtft in 
33re[t=Sitort)fE 3. Tlavi 1918. 

di. b. |{:ii£)lntann, 

iBufareft 7. 9Wcirs 1918. 

b. JRofenberg. 

.g»offrnann. 

§orn. 

53reft=8itotoff am 3. Wan 1918. 

r. COKO-ILHaKOBt. 

A. KapaxaHi. 

r. lleTpOBCKifl. 
r. HflHepHHT,. 



To this end, the Governments 
will request the Eoyal Norwegian 
Government to bring about the 
resumption of the Spitzbergen 
Conference as soon as possible after 
the conclusion of the general peace. 

TENTH CHAPTEK. 

FINAL PROVISIONS. 

Aeticle 34. 

This additional treaty, which 
forms an essential element of the 
Peace Treaty, shall be ratified, and 
the documents of ratification 
thereof shall be exchanged simul- 
taneously with the documents 
of ratification of the Peace Treaty. 

Article 35. 

In so far as it is not stipulated 
to the contrary therein, the addi- 
tional treaty goes. into force sim- 
ultaneously with the Peace Treaty. 

In order to complete the addi- 
tional treaty, especially with re- 
gard to the conclusion of further 
agreements therein reserved, 
representatives of the contracting 
parties will meet in Berlin within 
the four months following the 
ratification. At the same time 
the application of the provisions 
of the additional treaty to the 
German . Protectorates shall be 
regulated. 

In witness thereof the Plenipo- 
tentiaries have signed this addi- 
tional treaty with their own hand. 

Executed in duplicate in Brest- 
Litovsk,-3 March, 1918. 

R. V. Kf'HLMANN, 

Bucharest, 7 March, 1918. 
V. Rosenberg. 
Hoffman. 
Horn. 

Brest-Li to vsk, 3 March, 1918. 

r. COKO.IbllHKOBl. 

A. Kapaxaui.. 
r. ileipoBcijiH. 
r. MHiepHiit. 



11. RUSSIA— GERMANY. 



NOTIFICATION REGARDING GERMANY'S RATIFICATION OF 
THE PEACE TREATY WITH RUSSIA AND OF THE TREATY 
SUPPLEMENTARY TO THE PEACE TREATY, 7 JUNE, 1918. 



[German text as published in the Keichs- 
Geeetzblatt, No. 77, 11 June, 1918.] 

Sie tiorfteijenb abgebrucften, am 
3.17. dJl&n 1918 in S3reft=?ttoti)ff unb 
SSufareft unterseidjneten S8ertragc, nam= 
ticf): 

1. i^rtebengbcrtrag ,. gtpifd)en 

3)eutfc()IaTib, Ofterrettf)-^ 
Ungarn, S3u(garien unb ber 
Xlirtei etnerfeitg unb 9?ufe= 
lanb anbererfettS, 

2. rcutfct=9Jufftfi^er ,3ufafe»er= 

trag ju bem grieben8t)er= 
trage jtoifcfien ©eutfdilanb, 
Ofterreic^ = Ungarn, Sulga^ 
rten unb ber 3;itrtci cl;ier[eit§ 
unb JKu^tanb anber.-rfcitg 



finb ratifijiert motben. X^er 2Iu§= 
taufc^ ber SHntiftfationSurfunben i[t am 
29. Wixxi 1918 in Serlin erfotgt. 
SSerlin, ben 7. 3uni 1918. 

!Der 9?eirf|Sfanjter 

Qn SSertretung Bon .tiiljlmann 

86409—18 10 



[Translation.] 

The treaties printed above^ 
signed 3/7 March, 1918, in Brest- 
Litovsk and Bucharest, namely: 

1. Peace Treaty between 

Germany, Austria-Hun.'- 
gary, Bulgaria, and 
Turkey on the one hand, 
and Russia on the other 
hand, 

2. Russo -German Supple- 

mentary Treaty to the 
Peace Treaty between 
Germany, Austria-Hun- 

fary, Bulgaria, and Tur- 
ey on the one hand, 
and Russia on the other 
hand, 
have been ratified. The exchange 
of ratifications was effected on 29» 
March, 1918, in Berlin. 
Berhn, 7 June, 1918. 

The Imperial Chancellor; 

ly TON KUHLMANK 
139 



12. RUSSIA— AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 



APPENDIX III TO THE TREATY OF PEACE BETWEEN RUSSIA 
AND THE CENTEAI POWERS. SIGNED AT BREST-IITOVSK, 
3 MARCH, 1918.1 



[Text reconstructed from Appendix II to the Treaty of Peace, with differences as 
set forth in State Department Weekly Reports, Central Powers, No. 40, 8 April, 1918.] 

In regard to the economic relations between Austria-Hungary and 
Russia the following is agreed upon : 

1. The Austro-Hungarian-Russian treaty concerning trade and 
shipping of 2/15 February, 1906, is not renewed. 

The contracting parties obligate themselves to commence negotia- 
tions regarding conclusion of a new commercial treaty as soon as 
possible after the conclusion of a general peace between Austria- 
Hungary on the one part, and the European countries at present at 
war with her and the United States of America and Japan on the 
other part. 

2. As the basis of the commercial corelationship up to the term 
mentioned, and in any case up to the thirty-first* of December, 1919, 
shall be considered the regulations contained' in the present appendix, 
which regulations form an integral part of the present peace treaty. 
Both contracting parties, are, however, entitled to repudiate these 
regulations beginning from the thirtieth of June, 1919, on condition 
of giving six months' notice. In case of this right of repudiation 
being utilized before the thirty-first of December, 1922, then, for a 
term of three years, reckoning from the date of the cessation of the 
activity of the stipulations contained in the present appendix, the 
principle of the most favored nation shall be established on the 
territory of the opposite party, for the subjects, for commercial, 
iadus trial and financial companies, including insurance companies, 
for the produce of agriculture and industries, and for vessels of both 
contracting parties. 

The principle of the most favored nation, stipulated in the fore- 
going regulations, retains force in the event of changes in customs 
relations in one or both of the contracting countries, as well as any 
of the separate states constituting part of the same. 

3. Furthermore, in the course of this period, Russia will neither 
prohibit the export of rough and unworked lumber, nor levy export 
duty on the same, in so lar as it is not especially mentioned in number 
six of the schedule of export duties; neither shall it prohibit the 
export of, or levy export duty on, ores of all kinds, bones, rags, 
refuse of aU kinds, and rubber waste. 



' Ratifications exchanged at Berlin ,i July (.Neue Frde Presse, 6 July, 1918, morning edition.) 

141 



1-12 THE EUSSIAN " PEACE." 

4. Russia shall not claim the advantages which Austria-Hungary 
will grant to Germany or any other country allied with her by her 
customs union, and adjoining Austria-Hungary either immediately 
or through another countrj' allied with her or with Germany by 
customs union. 

Colonies, outlying possessions and territories under protectorate, 
in this respect are placed on the same basis as the mother country. 

Austria-Hungary will not claim the advantages which Russia wiU 
grant to another country connected with her by customs union, 
and adjoining Russia either immediately or through another country 
allied with her by customs union, or to the Colonies, outlying posses- 
sions or territories under the protectorate of a country allied with 
her by custon;s union. 

5. In so far as in neutral countries there are located goods exported 
from Austria-Hungary or Russia and subject to prohibition of im- 
port into the territory of the other contracting party either directly 
or through the intermedium of another country, such limitations as 
to the disposition of such goods shall be cancelled as regards the 
contracting parties. Both contracting parties, therefore, obhgate 
themselves to advise immediately the Governments of neutral 
countries of the above-stated cancellations of the limitations 
mentioned. 

6. Privileges granted by one of the contracting parties during the 
time of the war to other countries ip the form of concessions or 
other state measures, must be revoked or extended to the opposite 
party by granting equal rights. 

7. In so far as in the tariff appendix A, or elsewhere there are no 
stipulations to the 'contrary, the general Russian customs tariff of 
the 13/26 January, 1903, shall be applied for the whole period of 
activity of the present provisorium as well as of the most-favored 
nation treatment granted for both by clause 2. 

8. The agreements which existed between Austria-Hungary and 
Russia on the thirty-first of July, 1914, in regard to Russian sugar 
remain in force during the time of the present provisorium and 
during the mutual application of the most-favored nation principle 
in accordance with clause 2. The regulations contained in the 
notes exchanged 2/15 February, 1906, regarding fowls and raw 
animal products must be applied in the same way during the time 
of this provisorium. 

9. The contracting parties are agreed that, with the conclusion 
of peace, the war terminates also in the field of economy and finance. 
They engage not to participate either directly or indirectly in meas- 
ures having for their aim the continuance of hostiUties in economic 
or financial spheres, and to hinder such measures within the bounda- 
ries of the territories of their State by all means in their power. 

In the course of the intermediate period requiied for the removal 
of the consequences of war and for the organization of new relations, 
the; contracting parties obligate themselves not to create in so far 
as it is possible, any difficulties in the way of the acquisition of nec- 
essary goods by introducing high import duties, and they express their 
willingness to enter immediately into negotiations for the purpose 
of maintaining and enlarging as far as feasible, the customs exemp- 
tions established during the time of the war. 



13. RUSSIA— AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 



LEGAL-POLITICAL TREATY SUPPLEMENTARY TO THE TREATY 
OF PEACE BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE CENTRAL POWERS. 
SIGNED AT BREST-LITOVSK, 3 MARCH, 1918.i 



[The German text is composed from the texts 
publishedin the Fremden-Blatt {Vienna), 
16 March, 1918, and the morning and 
evening editions of the Pester Lloyd, 16 
March, 1918. The preamble and Articles 
4 (Paragraphs 1-2, 6-10, 12), 5, 9, andll, 
arefrom the Fremden-Blatt; Articles 1,2, 
3, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, arefrom the Pester 
Lloyd, morning edition; parts of Article 
4 (Paragraphs 3, 4, 5, 11, IS, 14) are 
from the Pester Lloyd, evening edition.} 

8aut ?IrttfeI XII be§ am 3. SKarj 
1918 unter5etd)neten ^rtebenStiertrageS 
SWifc^en T^cutfcfifanb, Oefterrctcf)=Uti= 
gam, SBitlgarien imb ber liirfet ciner= 
fcitg unb SRufelanb anbcrerfeit§ finb 

3)ie 58et)oIImad)tigten Oefterrei(f)= 
Uttgant'g, namlid): 

gjfinifter beS Heiifeern ®raf 

(S;5enim, 
58otfd)after ti. a«erel), 
9}Jmifter)3ra[tbent Tx. 3?itter 0. 

©eibler, 
gjJtntfterprnfibeTit Tr. SBeferk 
unb 
Ste 58e»ot(mnd}ti8ten ber 91uffif($ 
foberattoen gortijetgrepubtit, namlid): 

bte 2)litg(teber be« 3entra(ere= 
futit)au«(fd)uffe^ ber 9tate 
ber ?Irbeiter', ^^otbaten' unb 
S3auembeputierten^ ©rigovi 
SafolcIeWitfd) '^ofolnttolc 
unb ?cto 9[)?tcf)aiIoli)itfdi 
.fi!ara($an, fotnie 



[Translation. 



According to Article XII of the 
Treaty of Peace signed on 3 
March, 1918, between Germany, 
Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and 
Turkey, on the one hand, and 
Russia, on the other hand, 

The plenipotentiaries of Aus- 
tria-Hungary, to wit: 

The Minister of Foreign 

Affairs, Count Czernin, 
Ambassador v. Merey, 
President of the Ministry, 

Dr. Hitter v. Seidler, 
President of the Ministry, 
Dr. Wekerle; and 
The plenipotentiaries of the 
Eussian Federal Soviet Republic, 
to wit: 

The Members of the Cen- 
tral Executive Commit- 
tee of the Councils of 
Workingmen's, Soldiers' 
and Peasants' Deputies, 
Grigory lakovlevich 
Sokolnikow, and Lew 
Michailovich Karachan; 
also 



1 Ratifications exchanged at Berlin, 4 July, 1918 i.Neue Freie Presse, 6 July, 1918, morning edition). 

143 



144 



THE BITSSIAN " PEACE.'' 



ber ®ef)tlfe be8 SSoIfSf ommlffarg 
fiir 2Iu§martige Jtngelegen^ 
{)eiten ®corgi aBaffiliertitfc^ 
S^fcfiitfc^erm, unb 

ber S>oIf8foTnmiffar filr tnnere 
2tnge(egfnf)etten ©rtgort 3ma= 
nolDttfrf) "ipetrotBSft), 

iibereingetommen, bie ^erfteKung ber 
offentIi(|en unb prtoaten 5)?ed)t§bejie» 
fiuTigen ben ?lu8taufcf) ber fi'rieg8ge= 
fangenen unb 3i*'ilinte™iei'ten, bie 
SImnefttefrage fotoie bie grnge ber 33e» 
t)anblung ber in bie ©etnalt beg ©egnerS 
geratenen .^anbelSfdjiffe im S3erf)altnif|e 
jh)t[cf)en ber bfterrei(i)i[(f)-'Ungnrifdien 
SKonardjie, bejief)ungg»neife Cefterreii^ 
unb Ungnm einerfeitg unb Siufelanb 
anbererfeitg unbersiiglid) ju regeln unb 
ju bicfem 3"'^'^^ einen ^ufafeoertrag 
5U bem grtebenSBertrage abjuf(|lie|en. 



Slrtifel 1. 

S8etbe 2:eile berpflidjten fid) jur 
Srja^Ieiftung fiir al(e ®d}aben, bie ben 
biplomatifdien unb .Sonfularbeamten 
beg anberen 2:ei(e§ jugefligt ober an 
feinen 58otfd)aft§= ■ unb .f?onfutatgge= 
btiuben angerid)tet ioorben finb. 

SIrtifer 2. 

3)ie ©ummen, bie ber cine Jeil in 
ben Don ifjm otiupierten ©ebietcn in 
gorm tion ©ebaiten ufm. an $enfio= 
niftcn, SBitlnen ufh3. be§ anberen 3:eire8 
au?ge;iab(t bat, hierben erfe^t. 



3(rtifc{ 3. 

Sic '93ertrage, Slbfommen unb i^er= 
einbarungen, bie tior ber .ftvieg§= 
erfliirung in .ftraft getDcfen finb, treten 
toicber in .fraft; fovceit fie fiir eine 
beftimmte i^eit unfUnbbar finb, mirb 
biefe urn bie .ftrieggbaner tiertangert. 
33innen fecbct gjjonaten EBnnen beibe 
Tcitc bie 'iBcrtrage ober beren @injel= 
beftimmungen mitteilen, bie nacb iljrer 
9luffaffung mit ben Inafjrenb bee IfriegeS 



The Assistant of the Peo- 
ple's Commissioner for 
Foreign Affairs, Georgi 
Vassihevich Tchitche- 
rin; and 
The People's Commission- 
er for Internal Affairs, 
Grigory Ivanovich Pe- 
trovsky, 
have agreed to regulate immedi- 
ately the establishment of public 
and private legal relations, the 
exchange of war prisoners and of 
interned civilians, the question of 
amnesty and the matter of treat- 
ment of merchant vessels that 
have come into the power of the 
Austro-Himgarian Monarchy, that 
is to say, Austria and Hungary on 
the one hand, and Russia on the 
other hand, and to this end to 
conclude a supplementary treaty 
to the Peace "Treaty. 

Aeticlb 1. 

Both contracting parties pledge 
themselves to indemnif}' all dam- 
ages that may have been occa- 
sioned to the diplomatic and con- 
sular officials of the other party, 
or to their embassies and con- 
sulates. 

Abticle 2. 

Amounts that one party has 
expended within the territories 
occupied by such party under 
the denomination of salaries, 
etc., granted to the pensioners, 
widows, etc., will be refunded. 

Article 3. 

iVll treaties, agreements, and 
conventions that were in force 
before tlie declaration of war, will 
again go into force; in so far as 
they can not be denounced for a 
fixed period, they wiU be ex- 
tended to cover the period of the 
war. Within a period of six 
months either party may com- 
municate to the other party the 
text of the treaties, or their 



LEGAL-POLITICAL TREATY WITH AUSTEIA-HUNGARY. 



145 



eingetreteneii Sercinberimgen im iffiie^ 
berfpnicf) fte()en. Tk notigen neuen 
SScrtrdgc fonen bitmen fed)§ SKonaten 
auSgcarfaeitet ftierben. SBcttn fie binnen 
brei 9}?otiaten nid)t suftanbe fomtnen, 
\Ui)t eg jebem Tciie frei, tioti ben 
SSertragSbeftimmungen 5uruct3utreten, 
bie er fd)on t)orf)er namf)aft gemacfit f)at. 



STrtifel 4. 

©elbforberungen, beren 33ejaf)Iung im 
Saufe be§ j?riegeg auf ®runb einer mit 
9Jlicffid[}t auf ben .f?rieggjuftanb getrof= 
fenen iBeftimmung bertneigert toerben 
fonnte, brauc^en nic^t bor 2I6Iauf tion 
fed)g SJJonaten nac^ ber JRatififation beS 
griebenSbertrageg bejafilt p toerben. 
©ie finb bon ber urfpriinglid)en gallig= 
feit an fiir bie 3)auer beg j?riegeg unb ber 
anfd^Iiefeenben fed}S 9}bnate of)ne 9?iid= 
fic^t auf 3ttf)tung§»erbote unb 2)Jora= 
torien mit fiinf bom vSpunbert fiir baS 
SaijV ju tierjinfen; bi§ jur urfpriingli= 
d§en gSHigfeit finb gegebenenfall§ bie 
bertraggmafeigen ^infen ju jafilen. 



3)ie bertragfc^tiefeenben 2;eilc beljalten 
fic^ Bor, naf)ere iBeftimmungen auf bem 
©ebiete beg SBedifet unb ©djedrec^teg 
fotoie ber S9alutagefd)afte ju berein= 
baren. 

giir bie Sibtoicflung ber Slu^enftiinbe 
unb fonfttgen pribatred)tlic^en 33er= 
binblidjfeiten finb bie ftaatlid) aner= 
!annten @Iaubigerfd)u^»erbanbe pr 
SSerfoIgung ber Stufpriidie ber it)nen 
angefcftloffenen nattirKi^en unb iurifti= 
fdien ^erfonen a(g beren S3eboI[mad)= 
tigte trec^felfeitig anjuertennen unb 
psulaffen. 

S)ie 58eftimmungen biefeg Ueberein= 

fommeng finite" "uf ^^" gSertpapiers 

■ berfef)r, fomie auf 25erbfltd)tungen aug 

3:n^aberpapieren feine StnlBenbung; bie 



serparate provisions, which, in its 
judgment, are incompatible with 
the changes that have arisen 
during the war. The new treaties 
shall be drawn up within a period 
of six moiiths. If they have not 
been completed within a period 
of three months, both parties are 
entitled to cancel the treaty pro- 
visions which it has alread}- 
published. 

Article 4. 

Pecuniary claims whose pay- 
ment could be refused in the 
course of the war by virtue of 
a provision made as a result of 
the state of war need not be 
paid before the expiration of six 
months after the ratification of 
the treaty of peace. Regardless 
of moratoriums and ordinances 
prohibiting payment, they are 
payable with interest at 5% per 
annum, from the original date 
when payment was due, for the 
duration of the war and the ad- 
ditional six months; in case in- 
terest was stipulated up to the 
time when payment was clue, such 
interest, in the given case, must 
be paid. 

The contracting parties reserve 
the right to make fui'ther ar- 
rangements relative to legislation 
on drafts and cheques, as well 
as on financial transactions. 

For" the liciuidation of out- 
standing debts and other obliga- 
tions pertaining to private law, 
the national recognized associa- 
tions for the protection of credi- 
tors are to be recognized and 
admitted as reciprocally empow- 
ered agents for the prosecution 
of the claims of natural and 
juridical persons associated with 
them. 

The provisions of this agree- 
ment do not apply to paper se- 
curities nor to obligations of 
holders of notes payable to bearer, 
because the regulation of the 



146 



THE RUSSIAN PEACE. 



JKegeliing ber fiiebei in 58etrac&t fofn= 
ntejibcn S^tQen bkibt einer befonbe= 
ten SBereinbarung t»orbef)aIten. 

2Begen Crbnung ber gegenfeittgen 
ftaatltd)en SSerbinblidjfetten au8 bent 
off'entlidjen ©djulbenbicnfte, ferner au6 
Slbredinungen ber (Sifenbaf)n=, '<^o\U 
nnb Xckgrapt)entier)DaItungen unb ber= 
gletci^en tnerben bie bertragfdiliefeenben 
Jeile [id) in befonberen 2lfbommen ber= 
ftctnbigcn. 

35ie bertragfcfilicfjenbcn Xdk finb 
barilber einig, bafe borbefjottlid) ber 
58eftintmungen beg 'iPunfteS 6 Urf)e= 
ierred)te unb getcerblid)e @d)ufere(f)te, 
-S'onjeffionen unb ^ribifegien [oh)ie af)n= 
Tic^e 2infpritd)e auf offentIid)=re(^tIid)er 
©runbtage, bie burd) im .Stiege ge= 
troffene SBeftimmungen beeintrctc^tigt 
roorben finb, icieberbergefteltt ftjerben. 
3)em iSerec^tigten rterben bie bon ibm 
ftir bie 3eit ber Sntjieljung ber $Re(f)te 
eef(^u(beten ©ebiibren eriaffen ober, 
falfe er fie bereits bejaf)lt b«t, iuvud- 
«rftattet; bat ber ©taat auS ber 
Senii^ung ber 9?cd)te burd) 3)ritte 
S?ermogen€borteiIe gejogen, rteldie bie 
©ebtibren iiberfteigen, fo ift bem S3e= 
rec^tigten ber 3Kef)rbetrag berau§su= 
geben. ©ohjeit ber ©taat 9?ec^te, bie 
tbm iibereignet tcorben finb, benii^t bat, 
ift ber 33ered)tigte angemeffen ju ent= 
fdjcibigen. 



3eber Dertragfdiliefeenbe Xeil hjirb 
ben Slngeljorigen biS anberen JeiteS, 
bie aug Slnla^ beg .ftriegeg eine gefe^tidie 
grift fiir bie 33ornafime einer jur S3e= 
griinbung ober (Srbaltung eineg gett)erb= 
lid)en ©d)u^rec^teS erforberIid)en §anb= 
lung berfiiumt baben, unbefc^abet h)obl= 
ermorbener $Red)te fritter, ftir bie 
9?a(bboIung ber ^anbtung eine grift 
bon minbefteng einem 3abre nad) ber 
9?atififation beg griebengbertrageg ge» 
iDttbren. ©emerblic^e ©djuljredjte ber 
2(ngef)6rigen beg einen Jciteg fotlen in 
ben ©ebieten beg anberen Iciieg hiegen 



questions arising in this respect 
is reserved for a special agree- 
ment. 

As regards the settlement of 
the national obligations of the 
two Governments arising from 
the public debt, and from the 
accounts of the railway, postal, 
and telegraph administratioils, 
etc., the contracting parties will 
come to an understanding in 
special agreement. 

The contracting parties are 
agreed that under reservation 
of the provisions of paragraph 6, 
copyright and industrial patents, 
concessions and privileges, as 
well as other similar claims on 
the basis of the principles of 
public law, that have been af- 
fected by provisions made during 
the war, shall again be put into 
force. Rightful claimants shall 
be exempted from paying dues 
for the period during which their 
rights were withheld from them, 
or, in case such dues have already 
been paid, they will be returned. 
If the State has derived property 
advantages from the fact that 
third parties have enjoyed said 
rights, and if the said property 
advantages exceed the dues in 
value, the surplus shall be paid 
to the rightful claimant. In so 
far as the State has enjoyed 
rights which were assigned to it, 
the rightful claimant shall be 
justly indemnified. 

Each contracting party shall 
grant to the nationals of the 
other party, who because of the 
war have failed to observe a 
period stipulated for taidng ac- 
tion relative to the acquisition 
or retention of an industrial 
patent, a period of at least one 
year afttu- the ratification of the 
Treaty of Peace for taking such 
action, without prejudice to the 
lawfully acquired rights of third 
parties. .Industrial patent rights 
of the nationals of either party 
shall not lapse in the territory of 



LEGAL-POLITICAL TEEATY WITH AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 



147 



lyttc^taugiibung nic^t ttor Slblauf bon 
t)ier 3af)ren nac§ ber 3iatififation 
•berfatlen. 

S)te SSeftimmuTtg iiber bte SBteber= 
f)er[telhtng ber ^rtbatrecbte finbet ouf 
^onjefftonen unb "iprioilegiett [oh)ie 
a]^nlt(^e 2Infpru(^e auf offent[i(f)=re(f|t« 
Itc^er ©runblage feme Stnluenbung, 
fotoeit biefe auf @runb einer fitr atte 
■SanbeSetnttiofjner unb fiir atlc S^ec^te 
ber gteidjen 2trt gelteuben ©efe^gebung 
iujlBifc^en abgefd)afft ober bom ©taate 
obcr Son ©ememben iibernommen tiior= 
t)cn finb unb in beren SBefi^ Derbletben; 
in biefen giilten rcgett fidj bie (Snt= 
fd^abtgung beg S3ere(f)tigten nad) ben 
iBeftimmungen beg Strttfeig 5, Slbfa^ 1. 



3)ie bertragfc^Itefeenben Jeile bebalten 
fid) bor, n)egen ber 'iprioritat getcerb^ 
iid)er ©dju^redite befonbere Seftim= 
mungen ju tiereinbaren. 

0elber unb SBertpapiere, bie ficb bei 
einer jentralen §interlagunggftelte, 
einem offentlic^en 3;reubanber ober 
einer fonftigen ftaatlic^ beauftragten 
©ammelftette befinben, finb binnen 
brei SKonaten nac^ ber JRatififotion beg 
griebengbertrageg bem S9erec^tigten jur 
^erfiigung ju ftellen; mit ben ©elbem 
finb 3tnfeti bon bier bom .£)unbert feit 
ber ginjablung bei ber ©ammelftelle, 
mit ben SBertpapieren finb bie einge= 
^ogenen 3infen unb ©etoinnanteile 
beraugjugeben. 



5)ie griften ftir bie SBerjcifirung bon 
•yjed)ten follen in ben (Sebieten jebeg ber 
bertragfc^Iiefeenben leik gegeniiber ben 
SIngeborigen beg anberen Seileg, faltg 
biefe 5riften ^ur 3eit beg J?rieggaug= 
bruc^eg noc^ nic^t abgelaufen rtoren, 
fritf)efteng ein 3af)r nad) ber 9?atififa=^ 
tion beg griebengbertrogeg abtaufen. 
S)ag g(eic^e gilt bon ben griften jur 
S3orIegung bon 3ingf($einen unb ®e= 
toinnanteilfd)einen fotcie bon augge= 
loften ober fonft jafilbar gehiorbenen 
SBertpapieren. 



the other party until the expi- 
ration of four years after the ratifi- 
cation. 

The provision relative to the 
restoration of rights of private 
individuals shall not affect con- 
cessions and privileges nor similar 
demands involving public law, 
in so far as such rights have been 
abolished by legislation covering 
all inhabitants and all rights 
pertaining to them, or in so far 
as these rights have been assumed 
by the State or by the commune 
and remain in possession of the 
latter; in this case the indemnity 
of the rightful claimant shall be 
judged according to the provi- 
sions of Article 5, Paragraph 1. 

The contracting parties reserve 
the right to make special pro- 
visions with regard to the pri- 
ority of industrial patent rights. 

Currency and paper securities, 
which are in the hands of a central 
depositing institution, a guaran- 
tor, or some other similar institu- 
tion designated by the State for 
that purpose, shall within three 
months after the ratification of 
the Peace Treaty be placed at 
the disposal of the rightful claim- 
ant; together with the said cur- 
rency, interest at the rate of 4%, 
computed from the time of de- 
posit in the institution, shall be 
paid; the securities are to be ac- 
companied by the interest which 
is due on them and the dividends. 

Within the territory of each 
contracting party the periods for 
the prescription of rights, in so 
far as concerns the nationals of 
the other party, shall expire, not 
earlier than one year after the 
ratification of the peace treaty, 
in case they had not already 
lapsed before the war. The same 
principle applies to the periods 
for the presentation of interest 
certificates or dividend certifi- 
cates, as well as to securities re- 
deemed or that have become 
payable. 



148 



THE RUSSIAN PEACE. 



!Die SBteberetnfe^ung in ben borigen 
@tanb ift p bertiltigen, njenn ber 
©Ictubtger tnfotge beg .friegeS eine 
J?{agefri[t nid)t einbolten fonnte, ober 
rtenn ber SBeflagte infolge ber 5Ber» 
febr§unter&red)ung aufeerftanbe mar, 
ftc^ in bem 93erfa|ren gef)orig tiertreten 
5U taffen. 



Ueber bie Icitigfeit ber SteHcn, bie 
auf ®runb einer mit 9?ii(ffic^t auf 
ben Srieg§5uftanb eriaffenen 58eftim= 
mung mit ber Sieauffidjtigung, 93er« 
rtabrung, 33erh)altung ober ?iquibation 
oon 33ermbgenggegenftanben ober ber 
SInnabme tion „^abtungcn befafet toorben 
finb, ingbefonbere iiber bie @innaf)Trten 
unb 2Iuggaben, ift ben 93ere{f)tigten auf 
S3erlangen unoersiiglicb 2Iu8funft ju 
erteilen. Srfa^anfprilcbe toegen ber 
Jdtigfeit biefer ©tellen ober rtegen ber 
auf ibre SSeranlaffung Dorgenommenen 
^anblungen tonnen nur gemci^ ben 
Seftimmungen beg 3lrtifelg 5, 3Ibfa^ 
1, geltenb gemacbt tcerben. 2ott)eit 
bie Beriiufeerten S^ermogenggegenftanbe 
auf ®runb einer fiir alle 8anbegein» 
iDobner unb fiir atte ©egenftanbe ber 
gleicfien 2lrt geltenben ©efe^gebung 
injmifcben fiom otaate ober tion ®e= 
meinben iibernommen toorben finb unb 
in beren Sefilj berbleiben, regelt fid) bie 
(Sntfcbabigung beg 58ered)tigten nac^ ben 
33eftintmungen beS 3(rtifelg 5, Slbfa^ 1; 
aud) faun bei einer SBieberaufbebung ber 
Ucbeniabme ber im tiorbergebenben 
2(bfa^e tiorgefebene 2(ntrag auf 9?u(f= 
gemiibrung innerbalb eincg ^abreg nad; 
ber SBieberaufbebung geftellt toerben. 



lie beauffidjtigen, oerrtabrtcu ober 
Henitnttcten ilu'rmogenggegenftanbe finb 
ouf SSerlangen beg 58cred)tigten unt)er= 
jiiglid) frei;iugeben; big gur itebeniobme 
burd) ben S3ered)tigten ift fiir eine 9Bab' 
rung fciner O'ntereffen ju forgen. 



The resumption of the previous 
status is to be consented to when, 
in consequence of tlie war the 
creditor was unable to stay the 
period granted to enter com- 
plaint, or else when the defendant 
was prevented, by an interrup- 
tion of the communications, from 
having himself properly repre- 
sented in the proceedings i;elative 
thereto. 

Information concerning the 
activity of the institutions which' 
on the basis of a provision of the na- 
ture specified in Paragraph 1 , have 
been entrusted with the supervi- 
sion, safe-guarding, administra- 
tion, or liquidation of properties 
or with the acceptance of pay 
ments, and information concen 
in the proceeds and expenses, is 
to be freely given to rightful 
claimants on demand. Demands 
for indemnity arising . out of the 
activity of these institutions, or 
transactions made under its direc- 
tion, may only be presented in 
accoi'dance with the stipulations 
of Article 5, Paragraph 1. In so 
far as alienated property lias been 
taken over by tlie State or by the 
commune, on the basis of legisla- 
tion affecting all inhabitants and 
all chattels of the same category, 
and remains in the possession of 
the State or commune, the indem- 
nity of the rightful claimants is to 
be computed on the basis of the pro- 
visions of Article 5, Paragraph 1; 
furthermore, in case of annulment 
of tire assumption, the petition for 
the return of the property pro- 
vided for in tire preceding section, 
may be made within one year 
af t(n' the said annulment. 

The supi'rvised, safe-guarded, 
or administered propeities are, 
upon the demand of the rightful 
claimant, to be released immedi- 
ately; until the transfer to the 
person entitled thereto has been 
effected, the safe-guarding of his 
interests is to be attended to. 



LEGAL-POLITICAL TKEATY WITH ATJSTEIA-HXJNGABY. 



149 



©rutibftilde ober 3?ecf)te an einem 
©rimbftiid, S3ergft)erf§gered)tfame fo= 
■mu 9ie(f)te auf bie 58enu^ung ober §Iug= 
beutimg Don ©/unbftiicfen, Unterne:^= 
niungen ober S3eteiligungen on einent 
UtitemeJ)men, in^befonbere ?[ftien, bie 
oeraufeert ober bem Serecfitigten jonft 
burrf) -Btnang entjogcn toorben finb, 
[often bem friiferen S8ered)tigten auf 
einen mnerf)alb eineg 3a^reg nad) ber 
9Jatififatton beS grteben80ertrage§ gu 
ftellenben Slntrag gegen 9ili(fgeuiaf)rung 
ber il)rn au§ ber 55erau6erung ober 
Gntjtefiung ettna crttJocfifenben 9.^orteiIe 
fret bon alien instotfcfien begiiinbeten 
JRed&ten Tritter totebcr iibertragen 
merben. 



artifel 5. 

T'ie oertragfcftliefeenben Jeile finb 
bariiber einig, bafe ben beiberfeitigen 
Slngebortgen bie ©cfjciben erfe^t tuerben, 
bie fie infofge einer an? 9\iicfftc^t anf 
ben j?riegf^suftanb eriaffenen S8eftim= 
mung burd) bie jeittneilige ober bauembe 
(Sntjiefiung Don Urt)eberred)ten, geh)erb= 
(idjen Sdiutjrcditen, .ftonjcffionen, ^ki= 
tiilegien imb abnlid)en SlnftDritdjen ober 
burd) bie 58eauffid)tigung, 23ern3af)rung, 
SSertoaltuug ober S^eraufeerung tion 
33ermogenggegenftanben er(itten baben, 
fomeit ber @(taben nidit burd) 2[?ieber= 
einfefjung in ben tioreign -gtanb crefljt 
tnirb. 3!)ieg gilt and) t)on ?lftionaren, 
bie htegcn if)rer Qigenfrfiaft ate feinblidie 
SluSfanber Oon einem Sejug§rerf)t au§= 
gefcbloffen morben finb. 



,3ur Jvcftftettung ber 511 erfet^enben 
®d)aben foK ate&aib nad) ber 9iatiftfa= 
tion be§ griebenSoertrageg an einem su 
bcftimmenben C'rtc eine fi ommiffion 
jufammentreten, bie ,511 je einem Trittei 
aug 93ertretem ber beiben Xeile unb au§ 
neutralen 2)?ttgliebem gebilbet mirb; 
um bie SBejeic^nung ber neutralen 9)Jit= 
glieber. barunter be« SSorfi^mben, mirb 
ber '^rcifibent be§ fii)lnei,5erifc6en S3un= 
be^rateS gebeten merben. X)ic ,ftom= 
miffion ftettt bie fiir ii)n gntfcteibun< 



Parcels of land or rights to a 
parcel of land, mining privileges 
as well as rights to the use or the 
exploitation of parcels of land, 
enterprises or participation in an 
enterprise, especially shares which 
have been affected or forcibly 
taken from the person entitled 
thereto, shall be returned to the 
former owner upon a claim to that 
end made within one year after 
the ratification of the peace 
treaty, by deducting any profit 
that may have accrued to him 
as a result of the said alienation 
or subtraction, and shall be ex- 
empt from aU rights established 
in the interval by third parties. 

Article 5. 

The contracting parties are 
agreed that the nationals of 
both parties are to be indemni- 
fied for the damages which they 
have suffered in consequence of 
decrees issued on account of the 
war with respect to temporary or 
permanent withdrawal of copy- 
rights, industrial patent riglits, 
concessions, privileges, and simi- 
lar rights, or relative to supervi- 
sion, safe-guarding, administra- 
tion, or alienation of property, in 
so far as reparation does not in- 
volve restoration to the former 
condition. Similarly for stools- 
holders who because of their 
status as enemy aliens were ex- 
cluded from rights of financial 
transactions. 

For the purpose of determining 
the amount of damages, a com- 
mission shall meet immediately 
after the ratification of the Peace 
Treaty, at a place to be decided 
upon later, which is to consist of 
one third each of representatives 
of both contracting parties and 
of neutral members ; the President 
of the Swiss Confederation shall be 
requested to name the neutral 
members, among them the chair- 
man. The commission shall formu- 



150 



THE RUSSIAN PEACE. 



gen mafegebenben Orunbfctlje auf; auc^ 
erlctjjt fie bie jur ©rfebigung if)rer 3Iuf= 
gaben erforbltdje @ef(|aftgorbnung unb 
bie SBeftimmungen ilber ba§ babei einju^ 
fd)Iagenbe 33erfnf)ren. ^bre (Sntfdiei- 
bungen erf o (gen in Unterfomntiffionen, 
bie aui je einem SSertreter ber beiben 
3;ei(e nnb einem neutraien Dbmanne 
gcbilbet merben. Sie bon ben Unter= 
tommiffionett fcftgeftettten 93etrage finb 
innerbaib eineS SionatS nad) ber 5eft= 
fteltimg ju bejabten. C^eber bertrag= 
icblicjicnbe Jeil tuirb bie bon i^m in 
feinen ©ebieten bei SIngeborigen beS 
anberen JeiteS angeforberten ®egen» 
ftiinbe, foineit bieS nod) nii$t gcfd)eben 
ift, nnoerjiiglic^ bejablen. 

SSegen ber JRegelung ber Gnt< 
fdiabigung fiir foldje 3Serntogen8h3erte 
t)on Singebbrigen be« einen Xci(cS, 
b'e — abgefeben bon ben im "ipunft 4, 
Slbfafe 3, unb ^untt 7, Jlbfai^ 3 beS 
JlrtitelS 4 bejeic^neten giillen — im 
©ebiete be§ anberen TetTe§ obne au8= 
reid)enben (Srfafe -enteignet tcorben finb, 
bleibt eine befonbere 33ereinbarung 
t»orbet)atten. 

2IrttfeI 6. 

lleber ben im Hrtifet VI be§ 5rie= 
benSbertrageS borgefebenen SluStaufd) 
ber Sriegggefangenen toerben bie na^= 
ftef)enben SBeftimmungen getroffen: 

1. 35ie beiberfeitigen ,f?riegggefange= 
nen toerben, forteit fie nic^t im ®ebiete 
beg Slufentbaltgftaateg ju bleiben ober 
fid) in ein anbereS ?anb ju begeben 
toiinfc^en, mit alter Sefdjleunigung in 
tf)r §cimatlanb entlaffen loerben. 



3)er bereita im ®ange befinblid)e 
luStaufd) berlDunbeter unb franter 
^riegggefangenen hiirb mbgM)ft be= 
fd)(eunigt Werben. 

JRufelanb ttiirb auf feinem ©ebiete 
ofterreid)ifd)=ungarifd)e Itommiffionen 
jum ^icede ber gllrforge flir Dftcr= 
reicf)ifi^«ungarifcbe ^riegggefangene ^u- 
laffen unb nod) .ftroften unterftii^en. 



late the rules governing its own 
decisions; it shall also determine 
the order of its business and the 
provisions relative to its pro- 
ceedings. Its decisions are to be 
rendered in sub-commissions 
which shall be formed of one 
representative each of the con- 
tracting parties and a neutral 
umpire. The amounts deter- 
mined by the sub-commissions 
shall be paid within one month 
after their determination. Each 
contracting party shall pay with- 
out delay for articles which in its 
own territory it requisitioned from 
nationals of the other party. 

With respect to the payment 
of indemnity for property of na- 
tionals of one of the parties, 
which was requisitioned in the 
territories of the other party 
without sufficient reason, except- 
ing in cases foreseen by Article 
4, Section 3, Paragraph 4, and 
Section 3, Paragraph 7,^ a special 
agreement is reserved. 

Article 6. 

Concerning the exchange of 
prisoners of war foreseen in Arti- 
cle VI of the Treaty of Peace, the 
following provisions are adopted: 

1. Prisoners of war on each 
side are, provided they do not 
elect to remain in the country 
of their present sojourn or to be- 
take tliemselves to another coun- 
try, to be returned to their own 
country with all possible dis- 
patch. 

Exchange of wounded and sick 
prisoners of war already under 
way is to be expedited as much 
as possible. 

Russia is to admit to its ter- 
ritory and assist to the utmost 
the Austro-Hungarian Commis- 
sion for the care of Austro- 
Hungarian prisoners of war. 



I This division is not made in excerpt referred to above, pp. 145-149. 



LEGAL-POLITICAL TEEATY WITH AUSTKLA-HTJNGAKY. 



151 



3)te Soften ber SJeforberung ber 
^rtegSgefangenen bis jur ®renjii6er= 
gabeftatton' tragi ber ©taat, ber bie 
I'rtegSgefaTigenen guriicfgtbt. 

2. S8et ber (Sntlaffung erfjalten bie 
SriegSgefangenen baS tf)nen bon ben 
93ef)orbeit beg 31ufentf)alt§ftaateg abge= 
nommene 'iPribatetgentum fotote ben nocE) 
ni(f)t augbejaljlten ober berredjneten 
Setl i^rer SSejiige ober tf)res 2Irbeitg= 
toerbienfteg; btefe 25erpfU(f)tung bejiefit 
fief) md)t auf ®d)riftftucEe militartfc^en 
3n^aItS. 

3. (Sine au8 58ertretern ber beiben 
Seile ju bilbenbe l^ommiffton foil 
atebatb nacE) llnterseirfinung beg 5rie= 
bengoertrageg an einem ju beftimmenben 
Ort p[tammentreten, um bie @insel= 
f)eiten beg Slugtaufc^eg feftjufe^en. 

4. !Die nodi Oolferreditlidien ©runb= 
fa^en ju erftattenben Slufrtenbungen fitr 
bie beiberfeitigen .ffriegggefangenen tt)er= 
ben im ^inblid auf bie ®efangenen= 
3a£)Ien gegeneinanber aufgerec^net. 



Slrtifel 7. 

Ueber bie §eimfe{)r ber beiberfeitigen 
3tbilangebbrigen teerben bie nac^fte* 
f)cnben ^eftimmungen getroffen: 

1. !Die beiberfeitigen intemierten 
ober oerfc^idten ^ioilangefjorigen h)er= 
ben, foftieit fie nid)t in ben ©ebieten beg 
Slufentf)altgftaateg ju bleiben ober fi{^ in 
ein anbereg ?anb ju begeben totinfcben, 
mit aller S3efd}teunigung unentgeltlidi 
betmbefbrbert toerben. 



©ie in "ipetergburg ilber bie ^eim= 
fef)r ber beiberfeitigen ^ioilangebbrigen 
getroffenen ffiercinbarungen merben mit 
moglic^fter iBefc^Ieunigung burcbgefilbrt 
toerben. 

3)ie tm Strtifcl 6, ^untt 3, ertoafinte 
^ommiffion foil bie bei ben 93erf)anb» 
lungen in ^etergburg offen gebliebenen 
grogen regeln. 



The cost of conveying prisoners 
of war to frontier stations shall 
fall on the State returning the 
prisoners. 

2. Upon their release, prisoners 
of war shall receive tlie private 
property taken from them by the 
authorities of the State where 
they are now held, as well as the 
part of their earnings not yet paid 
or the part still credited to them; 
this obligation does not refer to 
written documents of a military 
content. 

3. A commission composed of 
representatives of both parties 
shall meet immediately after the 
ratification of the Treaty of Peace, 
in a place still to be d.etermined 
to arrange the details of the 
exchange. 

4. Expenses to be refunded ac- 
cording to the principles of inter- 
national law for expenses in- 
curred by either State m the care 
of prisoners of war are to be bal- 
anced in proportion to the num- 
ber of prisoners. 

Article 7. 

Concerning the repatriation of 
civilian nationals of either party, 
the following provisions are 
adopted: 

1 . Interned or deported civilian 
nationals of either party are, pro- 
vided they do not elect to remain 
in the country of their present 
sojourn or betake themselves to 
another country, to be returned 
to their own country with all dis- 
patch and without expense to 
themselves. 

The agreements reached in 
Petrograd anent the mutual 
repatriation of civilian nationals 
are to be carried out with due 
dispatch. 

Questions left undecided in the 
conference in Petrograd shall be 
settled by the commission pro- 
vided for m Article 6, Paragraph 3 . 



1 p. L. has ®tenjUbetoab8(totion. 



152 



THE RUSSIAN PEACE. 



2. 3!)ie 2Ingc{)orlgen beS einen ber 
ftertragWIte&enben leile, bte bd SriegS= 
au8bru(f) in ben Oebieten beg anberen 
Xetleg it)ren S!Bof)nft^ ober eine ge= 
h)erbli(fie ober §anbel§nieberla[fung f)at= 
ten unb fid) ni(|t in bte[en ©ebieten auf= 
fiaften, fonnen bort^tn suriicEfef)ren, fo= 
bdb ftc&,ber anbere Xdl nic^t mef)r im 
.frieggjuftanbe befinbet. 5)ie 5Kii(J= 
fef)r barf nur aug ©rlinben ber inneren 
ober aufeeren (Sic^erl)eit beg ©taateg 
tierfagt merben. 

2llg Stugtoeig geniigt ein Don ben 33e= 
^orben beg §eimotgftaateg auggefteltter 
■^afe, tnonac^ ber ^'ntiaber ju ben im bor= 
f)erge£)enben 3Ibfa^ bejeic^neten "iPers 
fonen ge£)brt; ein ©ic^tDermerf auf bem 
^a^ ift nid)t erforberlid). 

3. 3)ie 2lngef)brigen jebeg ber tier= 
tragfc&tiefeenben letle fotten in ben 
©ebieten beg anberen Jeileg fiir bie 
,3eit, h)af)renb beren bort if)r ®ett)erbe= 
unb ^anbetgbetrteb ober ibre fonftige 
(grrterbgtatigteit infolge beg .friegeg 
geru{)t fiat, teinerlei Sluflagen, 2tbgaben, . 
©teuern ober ®ebiif)ren fiir ben ®e= 
tt)erbe= ober ^anbelgbetrieb ober bie 
fonftige (Srttjerbgtatigfeit unterliegen. 
SBetroge, bie f)ierna(f) nic^t gefcfiulbet 
njerben, aber bereitg erf)oben finb, fotten 
binnen fecbg SD'Jonaten nacfi ber 9?atifita» 
tion beg griebengoertrageg jurli(Ierftat= 
tet hjerben. 



Sluf .'panbeigs ober fonftige (Srmerbg 
gefettfcbaften, an benen 2tngcf)orige beg 
einen XeileS alg (Hefettfd)after, 2Ittio= 
nare ober in fonfliger SBeife beteiligt 
finb unb beren SBetrieb in ben ©ebieten 
beg anberen 2:eileg infolge beg ^rie= 
geg geru£)t t)at, finben bie 33eftimmun= 
gen beg borbergebenben Stbfa^eg ent« 
ftjrec^enbe 2lnttenbung. 



?Irtifet 8. 

2)ie ©robftatten ber gegenfcitigen 
§eercgangef)brigen merben genditet unb 
unterfialten. t)ie nciliere 9?egelung bte= 



2. Nationals of the one con- 
tracting party who at the out- 
break of the war had their domi- 
cile in the territories of the other 
party or who, though non-resi- 
dent, had employment or a com- 
mercial establishment there may 
return thither, as soon as the 
other contracting party is no 
longer in a state of war. Such 
return may be denied only on 
grounds of the internal or ex- 
ternal security of the State. 

As identification a passport 
issued by authorities of the home 
State, showing the holder thereof 
to be the person specified, will 
suffice ; it will not require a vis6. 

3. Nationals of each contract- 
ing party shall, within the terri- 
tories of the other party and for 
the time during which their em- 
ployment, or commercial enter- 
prises, or any other of their in- 
dustrial activities has elapsed, in 
consequence of the war, not be 
subject to any kind of assess- 
ments, rates, taxes, or dues for 
their employment, commercial 
enterprises, ot other industrial 
activity. Amounts which, iti con- 
sequence, are not owed, but have 
already been levied, shall be re- 
imbursed within six months after 
the ratification of the peace 
treaty. 

The provisions of the preceding 
paragraph are similarly applicable 
to commercial and other industrial 
companies in which nationals of 
the one party are interested as 
associates, share-holders, or in 
any other manner, and whose en- 
terprise within the territory of 
the other party has ceased in con- 
sequence of the war. 

Article 8. 

Graves of combatants of either 
army are to be held inviolate and 
cared for. The more detailed con- 
tractual settlement of this matter 



LEGAL-POLITICAL TREATY WITH AUSTRIA-HUNGAHY. 



153 



fer ?(ngelegenf)eit obliegl eincr &alb 
ein^ufe^enben gemifcf)ten imb Soejials 
fommiffion. 

Slrtifel 9. 

Tm ?Inget)ortgen jebeg tiertrag= 
fcfiliefeenben leilcei, bie auS ben @e= 
bietcit beg anbercn TetfeS ftammen, foil 
eg mafirenb einer grift bon 5cf)n 3nf)rcn 
nacfi ber ?)?atiftfation beg (Vrtebeng^ 
tiertrngeg fretfte{)en, tm Ciinbemefjmen 
mit ben 58ef)brben bie|'c<? Teifeg nac^ 
bcni 2tammlanbe juriidjuttianbem. 
Tk 5ur 9iiicfft)anbcrung bereditigten 
^erfoucn follen auf SIntrag bie (5nt= 
laffitng aug ibrem bigfierigen ©taatg= 
oerbanbc erf)a(ten. Stud) foil iE)r f(f)rift= 
licbcr ober mitnb(icf)er 5BerfeI:)r mit 
ben biplontatifdicn unb fonfufarifcfien 
3?cvtretent beg Stammtonbeg in feiner 
9Bcife ge^inbert ober erfdimert toerben. 
Tie JKiidtcanbcrer follen fiir bie t£)nen 
tDaferenb beS .^tricgeg toegen ibrer 
SIbftammung ;ugefiigteTi Unbilben etne 
billige ©ntfdjttbignng erftalten ynb burd) 
bie 2tu8ttbung beg 9iucfhianbenmgg= 
red^teS fe'.nerlei Dermogengred^tlic^e 
Stad^tcile erieiben. Sie foden befugt 
feiit, if)x 33ermogen ju liquibieren unb 
ben @r(i)g fotnie if)re fonftige behieglidie 
§abc mitpnefimen; ferner bilrfcn fie 
il^re ^ac^tbertrcige unter (5inf)altung 
einer grift bort fed)g DJJonaten tiinbigen, 
obne bafe ber Serpac^ter lt)egen bor= 
jeitiger 3IufIofung beg ^^oditbertrngeg 
©diabenerfai^'nufpriic^e gettenb mac^en 
fann. 



Strtifet 10. 

3eber bertragfdiliefeenbe 3:eil geft)al)rt 
bolle ®traffrei£)eit ben bent anberen 
lette angei)orenben .firiegggefangenen 
unb feinen intemierten ober berfc^idten 
3tbi(angef)origen fiir alle bon if)nen 
begangenen gerit^tlic^ ober bifsiplinarifc^ 
ftrofbaren |»anb(ungen. 9Jeue^ Straf= 
berfaf)ren ttierben nidjt eingeteitet, bie 
anfectngigen 3trafberfaf)ren fterben ein= 
geftetlt unb bie ertannten ©trafen 
erlaffen. S)ie bertragfc^liefeenben Jeile 



will devolve upon a special mixed 
commission shortly to be ap- 
pointed. 

Article 9. 

To nationals of the one con- 
tracting party who were born in 
the territories of the other con- 
tractmg party an interval of ten 
years after the ratification of the 
Treat}' of Peace is permitted, 
Y\-ithm wliich, with the consent of 
the latter contracting party, the}' 
may return to the land of their 
origin. The repatriated are, on 
their petition, to be granted re- 
lease from their present citizen- 
ship. Lil^ewise shall their writ- 
ten or verbal intercourse with the 
diplomatic or consular representa- 
tives of the land of their origin in 
no manner be hindered or embar- 
rassed. The repatriated shall re- 
ceive adequate compensation for 
any disadvantages suffered, in 
consequence of the war, on ac- 
count of their national origin, and 
shall in no wise be prejudiced in 
their property rights as the result 
of the exercise of their preroga- 
tive of repatriation! They shall 
be entitled to liquidate their 
property and talte with them the 
proceeds thereof and other mova- 
ble possessions. Finally, they 
maj' terminate a lease contract 
upon service of a six months' 
notice, without the lessor pro- 
ceeding against them for breach 
of contract. 

Akticle 10. 

Each contracting party grants 
complete immunity to the prison- 
ers of war of the other party, and 
to its interned or deported civilian 
nationals, for all committed acts 
punishable by the courts or in 
virtue of disciplinary measures. 
New penal proceedings shall not 
be instituted, pending proceed- 
ings shall be discontinued, and 
penalties already imposed shall be 
remitted. The contracting par- 



154 



THE BUSSIAN" 



PEACE. 



ge»i3af)reTi tfiren Slnge^origen (5traffret= 
^ett fUr bie Setatigung in ber £rieg8= 
inbuftrie beS geiiibeg, ju ber [te 
»riaf)renb if)rer .5?rieg8gefangenfc§aft t)er= 
angcjogen hjorben finb. 

Slrttfel 11. 

2luf bie §anbe(gfd}iffe ber t)ertrag= 
fc^Iiefeenben Jeile unb auf beren ?a= 
bungen finbet of)ne 9?licffi(fit auf ent= 
gegen[tet)enbe Sprifenurteile bag fe($fte 
§aager SIbfommcn iiber bie 58c{)anb(ung 
ber feinblic^en §anbel8fcf)iffe beim 2Iug= 
bruiie ber geinbfeligtciten Bom 18. 
Ottober 1907 mit nac^ftelienben SWafe^ 
gabert Slntnenbung. 

S)ie (SrIaubniS gum Sluglaufen im 
©time beg SlrtitelS 2, Stbfa^ 1, be8 
Slbfommeng fatm nur bann aU erteitt 
angefef)en rterben, toenn fie aiicfi toon ben 
iibrigen feinbli(^en ©eema(f|ten aner= 
fannt rtar. ^gnbelsfcfiiffe, bie gemiife 
SIrtifet 2, Slbfal? 2, beg 2Ibfommeng 
angeforbert rtorben jinb, miiffen unter 
©ntfdjabigung flir bie S^xt ber 58e= 
nii^ung entmeber mit it)rem ganjen 
3nt)mtar einfc^Iiefelii^ SBorbpapieren, 
Sorbgelbern unb 9J?annfc^oftgeffeften 
prildgegeben ober im %alk beg 93er= 
tufteg in ®elb erfe^t rterben. gilr 
nicfitangeforberte ©(^iffe f)at ber ^ei= 
matftaat bie Slufrtenbungen pr 3in= 
ftanbf)altung, nidit aber C>afengelber 
unb fonftige giegefoften p erftatten. 
35ie nadj iif)rer Sauart jur Umtcanbtung 
in Srieggf(f)iffe geeigneten §a^belg= 
fc^iffe fterben abh)ei(^enb Bom Strtifel 5 
beg SIbfommeng mie anbere §anbelg= 
fc^tffe be£)anbelt. 3)ie 93eftimmungen 
biefeg SIrtifeIg finben aucf) auf folcfje 
§anbelgfc^iffe ?lnttenbung, bie bereitg 
Bor 2lugbrud) beg ^riegeg am Huglaufen 
Ber{)inbert, angeforbert ober aufgebradjt 
tt)oren, unbefd)abet ber aug biefer 
SSoIterrec^tgBerle^ung abjuteitenben Sr= 
fa^anfpriic^e. 



ties guarantee to their own 
nationals immunity from penalty 
for their activity in war industries 
to which they were called during 
their military imprisomnent. 

Article 11. 

Regardless of the decision of a 
Prize Court, merchant ships of 
the contracting parties as well as- 
their cargoes shall be governed 
by the provisions of the Sixth 
Hague Conference, of 18 October, 
1907,' relative to the treatment of 
hostile merchant ships at the 
outbreak of war. 

Permission to effect a clearance 
in the sense of Article 2, Paragraph 
1, of the Conference, will oiuy be 
considered valid when the same 
has been recognized by the other 
hostile naval Powers. Merchant 
ships which, in accordance with 
Article 2, Paragraph 2, of the Con- 
ference, were requisitioned must 
either be returned with indemnity 
for the period of their use together 
with their entire inventory, in- 
clusive of ship papers, ship money,, 
and the personal effects of the 
crew, or, in the event of the loss 
of these, restitution therefor must 
be made in money. In the case of 
non-requisitioned ships the home- 
land is responsible for expenses of 
maintenance, but not for harbor 
dues or expenses of demurrage. 
Merchant ships which by virtue 
of their construction may be con- 
verted into vessels of war, shall, 
notwithstanding Arti'. le 5 of the 
Conference, be treated like other 
merchant ships. The provisions 
of this article also affect such 
merchant vessels which before 
the opening of hostilities were 
unablo to leave port, were requisi- 
tioned, or were captured, notwith- 
standing the claims to indemnity 
arising from this violation of 
international law. 



'James Brown Scott (ed.), The Higue Conventions and Declarations of 1899 and 1907 {2nd ed., New 
York, Oxford University Press, American Branch [Carnegie Endowment for International Peace], 1916)' 
p. 141. 



LEGAL-POLITICAL TEEATY WITH AUSTRIA-HUNGABY. 



155 



Die afei'ri|cnaufget)rad)ten ipnubcli?= 
fdnffe ber oertragfcfiliefeenben Xctle 
I'oKen, meim fie tior ber Unterjeic()= 
mmg beg griebensiDertrageS burc^ 
recfitafriiftigeg Urteil eine^ ^13rifcngc= 
rtcliteS fonbemiuert iBorben finb uub 
nid)t iinter bie SBcftimmungeTi be« uor= 
t)cvgct)eiiben 3(fa[a^et^ fatten, atS enb= 
gittig eingejogen angeict)en luerben; tm 
itbrigen finb fie ^uri